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  • 1
    facet.materialart.
    Helsinki: The Research Institute of the Finnish Economy (ETLA)
    Publication Date: 2018-11-30
    Description: The report looks at investment activity in Finland by industries and types of investment, and makes international comparisons. Investment rate (fixed investment in relation to GDP) fell in Finland in the early 1990s from an internationally high level to the average West European rate. Among key factors behind the structural change were opening up of the economy and an increase in competition. The economy transformed itself from investment-driven economy to a more innovation-driven one. The use of capital became more efficient. During the global financial and economic crisis in 2008-10 the investment rate declined in Finland as it did in most other developed countries. There are, however, some country-specific features in the Finnish case. Investment in manufacturing fell dramatically, by almost 40%, i.e. clearly more than in other EU countries. Furthermore, over the first decade of the 21st century investment in machinery and equipment has been at a substantially lower level (in relation to GDP) than in most other West European countries. On the other hand, construction investment has been relatively high in international comparison. Investments in intangible assets have steadily increased in all highly developed countries, including Finland. They have become an important source of economic growth and structural change. In Finland especially R&D expenditures have been high but their growth has stagnated. The future of R&D depends very much on the structural transformation of the ICT sector, since the sector's share in Finland's total private R&D expenditure is well above 50%.
    Keywords: E22 ; F21 ; O38 ; ddc:330 ; investment ; capital ; research and development ; FDI ; Investition ; Forschungskosten ; Direktinvestition ; Finnland
    Language: Finnish
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  • 2
    facet.materialart.
    Helsinki: The Research Institute of the Finnish Economy (ETLA)
    Publication Date: 2018-11-30
    Keywords: ddc:330
    Language: Finnish
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  • 3
    facet.materialart.
    Helsinki: The Research Institute of the Finnish Economy (ETLA)
    Publication Date: 2018-11-30
    Keywords: ddc:330
    Language: Finnish
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  • 4
    facet.materialart.
    Helsinki: The Research Institute of the Finnish Economy (ETLA)
    Publication Date: 2018-11-30
    Description: The Ministry of Finance commissioned a report from Etlatieto Ltd on maritime operating conditions, competitiveness and the adaptability of this sector. The competitiveness of cargo ship has significantly improved when mixed-nationality crews were allowed and the Tonnage Tax Act went into force. The use of non-EU seamen reduces the labour costs of a ship by 20 to 30 %. The Tonnage Tax Act cuts the taxation of cargo vessels from 10-30 million euros to half a million euros. The mixed-nationality crew agreement does not apply to passenger ships. It is not worthwhile for them to shift to being taxed under the tonnage tax, because their store sales would be subject to special taxes, which would cut profitability significantly. In 2015, 0.1% sulphur limits for maritime transport will go into effect. In new ships, nitrogen oxides and carbon dioxide emissions must be limited. In addition, bilge water and waste disposal regulations will become stricter. These will result in significant pressure on investments. The EU is considering removing the VAT-free sales status of the internal transport, which would lower sales of passenger ships by 55 million euros and profit margins by 25 million euros. If the prevalence of mixed-nationality crews grows at current rates, this would lower shipping subsidies - in 2015 the savings would amount to over 10 million euros. Savings would also come from the rationalization of fragmented training, which would allow raising the level of training. Maritime rescue and VTS centres' control functions could be combined in Helsinki and Turku. The government should concentrate ice breaking operations on safeguarding the transport of foreign trade and give up offshore business activities. The sale of offshore businesses and multipurpose icebreakers would finance new investments in the ice-breaking fleet without any additional debt and its interest expenses.
    Keywords: L92 ; L98 ; H25 ; K20 ; ddc:330 ; Shipping ; competitiveness ; subsidies ; savings and development ; EU-Verkehrspolitik ; Schifffahrtspolitik ; Schifffahrt ; Internationaler Wettbewerb ; Finnland
    Language: Finnish
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  • 5
    facet.materialart.
    Helsinki: The Research Institute of the Finnish Economy (ETLA)
    Publication Date: 2018-11-30
    Description: In Finland access to public sector information (PSI) is guaranteed in the Constitution as part of the freedom of information. This provision focuses upon the citizen's right to access PSI; it does not cover the re-utilization of PSI for non-commercial or commercial purposes. The re-use of PSI is constricted by copyright law which only permits accessing copyrighted documents and using them for limited judicial and administrative purposes. The copyright protection in Finland is exceptionally extensive covering in practice all public sector information, since in addition to the EU sui generis database protection the law also provides for a catalogue protection which covers all databases and other collections of data in which great amounts of information is stored. Moreover, the pricing of public sector information has been prohibitively high and non-transparent. The extensive copyright protection and high pricing causes legal uncertainty with respect to further utilization of PSI. These issues are also interconnected because it is uncertain whether the high prices relate to licensing of copyrights in the information or recovering costs from the services. The study recommends adopting general open licenses for licensing re-use of public sector information. These licenses should be both legally and technically interoperable with licenses used in Europe and elsewhere in the world so that the Finnish PSI can be securely licensed for world-wide uses. Empirical evidence shows that the public sector wishes to guarantee the copyright attribution in their information which would make the future Creative Commons 4.0 attribution license a good option for a general license used in licensing PSI in Finland. It is also possible to draft a national license along the lines of the Norwegian or Spanish licenses if deemed necessary by the public sector. Smooth functioning of the PSI -re-use sector, both commercial and non-commercial would also require some legislative back-up.
    Keywords: ddc:330 ; Informationsverbreitung ; Öffentlicher Sektor ; Urheberrecht ; Finnland
    Language: Finnish
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  • 6
    facet.materialart.
    Helsinki: The Research Institute of the Finnish Economy (ETLA)
    Publication Date: 2018-11-30
    Description: Machinery and metal products industry employs about 130,000 people in Finland and another 100,000 people in foreign subsidiaries of Finnish companies. This report focuses on this sector's qualitative or substantive projections for vocational education and training (vocational schools and polytechnics). The starting point was a relatively rich body of research studies on future changes in the sector's job tasks and functions, which are listed in the bibliography. Based on these studies the researcher and the training committee identified the five most important future areas of expertise and related trends, which are as follows: i) customer know-how, where solution orientation and deep understanding of clients generate value for clients, ii) research and development, the importance of which is continually growing in their operations iii) the internationalization of production networks in the wake of globalization as especially leading companies seeking to manage production and marketing on a continent-by-continent basis, iv) information technology and increasing automation of intelligence in machines and automation processes, and v) energy and environmental expertise, because it is precisely these areas that will spawn new businesses. In the future educational co-operation with other sectors should be increased regarding the application of ICT to machinery, goods, and industrial processes, teaching of procurement and skills required in international research, development and innovation (RDI), such as teaching of languages, cultures and marketing. This is a pilot study. In the future a systematic analysis should be carried out based on surveys designed to pinpoint the sector's main job tasks, their frequency and importance. The result of this study would be the specification of the main job categories and job profiles of professionals in this field. Experts in this sector could be asked to assess the changes going on in these areas. This information can be used to plan the future development of curricula and teacher training so that the new educational demands can be met.
    Keywords: L61 ; L62 ; L64 ; I25 ; O30 ; ddc:330 ; Machinery and metal products industry ; education and training ; qualitative projections
    Language: Finnish
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  • 7
    facet.materialart.
    Helsinki: The Research Institute of the Finnish Economy (ETLA)
    Publication Date: 2018-11-30
    Description: In this paper, we study the value chain of a Finnish designed bicycle and how the value added of the product is spread through the value chain in three distinct cases. In the first case the bicycle is manufactured in Finland by the researched company. In the two other cases the manufacturing of the bicycle is outsourced to the Baltic countries or to Indonesia. In addition, we analyze the geography of value added in each case. We also study how the exchange rate fluctuations affect the distribution of the value added. Our results show that the researched company creates 36% of the total value added, when the bicycle is made in its plant. The manufacturing creates 16% of the total value added. The researched company creates 27-28% of the total value added, when the production is outsourced. The value added share of Finland is 67%, when the bicycle is produced in Finland, and 58-59%, if the production is outsourced. In conclusion, the results show that outsourcing offshore is financially beneficial for the researched company and that the Finnish economy suffers from the production transfer. Furthermore, the results suggest that transferring the production away from Asia is financially and otherwise justifiable - however, the production is transferred to the Baltic countries instead of Finland. Our findings support the view that, while the low value added activities and processes are outsourced, the high value added activities are still positioned to Finland, since the outsourcing partners create only 2% of the total value added.
    Keywords: F14 ; F23 ; L22 ; L23 ; L24 ; ddc:330 ; global value chains ; value added ; outsourcing ; exchange rates
    Language: Finnish
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  • 8
    facet.materialart.
    Helsinki: The Research Institute of the Finnish Economy (ETLA)
    Publication Date: 2018-11-30
    Description: We analyse foreign-owned companies operating in Finland and compare them with domestic non-multinational firms while controlling separately for domestic multinational firms. The statistical and micro-econometric analysis is done using Statistics Finland data that contain all firms with at least ten employees in 1998-2008, partly in 1995-2010. We also control for a number of exogenous factors. According to the results, foreign-owned firms have higher productivity than domestic non-multinational firms. There is no difference in the average growth rate of productivity if the difference in levels is not controlled. Accordingly, a shift to foreign ownership has, on average, not affected the growth rate of productivity. The results concerning the growth rate of employment depend upon the method and timespan used in the analysis. The personnel of foreign-owned firms have a longer and higher education than the personnel of domestic non-multinational firms. Foreign-owned firms pay more direct taxes in relation to the number of their employees, which is partly due to these firms' higher productivity. The probability of becoming a target of a foreign acquisition is higher for medium-sized and large Finnish firms with high productivity than other firms.
    Keywords: C23 ; F23 ; G34 ; J24 ; ddc:330 ; multinational firms ; ownership change ; productivity ; employment ; education ; taxes
    Language: Finnish
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  • 9
    facet.materialart.
    Helsinki: The Research Institute of the Finnish Economy (ETLA)
    Publication Date: 2018-11-30
    Description: We study the effects of compulsory military service in Finland on the conscripts' future labour market behaviour. This is measured in three ways: first, the time it takes to complete civil education and the level of education acquired; second, how the conscripts will find employment; and third, their wage level. In order to do this, the Finnish armed forces' information on the conscripts who performed their military service in 1998 is combined with the labour market data of Statistics Finland. According to the results, there is a statistically significant connection between military service and future labour market position. Especially, the grade given to conscripts upon completing their service has a very clear positive connection to the future labour market position. In this kind of evaluation it is vital to control for the selection bias emerging from the fact that the most able persons are selected by the military to get more advanced levels of military training. Thus we evaluate the effects both by means of instrumental variables and matching. The former method shows that a longer military training does not have a statistically significant effect on the future wage level, while the latter gives the result that platoon leader training will lead to a 20 per cent higher wage level within 10 years after the military service. We further find that longer military service does not prolong the attainment of civil education and does not cause a reduction in employment within this time span.
    Keywords: J31 ; C21 ; C26 ; ddc:330 ; Military service ; labour market ; selection ; education ; employment ; wage rate ; Wehrdienst ; Arbeitsmarkt ; Finnland
    Language: Finnish
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  • 10
    facet.materialart.
    Helsinki: The Research Institute of the Finnish Economy (ETLA)
    Publication Date: 2018-11-30
    Description: There is a deep structural transformation going on In the Finnish electrical, electronics and IT services sector. The main reason is a major turning point in ICT due to diminishing production and employment in mobile telecom industry where large amount of high-skill jobs will disappear in the next few years. The main reasons are major shift in global markets and dispersion of supply and value chains. However, at the same time when mobile ICT industry is experiences decline in production and employment IT services sector is growing. New ICT -related jobs are created also in mechanical and electrical engineering industries as these industries are integrating increasingly software, intelligence and services in their products. The structural transformations in electronics and ICT pose major challenges to educational system and make it difficult to foresee future skill requirements.
    Keywords: J62 ; L63 ; O25 ; O33 ; ddc:330 ; electrical ; electronics and IT industry ; globalization ; skill requirements ; forecasting ; IKT-Sektor ; IT-Dienstleister ; Elektroindustrie ; Elektronikindustrie ; Strukturwandel ; Branchenentwicklung ; Finnland
    Language: Finnish
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  • 11
    facet.materialart.
    Helsinki: The Research Institute of the Finnish Economy (ETLA)
    Publication Date: 2018-11-30
    Description: The renewal of Finnish manufacturing companies has often been addressed through their innovative activities. But companies do renew themselves in many other ways. This report takes into account, in addition to innovative activities, product and service range, supply and distribution channels, internationalization and marketing. Based on large survey data, the results show that the Finnish manufacturing companies are active in renewing themselves, but independent in their activities. In addressing the co-operation in renewal activities, significant differences can be observed between industries. Few external partners stand out as being important in the renewal processes. The results reveal a broader picture than in previous research efforts on the renewal activities of companies. But, the diversity of these activities makes the incorporation of these dimensions to statistical analysis challenging.
    Keywords: O30 ; O31 ; O33 ; ddc:330 ; Corporate renewal ; networks ; collaboration
    Language: Finnish
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  • 12
    facet.materialart.
    Helsinki: The Research Institute of the Finnish Economy (ETLA)
    Publication Date: 2018-11-30
    Description: The turnover of the companies in North Savo in 2011 was nearly 10 billion euros, of which industry accounted for just under a third. The industrial structure of the region is not strong, but on the other hand it is not alarmingly thin either, because it does have certain successful niches. North Savo's production and export growth has been on par with the average of other regions. The region is specialized in forestry and machinery industries as well as food production. The forest and machinery industries are export-oriented. Promising growth businesses include biopharmaceutical research, testing and production. These segments will be the engines of growth for the region in the future. In the forest industry the wood products industry is strong and its special products, such as heat treated wood, glue-laminated timber and hardwood floors, are selling well. Pulp and paper production have suffered losses, but the carton is in demand. In the machinery industry, power plant boilers, forestry tractors and mining machinery are global successes. Their production networks include a considerable number of local sub-contractors. Counterflow strategies will be the key to future development. The forest industry will evolve into a biotechnology industry, where decentralized local bio-oil production instead of large plants will play a large role. Clusters can be built around wooden apartment buildings. The key skills of the machinery industry should be kept as Savo's own secret, but the network of services and output should go global. In addition to timber, milk is one of the region's precious raw materials, the production of which should be safeguarded in the future. Research can facilitate processing of milk and timber into more lucrative products with higher value-added. Fresh, local and organic food production can be promoted via entrepreneurial training, product development, and use of competitive bidding in purchases of fresh food products by public institutions. Development of the pharmaceutical industry is following a dual strategy: the development of the biopharmaceutical industry is based on synergies and investing in research, entrepreneurship and the raising of risk capital. Neighbouring Russia is investing in the development of its pharmaceutical industry. Kuopio's medical cluster could participate by helping in the development of medicines, approval process, manufacturing and packaging, as well as marketing to Western markets. Industrial development requires close-knit co-operation with government departments. The University of Eastern Finland, the Savonia University of Applied Sciences, vocational schools, research institutes and laboratories, Kuopio University Hospital and the Finnish Medicines Agency as well as authorities responsible for business development and funding are key players is this development.
    Keywords: R11 ; D28 ; R53 ; L52 ; L73 ; L66 ; L61 ; L62 ; L64 ; L65 ; ddc:330 ; North Savo ; regional economy ; competitiveness ; industrial policy ; forest products ; food industry ; machinery and metal manufacturing ; pharmaceuticals and biotechnology
    Language: Finnish
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  • 13
    facet.materialart.
    Helsinki: The Research Institute of the Finnish Economy (ETLA)
    Publication Date: 2018-11-30
    Description: The study investigates empirically how ownership affects firms' domestic employment and its fluctuations. We look at six different ownership categories: first generation family businesses, second generation (or older) family businesses, state-owned companies, foreign-owned companies, publicly listed companies, and others (e.g. co-operatives and non-listed, non-family companies). It turns out that ownership matters. Volatility of employment in listed companies is much higher than in other firms. State-owned companies show the highest stability in employment, and they have also reduced their personnel less than others during the economic crisis of 2008-2009. The group of 'second generation family businesses' shows higher stability of employment than 'first generation'. Family businesses (especially the second or subsequent generation enterprises) are typically not high-growth firms. They seem to prefer stability over swift growth.
    Keywords: G32 ; L21 ; M14 ; ddc:330 ; ownership structure ; family business ; business objectives ; employment ; growth
    Language: Finnish
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  • 14
    facet.materialart.
    Helsinki: The Research Institute of the Finnish Economy (ETLA)
    Publication Date: 2018-11-30
    Description: This study examines structures and challenges in the Finnish well-being sector from the innovation activity perspective. Firstly, it compares the quality and productivity based on international statistics and research reports, and R&D&I activities in the well-being sector. It investigates also shortly co-operation and interplay between public and private actors, and the role of ICT for improving sector's productivity. In the end, the study explores well-being and quality of labour markets, and innovation activities in Finland.
    Keywords: H51 ; H53 ; I11 ; J24 ; J81 ; ddc:330 ; well-being ; health ; working life ; productivity ; innovation activity
    Language: Finnish
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  • 15
    facet.materialart.
    Helsinki: The Research Institute of the Finnish Economy (ETLA)
    Publication Date: 2018-11-30
    Description: The study shows that the exceptional drop in volume of Finland's GDP in 2009 - as much as 8 per cent -was to a large extent due to huge decline in exports and production of one industry, ICT. The contribution of ICT (or electronics and electro-technical industry) to GDP decline was close to two percentage points. The reduction of the industry's value added resulted, again, from the dramatic deterioration of profits (capital income). Nokia is by far the biggest player in the industry (more than half of the value added), and the decline of profits is mainly due to Nokia. Since 80-90 per cent of Nokia's shares is owned by foreigners, the consequences of profit and value added decline are felt mainly outside Finland. Similarly, when the values added and profits grew in the early 2000s, the contribution to GDP growth was overestimated. The reason is that national accounting does not take into account the ownership structure of accumulated retained profits. However, as a result of the crisis the Finnish economy has experienced a permanent decline in its potential production.
    Keywords: F23 ; F43 ; L63 ; O47 ; ddc:330 ; recession ; structural change ; profits ; employment ; productivity
    Language: Finnish
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  • 16
    facet.materialart.
    Helsinki: The Research Institute of the Finnish Economy (ETLA)
    Publication Date: 2018-11-30
    Description: This study analyses financial sustainability of the Finnish public sector. Current tax rates are unlikely to yield sufficient tax revenue for financing public expenditure under an ageing population. The estimate of the sustainability gap is 2 1/2 per cent of GDP, for the period 2010 - 2060. The estimate is based on the 2009 population projection by Statistics Finland, where life expectancies are higher and net migration substantially larger than in earlier projections. Health and long-term care costs are modeled to be partly dependent on the proximity to death, and thus grow slowly compared to the growth in the number of old people. The higher initial public debt increases the vulnerability of the public finances to economic and demographic risks.
    Keywords: H30 ; H62 ; H63 ; ddc:330 ; public finance ; pensions ; health and long-term care ; sustainability gap
    Language: Finnish
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  • 17
    facet.materialart.
    Helsinki: The Research Institute of the Finnish Economy (ETLA)
    Publication Date: 2018-11-30
    Keywords: O30 ; O38 ; O33 ; O34 ; ddc:330 ; commercialization of research ; university-industry collaboration ; motives for commercialization ; challenges of commercialization ; innovation support services
    Language: Finnish
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  • 18
    facet.materialart.
    Helsinki: The Research Institute of the Finnish Economy (ETLA)
    Publication Date: 2018-11-30
    Description: This study examines structures at the environment and energy sectors and those challenges to face in ongoing climate change. It investigates firstly goals behind steps how to decrease effects of climate change, research results and scenarios and which support to achieve these goals. Study also clarifies those goals set in Finland which improve environmental conditions, and moreover in the Baltic Sea. In the end, the study explores markets, business possibilities, investments and resources at the environment and energy sectors, and especially at the renewable energy sector globally and in Finland.
    Keywords: H23 ; O13 ; O33 ; O44 ; ddc:330 ; Global warming ; environment ; energy ; renewable energy ; innovation activity
    Language: Finnish
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  • 19
    facet.materialart.
    Helsinki: The Research Institute of the Finnish Economy (ETLA)
    Publication Date: 2018-11-30
    Description: This study analyses those country characteristics, which lead those regions to become as productive operation and innovation environments for firms and research centres. This study shows that those countries who invest wisely to develop their innovation environment will be successful in high technology export markets. In recent years, Finnish high technology exports have declined because of difficulties in telecommunication sector. Productivity analysis shows that high country-level R&D expenditures - as in Finland and the United States - have positive correlation with labour productivity in manufacturing. Moreover, labour productivity in manufacturing in OECD countries relates positively with FDI and R&D expenditure growth. Also the level of education and firm-level sophistication increase labour productivity. China's role as global production factory and exporter has increased during 2000s. For example, Japanese and the US companies are leading actors, which are offshored their operations to China. However, deepening European integration has liberated and expanded intra-EU27 trade.
    Keywords: F12 ; F15 ; F23 ; F43 ; J24 ; L23 ; O31 ; O38 ; ddc:330 ; productivity ; global production sharing ; innovation activities
    Language: Finnish
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  • 20
    facet.materialart.
    Helsinki: The Research Institute of the Finnish Economy (ETLA)
    Publication Date: 2018-11-30
    Description: The study investigates, by using econometric evaluation methods, how the usage of Finpro's (a public agency promoting internationalization of business) services impacts on the internationalization and performance of small and medium-sized firms in Finland. We measure internationalization and firm performance using a number of complementary indicators. The results indicate that being Finpro's customer is positively associated with internationalization when firms establish new subsidiaries abroad or expand the geographical coverage of their foreign operations. There are also indications of a positive association between usage of Finpro's services and exports (measured using a binary export indicator), although the results vary across methods of evaluation. Finpro's customership does not appear to have a statistically significant impact on the share of foreign personnel. Similarly, we do not - in most estimations - find any statistically significant impact on the firm performance. However, different methods of evaluation and data sets produce somewhat inconsistent results. The study also looks at the possible synergy effects of utilizing Finpro's services, and receiving funding from other public organizations (Tekes, Finnvera and the Ministry Employment and the Economy). It turns out that such synergy effects do not seem to exist.
    Keywords: H81 ; L53 ; O25 ; ddc:330 ; internationalization of business ; business support system ; internationalization ; innovation ; industrial and employment policies ; Finland ; Wirtschaftsförderung ; KMU ; Globalisierung ; Unternehmenserfolg ; Finnland
    Language: Finnish
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  • 21
    facet.materialart.
    Helsinki: The Research Institute of the Finnish Economy (ETLA)
    Publication Date: 2018-11-30
    Description: The report analyses the impacts of globalization on competitiveness of national economies, industries and firms. The focus is in mechanical and electrical engineering and machinery. Global division of labor has significantly changed over the past few decades when the large emerging economies - notably China - have increased their role in world's industrial production. Prices of industrial goods relative to GDP prices of developed countries have been falling thereby pressing the price competitiveness of industrial-country-firms who have been looking for new competitive edge on the global market. This includes offshoring and outsourcing and moving to service provision. The Finnish mechanical and engineering industry has adapted to changing global competitive environment through major structural changes - the firm and plant structures have changed as consequence of exits and major reallocation of resources from less productive to higher productive units.
    Keywords: F13 ; L60 ; L64 ; O12 ; ddc:330 ; competitive edge ; globalization ; emerging economies ; mechanical and electrical engineering ; productivity ; Globalisierung ; Wettbewerb ; Produktivität ; Verarbeitendes Gewerbe ; Finnland
    Language: Finnish
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  • 22
    facet.materialart.
    Helsinki: The Research Institute of the Finnish Economy (ETLA)
    Publication Date: 2018-11-30
    Description: The earnings-related pension system is partially pre-funded in Finland and has currently large reserves. This has roused debate whether the pension funds should take a more active role in promoting employment, growth and domestic ownership of the firms. We analyse the justifications presented for and against overweighting domestic investments in the portfolios of the pension institutions. E.g., is it possible to invest the funds in a way that generates higher wage bill and more contribution revenue? Furthermore, have the pension funds incentives to promote such investments? Another important issue is whether there exists serious shortages in the domestic financial markets and whether the pension funds are the proper actors to fix these problems. Third raised issue is the role of the pension funds in the domestic infrastructure markets. Our overall conclusion is that excess weight in domestic firms is well justified only in cases in which the international investors misprice the firms, or for some other reasons keep the conditions of financing the firms unreasonable stringent. In these cases there is no conflict between promoting domestic investments and optimal combination of risk and yield. Disturbing the vital role of the financial markets in eliminating inviable projects would, however, weaken growth and employment.
    Keywords: ddc:330
    Language: Finnish
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  • 23
    facet.materialart.
    Helsinki: The Research Institute of the Finnish Economy (ETLA)
    Publication Date: 2018-11-30
    Description: We study old age care expenditures and means to prepare for them. The expected size of the expenditures is described both from the point of view of individuals and the municipalities who provide the services. We use a numerical stochastic life cycle model to research how much various individuals would benefit from a possibility to buy a long term care insurance policy in stead of using private saving to cover the uncertain expenditures. In addition, the influence of customer fees and vouchers on the value of the long term care insurance is analyzed.
    Keywords: ddc:330
    Language: Finnish
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  • 24
    facet.materialart.
    Helsinki: The Research Institute of the Finnish Economy (ETLA)
    Publication Date: 2018-11-30
    Description: Finpro is an expert service organization, partly financed from public funds, providing services for internationalization - market information, consulting and advice, business development, and other related services. It is one of the largest organizations in the Finnish innovation and business support system. Finpro regards its mission to include increasingly a role of an information intermediary, providing information on global megatrends, new business models, and early signals of business opportunities. The company clientele is close to 5000 Finnish businesses. This report studies the Finpro's client firms, their characteristics and profile against the organization's mission and stated objectives. It turns out that firms using Finpro's services are typically highly internationalized, innovative and knowledge-based. They use, more likely than Finnish firms on average, other publicly supported business services and receive funding from public funding organizations.
    Keywords: H81 ; L53 ; O25 ; ddc:330 ; Business support system ; internationalization ; innovation, industrial and employment policies ; Finland ; Unternehmensdienstleistung ; Innovation ; Globalisierung ; Industriepolitik ; Beschäftigungspolitik ; Finnland
    Language: Finnish
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  • 25
    facet.materialart.
    Helsinki: The Research Institute of the Finnish Economy (ETLA)
    Publication Date: 2018-11-30
    Description: The role and tasks of polytechnics in Finland have been debated in recent years. These discussions have brought forth questions regarding the division of labour between the polytechnics and universities, the position of polytechnics in the Finnish national innovation system, and the size and distribution of the polytechnic network. This report aims to bring forth new perspectives to this largely qualitative discussion through an extensive quantitative online survey. Based on the survey results the following conclusions can be drawn. A clear area of strength of polytechnics is education. In areas re-lated to research and development, and regional development polytechnics are perceived to be less strong. A clear division of labour between polytechnics and universities is regarded almost universally as an important goal, but the current system is seen to significantly hinder the division of labour and potential collaboration. In addition, a significant share of the respondents saw that polytechnics are too much in the domain of universities. A clear majority of the respondents indicated that municipalities should not be funding polytechnics, and that the funding responsibility should be transferred to the state. The majority of respondents, excluding the management of polytechnics, felt that the current steering and funding system does not encourage the effective use of allocated resources.
    Keywords: ddc:330 ; polytechnics ; steering and funding systems ; Finland
    Language: Finnish
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  • 26
    facet.materialart.
    Helsinki: The Research Institute of the Finnish Economy (ETLA)
    Publication Date: 2018-11-30
    Description: This study examines the researcher's perspective on the impact of recent major changes in the Finnish research environment. Three virtually simultaneous changes are of special importance. The first is the on-going renewal of the Universities Act governing the Finnish higher education system in its entirety. The second change is the foundation of the so-called Strategic Centres for Science, Technology and Innovation that aim at establishing and re-enforcing long-term research cooperation between the academia and the Industry. The final change is the enactment of the new University Inventions Act in early January 2007. Surveying the opinions of roughly 1700 researchers active in different fields of science and working at 11 different Finnish research universities, the study aims to map the experiences of researchers regarding the reform-induced changes in the operational environment and implementation of research. In general the study concludes that all three reforms have been pessimistically received among the respondents. Benefits related to alleged improvements in the preconditions for academic research, in particular, elicited strong disagreement. Researchers anticipate a swell in administrative burden, and do not believe in a general increase in the quality of research. In addition, claims related to increases in the lengths of research projects and funding cycles are rejected systematically. Instead, researchers believe that the reforms promote commercialism in the university environment. This does not entail greater incentives for researchers to participate in the commercialization of their research outputs, however. Such claims were largely rejected by the respondents. The pessimistic results convey the impression that the commercialization of the university environment is being implemented at the cost of academic research.
    Keywords: O30 ; O38 ; O33 ; O34 ; ddc:330 ; Innovation system ; Universities Act ; University Inventions Act ; Strategic Centres for Science ; Technology and Innovation ; research environment ; innovation policy
    Language: Finnish
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  • 27
    facet.materialart.
    Helsinki: The Research Institute of the Finnish Economy (ETLA)
    Publication Date: 2018-11-30
    Description: The study analyses the price formation and market functionality of the Finnish food chain. A significant portion of the report consists of international comparisons. The main comparison countries are the so-called old EU countries (EU15) of Western Europe, the new EU countries (EU12) and the United States. Comparisons are also made with individual countries. After the international comparisons, the price formation of the food chain, degree of concentration, competition, and the position of small producers is analysed for Finland in more detail. The main findings of the study are as follows: 1) a significant reason for the high price of foodstuffs in Finland is the high VAT, 2) the price level without VAT was in 2005 a couple of per cent higher and in December 2009 about 7 per cent higher than the average in the old EU countries, but it is considerably higher than in the new EU countries and the United States, 3) In Finland the price level of foodstuffs is elevated by the weak agricultural competitiveness (northern location and small farm size); on the other hand, the competitiveness of the foodstuffs industry and the wholesale and retail trade is rather good, 4) measured in terms of price-cost margins, competition works in Finland just as well in agriculture, the foodstuffs industry and the wholesale and retail trade as it does in the food chain of the comparison countries, 5) the large share of the wholesale and retail trade in the Finnish food chain is attributable to higher transport costs than in the comparison countries, 6) in Finland the prices of foodstuffs have moved in the same direction as in comparison countries, albeit with a lag of a few months; in 2009 the prices of dairy products, butter and margarine, meat, fish products and food products nevertheless fell by considerably less than in the comparison countries and less than the development of producer prices would have indicated, 7) the foodstuffs industry and the wholesale and retail trade are concentrated sectors; enterprises nevertheless compete with each other and with imports, 8) the degree of concentration, agreement practices and price development should be monitored especially in product groups where consumer prices have not fallen in line with a decline in producer prices, 9) access of small producers to markets is important from the standpoint of competition and consumer choice; the position of small producers can best be improved by fostering the exchange of information within the chain.
    Keywords: C50 ; L1 ; L4 ; L66 ; L81 ; Q11 ; Q13 ; ddc:330 ; foodstuff prices ; food chain ; agriculture ; foodstuff industry ; retail and wholesale trade ; competition ; competitiveness ; small foodstuff producers ; Finland ; Nahrungsmittelgewerbe ; Wettbewerb ; Nahrungsmittelpreis ; Vergleich ; Finnland ; EU-Staaten ; USA
    Language: Finnish
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  • 28
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    Helsinki: The Research Institute of the Finnish Economy (ETLA)
    Publication Date: 2018-11-30
    Description: We use the databases of Statistics Finland to explore the supply of public support for firms in Finland during the years 2000-2008. Particularly, this report provides a descriptive analysis of complementarities and repetitiousness of public support from the perspective of the applying firms. We observe that both the order of magnitude of public resources allocated annually for supporting firms and the number of firms applying for and receiving public support have increased during sample years. The relative financing shares of the organizations allocating support have remained relatively constant. We find that the probability to apply for and to receive public support increases with firm size, age and R&D intensity. The data also show that there are complementarities between certain support forms and organizations allocating public support and that various firms tend to receive support from the Finnish government repeatedly over time.
    Keywords: H81 ; L53 ; O25 ; Y10 ; ddc:330 ; Public support ; public finance ; industrial policy ; Finland ; Wirtschaftsförderung ; Öffentliche Kreditvergabe ; Subvention ; Finnland
    Language: Finnish
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  • 29
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    Helsinki: The Research Institute of the Finnish Economy (ETLA)
    Publication Date: 2018-11-30
    Description: This study analyzes trends in specialization of the Finnish industry since the 1980s. Low technology industries, such as pulp and paper, have had traditionally a large proportion of the Finnish industrial output. During the recent decades their share of output has decreased significantly and Finland has specialized more and more in high technology industries, especially in ICT. The pattern of the Finnish revealed technological advantage with focus on ICT, and pulp and paper technologies differs from the pattern of the revealed technological advantage of many other countries. Internationally compared Finland has some technological advantage also in special purpose machinery, such as papermaking machines, special purpose vessels, elevators and transfer equipments, and in basic metals.
    Keywords: L16 ; L60 ; N60 ; O30 ; ddc:330 ; Finland ; manufacturing ; production ; technology ; employment ; specialization ; Technischer Fortschritt ; Standortwettbewerb ; Beschäftigung ; Industrie ; Branche ; Finnland
    Language: Finnish
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  • 30
    facet.materialart.
    Helsinki: The Research Institute of the Finnish Economy (ETLA)
    Publication Date: 2018-11-30
    Keywords: E22 ; E24 ; J31 ; ddc:330
    Language: Finnish
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  • 31
    facet.materialart.
    Helsinki: The Research Institute of the Finnish Economy (ETLA)
    Publication Date: 2018-11-30
    Description: This report studies differences in the wage structure between part-time and full-time employees in the service sector in 1990-2006. Using wage data from the registers of the Confederation of Finnish Industries, the report describes and compares wage distributions and their changes in the service sector. The analyses are carried out using both monthly and hourly incomes as well as regular earnings and total earnings. Moreover, many of the analyses are done separately for different industries. Thus, the report describes the key differences in the wage structure and wage differentials between part-time and full-time employees.
    Keywords: ddc:330 ; Lohnstruktur ; Teilzeitarbeit ; Dienstleistungssektor ; Industrie ; Finnland
    Language: Finnish
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  • 32
    facet.materialart.
    Helsinki: The Research Institute of the Finnish Economy (ETLA)
    Publication Date: 2018-11-30
    Description: Finnish university technology transfer is currently caught in the turbulences of major changes in the national innovation system. Three virtually simultaneous changes are of special importance. The first is the massive on-going renewal of the Universities Act governing the Finnish higher education system in its entirety. It was originally initiated to provide universities with more financial and operational flexibility and autonomy and, thus, with better premises to fulfil the three mandates (i) to educate, (ii) to conduct academic research, and (iii) to impact societal welfare. The second change is the foundation of the so-called Strategic Centres for Science, Technology and Innovation (Finnish acronym: SHOK) that aim at establishing and re-enforcing longterm research cooperation between the academia and the Industry. The final change is the enactment of the new University Inventions Act in early January 2007. The Act provided universities with the rights of ownership to inventions made in sponsored research that, according to the principle of the professor's privilege, were considered property of the respective academic inventors prior to the change. In the beginning of 2008 Etlatieto Ltd. interviewed 11 of 20 research universities active in Finland to capture the potential impacts the three changes might have on university technology transfer activities. The set of interviewees comprised professionals conducting different tasks in the technology transfer units of universities ranging from research directors to technology transfer officers to lawyers. According to the results, the expected benefits of the renewal of the Universities Act mainly comprise of the increasing financial flexibility of universities hoped to translate into a proliferation of tools available for the transfer of university technology (support of start-ups, investments etc.), and a general increase in the profile of technology transfer functions that should alleviate their current deficiency in resources. Challenges regarding the Universities Act, on the other hand, relate to the lack of administrative and business related expertise in universities required to fulfil the up-coming tasks mandated by the Act, and the lack of commitment on part of universities' management resulting in insufficient resources. SHOKs, in turn, are expected to enable longer project cycles, to reduce administrative burden, to encourage the setting of scientifically more ambitious research objectives, as well as to increase research collaboration and its efficiency. Challenges were identified to relate to proposed IPR-practices potentially endangering the academic freedom of university research, the incentive schemes of top researchers to participate in SHOK projects, the inefficiencies of a large participant base, and the dangers of a strongly industry driven mode of cooperation to academic values. Finally, the benefits of the University Inventions Act are expected to emerge from the gradual dismantling of the 'ivory tower of academe', an increase in the amount of received invention disclosures, and more efficient administrative practices in university technology transfer functions. Perceived challenges, in turn, include interpretational difficulties of the Act, the modest commitment of university management to university technology transfer in general, increasing administrative burdens, and strong cultural differences between researchers, industry and university administration.
    Keywords: O30 ; O38 ; O33 ; O34 ; ddc:330 ; Strategic Centres for Science ; Technology and Innovation ; SHOK ; Universities Act ; University Inventions Act ; university technology transfer ; national innovation system ; technology transfer offices ; Forschung ; Forschungskooperation ; Technologietransfer ; Hochschulpolitik ; Forschungs- und Technologiepolitik ; Innovationspolitik ; Finnland
    Language: Finnish
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  • 33
    facet.materialart.
    Helsinki: The Research Institute of the Finnish Economy (ETLA)
    Publication Date: 2018-11-30
    Keywords: J31 ; J38 ; J50 ; ddc:330 ; Arbeitsbeziehungen ; Lohnstruktur
    Language: Finnish
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  • 34
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    Helsinki: The Research Institute of the Finnish Economy (ETLA)
    Publication Date: 2018-11-30
    Description: Job flows are typically defined on the basis of the employment changes at the plant level. When calculated in this way, the job creation rate was 22.4% and destruction rate 23.8% in the Finnish business sector in the four-year period 2000-2004. However, when the different occupations (using seven occupational categories) in the same plant are interpreted as distinct jobs, the job creation rate is 30.6% and destruction rate 32.0%. It is found that employment mobility is much greater than needed for the given amount of the net employment change and intra- and inter-plant restructuring. This so-called 'excess worker reallocation' or 'churning' rate may be important for the diffusion of productivity spillovers in the economy or for the accumulation of the workers' human capital. The study examines the worker mobility between plants as well as along the occupational ladders in the plants' internal labor markets. It is found that micro-level dynamics of employment have interesting links with wage formation, and in particular, with its business cycle dynamics. This kind of knowledge is useful for theoretical modelling of business dynamics.
    Keywords: J23 ; J62 ; J63 ; ddc:330 ; job flows ; worker flows ; occupational mobility ; Arbeitsmobilität ; Erwerbsverlauf ; Beschäftigung ; Finnland
    Language: Finnish
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  • 35
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    Helsinki: The Research Institute of the Finnish Economy (ETLA)
    Publication Date: 2018-11-30
    Description: Public sector organizations are important producers of the core geographic information (GI). Data sharing is aggravated by e.g. highly varying policies to sharing and pricing the data. For instance, since the governmental data producer sets the price level high, it seems to restrict innovative ways to use data sets especially among small sized companies as well as in research and development activity of their large counterparts. There has been public debate between GI experts regarding pricing policies, although the economic analysis of impacts has almost remained as an untouched area of research yet to be thoroughly studied. This study aims to fill the gap. We conducted a survey covering leaders of 23 organizations, including both enterprises and public sectors organizations, involved in using geographic information. The respondents described how they generate or utilize geographical data. Their annual statements were also collected from 2001-2005 and anticipated key indicators for the year 2010. Interviews dealt with their definitions of geographical data, benefits and barriers to use the data, income made by creating value out of the data as well as their opinions about the pricing policies. Size of the organization and budgeting policies (incl. ability to use earnings within the organization) seemed to regulate the ideal pricing policy recommended by the organization. The principal component model was able to explain 82 percent of the variation of the variables regarding the recommendations and other features of the organizations. We also applied input-output analysis in Monte Carlo simulation to anticipate the impact of different pricing policies on the entire Finnish economy. The simulation suggests an increase of 6-12 Million Euros to GDP in five years if pricing policies are fixed at their present mode. Sharing the publicly owned geographic information at the lowest possible price level, could boost the GNP by 16-24 Million Euros. This means approximately a rather modest growth contribution to the GDP, .0021-.0031 percentage points GDP growth on an annual basis. If low pricing stimulates entrepreneurship more vitally, this could mean even more significant multiplier effects on GDP. For boosting the economic growth by wider usage of geographical data, it would be essentially important to apply new innovative ways to use geographical information in new contexts and application areas. This kind of innovative activity could be strengthened by the low price regime.
    Keywords: C15 ; D84 ; H44 ; L88 ; ddc:330 ; Data sharing ; forecast ; geographic information ; public sector information ; pricing ; Geographisches Informationssystem ; Öffentliches Gut ; Betriebliche Preispolitik ; Finnland
    Language: Finnish
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  • 36
    facet.materialart.
    Helsinki: The Research Institute of the Finnish Economy (ETLA)
    Publication Date: 2018-11-30
    Keywords: D12 ; D45 ; I11 ; ddc:330 ; Konsumentenverhalten ; Gesundheitswesen ; Marktstruktur
    Language: Finnish
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  • 37
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    Helsinki: The Research Institute of the Finnish Economy (ETLA)
    Publication Date: 2018-11-30
    Keywords: E24 ; E62 ; J30 ; ddc:330
    Language: Finnish
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  • 38
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    Helsinki: The Research Institute of the Finnish Economy (ETLA)
    Publication Date: 2018-11-30
    Description: The study analyses the financial framework of the European Union in 2014-2020 and the prospects of Finland in this framework. The study is structured according to budget headlines the most central of which are the natural resources (agriculture and rural development), cohesion (regional and structural policies), and competitiveness. Scenarios concerning the future are built upon alternative developments in the composition of the budget. The development of Finland's net payment position is analysed using different assumptions of GDP growth. A central assumption in most scenarios is the fact that the budget shares of the natural resources and regional and structural policies will decline substantially, also giving room to cut the size of the budget. According to our study, Finland will be able to adjust to the changes in the structure of the budget. In the case of agriculture, an increase in the size of farms, productivity growth, and especially the assumed continued national agricultural support will have an outcome that the level of agricultural output does not change substantially. In regional policy, a decrease in the growth of or cuts in EU regional subsidies can be compensated for by national subsidies. The pressures for adjustment which Finland will face during the future financial framework will be decreased because during the current financial period Finland already experienced many adjustments. Finland will be able to respond to the growth of funding under the competitiveness headline, if the country will be able to develop capabilities to apply for research and other competitiveness funding.
    Keywords: O52 ; F53 ; F55 ; H87 ; Q18 ; R58 ; I28 ; ddc:330 ; European Union ; Finland ; EU budget ; agricultural policy ; regional policy ; competitiveness ; research and development (R&D) ; EU-Finanzen ; EU-Staaten ; Finnland
    Language: Finnish
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  • 39
    facet.materialart.
    Helsinki: The Research Institute of the Finnish Economy (ETLA)
    Publication Date: 2018-11-30
    Description: Statistics Finland maintains a database which includes firm level data on public support in Finland. During this study it contained data from the years 2000-6. So far the data has been underutilized in economic and statistical analyses. We use the database in this descriptive study mainly to test the usability of the database. We analyze, for example, the scale, ways of use, and allocation of public support. We count as public support all the instruments in the database from loans and guarantees to direct employment and r&d subsidies. The results indicate that public support to firms is quite common, larger firms have higher probability of receiving public support than smaller ones, and that receiving public support once increases the probability to apply for and to receive it in the following years. The database seems to offer a quite good starting point for firm level public support studies, although it still lacks some essential public support instruments.
    Keywords: H81 ; L53 ; O25 ; Y10 ; ddc:330 ; Public support ; public finance ; industrial policy ; Finland ; Industriepolitik ; Subvention ; Finnland
    Language: Finnish
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  • 40
    facet.materialart.
    Helsinki: The Research Institute of the Finnish Economy (ETLA)
    Publication Date: 2018-11-30
    Description: Moral hazard means that people with insurance may take greater risks because they know they do not bear the full consequences of their actions. This can occur with both private insurance and social insurance. Deductibles can be used to alleviate the problem. An interesting way to bring deductibles into social insurance is to establish individual social accounts. Mandatory payments into individual social accounts that finance social insurance payments replace taxes that are currently financing social-insurance benefits. At retirement, the remaining balances in the accounts are paid to account holders or added to their retirement benefits. If the account balance is negative at that time, the account is set to zero. The report considers individual unemployment accounts, including severance payments accounts and employment bonuses, and health and long-term care accounts.
    Keywords: H53 ; H55 ; ddc:330 ; Social insurance ; moral hazard ; individual social accounts ; Sozialversicherung ; Moral Hazard ; Sozialversicherungsfinanzierung
    Language: Finnish
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  • 41
    facet.materialart.
    Helsinki: The Research Institute of the Finnish Economy (ETLA)
    Publication Date: 2018-11-30
    Description: Subsidies to business sector R&D can be given either as R&D tax credits or direct grants. Majority of the OECD countries use both policy tools, Finland has used only grants. The Finnish support system has been functioning relatively well, but it has been argued that it does not support well enough the small and medium sized companies and startups. The paper reviews evaluation results from other small countries which show that tax credits usually have a positive impact on the amount of business R&D, especially in the group of SMEs. The report concludes that in case Finland introduces tax credits as innovation policy tool, the system should be designed transparent and straightforward. A proper evaluation and information gathering should be designed as part of the system.
    Keywords: H25 ; O38 ; ddc:330 ; Innovation policy ; R&D subsidy ; tax credit ; Innovationspolitik ; Forschungssubvention ; Steuerbegünstigung ; Finnland
    Language: Finnish
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  • 42
    facet.materialart.
    Helsinki: The Research Institute of the Finnish Economy (ETLA)
    Publication Date: 2018-11-30
    Keywords: J08 ; J30 ; J60 ; ddc:330 ; Arbeitsmarktpolitik ; Arbeitsmobilität ; Finnland
    Language: Finnish
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  • 43
    facet.materialart.
    Helsinki: The Research Institute of the Finnish Economy (ETLA)
    Publication Date: 2018-11-30
    Description: In this study we focus on differences in careers and wage development between white-collar workers. We are interested in the questions of which factors contribute to these differences and at what stage of the career they occur. Furthermore, we investigate the wage effects of the different types of observed mobility. In the theoretical part of the study, models of job mobility and theories of wage and promotion dynamics inside firms are combined with the human capital theory. The descriptive analysis, on the other hand, examines the frequencies and the importance of different job transitions. In the econometric part of the study, we estimate the probability of a change of employer as well as the probability of being promoted using linear probability and multinomial logit models. Finally we examine the wage effects of job transitions. The data comes from the Confederation of Finnish Industries (EK) and covers the period 1981 to 2006. The results indicate that educational choices are of considerable importance for the future career development of manufacturing white-collar workers. The higher educated not only start their careers from more demanding jobs than the less educated, but they also experience promotions more quickly. The field of education matters as well. White-collar workers with a degree in technology are more likely to ascend to more demanding jobs than those with a business education. We also find that the early career is very important for later career development. The promotion probability is highest during the first three years of tenure and for less than 30-year-olds. The transition rates differ also by gender. Women are less often promoted than men, and they are also less likely to change employers. Furthermore, white-collar males experience larger wage increases when promoted. Finally, besides mobility within firms, also employer changes have typically positive effects on wages. Employer changes are more likely among highly educated white-collar workers who are well paid at their current job and who perform demanding tasks. Mobility across firms typically takes place early in the whitecollar's career, when the corresponding wage gains are also largest.
    Keywords: J24 ; J30 ; J62 ; M51 ; M52 ; ddc:330 ; career development ; internal labor markets ; job mobility ; human capital ; wage formation ; Karriereplanung ; Interner Arbeitsmarkt ; Arbeitsmobilität ; Humankapital ; Lohnbildung ; Finnland
    Language: Finnish
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  • 44
    facet.materialart.
    Helsinki: The Research Institute of the Finnish Economy (ETLA)
    Publication Date: 2018-11-30
    Description: If entrepreneurs are understood to be individuals who perceive new opportunities, introduce them in the market place, and make decisions regarding the organization of production, they may be considered to be the primary source of a society's economic wellbeing. If such entrepreneurship is lacking, an economy is necessarily regressive. Measuring such entrepreneurship, which may also be intrapreneurship within existing organizations and among wage-earners, is challenging; practical applications capture only some facets of a broader phenomenon. Particularly expanding enterprises have a considerable direct economic impact. They also have an indirect impact on the establishment of new and the discontinuation of old establishments as well as on market shares of continuing establishments. Also failed growth entrepreneurs and their companies may have lasting economic impacts. This preliminary study considers the economic role of growth entrepreneurs have in principle as well as considers their empirical role and characteristics in Finland by employing an established OECD definition. It is found that some five per cent of Finnish companies may be considered growth firms; their share was on the rise prior to the financial crisis.
    Keywords: ddc:330 ; Entrepreneurship-Ansatz ; Wirtschaftswachstum ; Finnland
    Language: Finnish
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  • 45
    facet.materialart.
    Helsinki: The Research Institute of the Finnish Economy (ETLA)
    Publication Date: 2018-11-30
    Description: This report reviews some of the most recent literature examining the home country employment effects of internationalisation. A brief overview of the history of the internationalisation of Finnish firms is also presented. The general conclusion from the literature is that the absolute employment effects are modest, although there are likely to be notable effects on the structure of labour demand. However, the form of internationalisation, the level of aggregation of the data, and differences in labour market institutions all have an influence on the results. Most of the studies looking at the employment effects of outward foreign direct investment on the home country seem to indicate positive rather than substitution effects. On the other hand, when looking at the effects of offshore outsourcing, the results are ambiguous.
    Keywords: F16 ; F14 ; F23 ; J23 ; J63 ; ddc:330 ; internationalisation ; FDI ; outsourcing offshore ; employment ; labour market ; Multinationales Unternehmen ; Direktinvestition ; Offshoring ; Beschäftigungseffekt ; Finnland
    Language: Finnish
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  • 46
    facet.materialart.
    Helsinki: The Research Institute of the Finnish Economy (ETLA)
    Publication Date: 2018-11-30
    Description: In order to shed light on the consequences of the ongoing financial crisis, ETLA conducted two surveys at the end of October 2008. The firm survey targeted firms employing at least 10 persons in Finland (2,017 observations with a response rate of 33%) and the consumer survey targeted 15-74-year-old Finns (2,025 observations with a response rate of 37%). More than half of the firms say that their sales/orders are down due to the financial crisis. In virtually all dimensions manufacturing fares worse than services. In part this is due to the fact that business-to-business and foreign markets seem to be experiencing more problems than consumer and domestic markets. If the situation continues, the problems will undoubtedly spread. Our observations suggest that in the Finnish case the demand-induced effects will be more several than those directly attributable to problems in attracting external finance. Unless the October 2008 deepening in the crisis, which is now felt by all firms and consumers, is reversed shortly, the effects will accumulate and lead to a recession.
    Keywords: D91 ; D92 ; G21 ; Y1 ; ddc:330 ; Financial crisis ; Consumer survey ; Firm survey ; Behavior ; Finland ; Finanzmarktkrise ; Makroökonomischer Einfluss ; Finnland
    Language: Finnish
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  • 47
    facet.materialart.
    Helsinki: The Research Institute of the Finnish Economy (ETLA)
    Publication Date: 2018-11-30
    Description: Three fourths of Finnish business enterprises have relationships that are deeper than those associated with normal market transactions, i.e., they are involved in interorganizational networking. Regionally networking is more commonplace in North Savo, North Karelia/Kainuu, Central Finland and Lapland/Northern Ostrobothnia. Connections to other firms is the most prevalent and qualitatively most important type of networking. Networking is predominantly a local phenomenon, particularly when it comes to firms' partnerships with educational and research institutions as well as public bodies. Networking may be associated with better firm profitability in low-tech industries. Participating in a national cluster may be associated with firms' better growth prospects. In the absence of functioning local markets for some productive inputs, being engaged in inter-organizational networking may be a necessary conditions for firms' survival.
    Keywords: D21 ; L14 ; L22 ; L25 ; ddc:330 ; Inter-organizational networking ; business collaboration ; profitability ; growth ; Unternehmensnetzwerk ; Regionale Konzentration ; Rentabilität ; Unternehmensentwicklung ; Finnland
    Language: Finnish
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  • 48
    facet.materialart.
    Helsinki: The Research Institute of the Finnish Economy (ETLA)
    Publication Date: 2018-11-30
    Description: The use of traditional industry-level profitability indicators for assessing the state of competition is problematic for two reasons. First, short-term variation reflects business cycles more than it does the impact of competition policy. Second, rough industry-level indicators hide different mechanisms that are dependent on competition but may affect profitability in opposite directions. In this analysis both problems are avoided by using firm-level Financial Statement Statistics of Statistics Finland over the years 1995-2006 and by applying a decomposition method. With these tools the micro- level sources of industry-level profitability changes have been examined over a long-run period. The findings provide support to the general view having emerged from the earlier micro-level analysis that competition has developed in a favorable way in Finland until the end of the 1990s. On the other hand, the results reveal interesting differences between periods, sectors and regions, which describe challenges of competition policy in the future.
    Keywords: D40 ; D33 ; L11 ; ddc:330 ; Competition ; profitability ; measures of competition ; micro-structural change ; Wettbewerb ; Rentabilität ; Betriebliche Preispolitik ; Marktstruktur ; Dekompositionsverfahren ; Finnland
    Language: Finnish
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  • 49
    facet.materialart.
    Helsinki: The Research Institute of the Finnish Economy (ETLA)
    Publication Date: 2018-11-30
    Description: This paper describes the main features of a model developed for fore-casting economic developments, energy demand and greenhouse gas emissions in the EU area and Finland as well as for simulating the economic impacts of EU climate policy. Climate policy analysis necessitates a model of the whole EU area, because CO2 emissions of the EU area emission trading sector determine the demand and price of emission allowances. The main conclusion from model simulations is that output and employment losses induced by EU climate policy in 2008-2012 will be more se-vere in a small open energy intensive economy like Finland than in the rest of the EU area. The negative impacts of EU climate policy on export competitiveness, exports and output volume in Finland will be strongest in the energy intensive industrial sec-tors which belong to the EU emission trading sector.
    Keywords: C5 ; E3 ; Q4 ; Q5 ; ddc:330 ; Greenhouse gas emissions ; economic impacts of emission reduction ; Treibhausgas ; Klimaveränderung ; Umweltschutz ; EU-Staaten ; Makroökonomischer Einfluss ; Finnland
    Language: Finnish
    Type: doc-type:workingPaper
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  • 50
    facet.materialart.
    Helsinki: The Research Institute of the Finnish Economy (ETLA)
    Publication Date: 2018-11-30
    Description: Several regional technology and innovation strategy documents have been written covering every region within Finland in recent years. However, the approaches, methods and semantics used in those documents vary considerably. This variation has made it difficult to compare them with each other. The purpose of this report is to present and analyze already existing regional innovation strategies of Finnish regions using one conceptual framework developed for this purpose. The basis of this framework rests on a recent national level strategy document prepared and published by Tekes, The Finnish Funding Agency of Technology and Innovation, but it also includes elements from the theories of regional innovation systems and international trade. This report aims at strengthening the dialogue between the national and regional level policy actors. It was written during May and June 2008 and is mainly based on materials and insights that were collected during 14 one-day seminars, which were held in March and April in every region of Finland, except Uusimaa, which will be covered in a revised version of this discussion paper. The authors wish to thank all participants of those seminars for their very active contribution during those seminars and constructive comments on early versions of this report.
    Keywords: F10 ; O32 ; R58 ; ddc:330 ; regional specialisation ; international competitiveness ; demand-driven innovation activity ; Forschungs- und Technologiepolitik ; Regionale Arbeitsteilung ; Innovation ; Internationaler Wettbewerb ; Finnland
    Language: Finnish
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  • 51
    facet.materialart.
    Helsinki: The Research Institute of the Finnish Economy (ETLA)
    Publication Date: 2018-11-30
    Description: Tässä tutkimuksessa tarkastellaan naisten ja miesten välisiä ammatillisia eroja Suomen yksityisellä sektorilla vuosina 1995–2004 käyttäen Tilastokeskuksen palkkarakennetilastoa. Tutkimustulokset osoittavat, että sukupuolten ammatilliset erot ovat Suomessa suuret. Segregaation aste on tosin pienentynyt tutkimusperiodin aikana, mutta muutokset ovat olleet verrattain pieniä. Segregaation suuruus vaihtelee huomattavasti taustatekijöiden mukaan. Segregaatio on esimerkiksi selvästi suurempaa vanhemmissa ikäryhmissä nuoriin työntekijöihin verrattuna. Segregaatio näyttää myös pienenevän koulutustason mukaan: korkeakoulututkinnon suorittaneiden kohdalla sukupuolten väliset ammatilliset erot ovat selvästi pienemmät verrattuna alempiin koulutustasoihin. Myös toimialojen välillä on vaihtelua segregaation suuruudessa. Jaettaessa toimialat sukupuolirakenteen mukaan mies- ja naisvaltaisiin sekä tasapainoisiin toimialoihin havaitaan segregaation olevan huomattavasti suurempaa miesvaltaisilla toimialoilla naisvaltaisiin tai tasapainoisiin toimialoihin verrattuna. Tutkimuksessa tarkastellaan lisäksi segregaation kehittymistä työkokemuksen mukaan. Pitkittäisanalyysin tulokset viittaavat siihen, että segregaation tasossa tapahtuu vain pieniä muutoksia työuran aikana.
    Description: This paper investigates occupational segregation by gender in the Finnish private sector during the period 1995-2004 using Statistics Finland’s Structure of Earnings data. The results show that although the occupational differences between genders have decreased during the investigation period occupational segregation by gender is still high in the Finnish labour market. The level of segregation is also found to vary by background characteristics. For example, segregation is higher among older workers. Moreover, segregation seems to decrease with the level of education: segregation is clearly lower among university graduates compared to workers with lower education. There is variation in the level of segregation also by the type of industry. Segregation is much higher in the male-dominated industries than in the female-dominated or in the gender-balanced industries. The paper also utilizes the panel structure of the data to investigate the question of how occupational differences between men and women evolve with work experience. The results suggest that there are only small changes in the level of occupational segregation along the working career.
    Keywords: J16 ; J24 ; ddc:330 ; sukupuoli ; ammattisegregaatio ; gender ; occupational segregation
    Language: Finnish
    Type: doc-type:workingPaper
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  • 52
    facet.materialart.
    Helsinki: The Research Institute of the Finnish Economy (ETLA)
    Publication Date: 2018-11-30
    Description: This study analyzes the sustainability implications of demographic and investment risks in the Finnish private sector pension system (TyEL). The results show that current contribution rate is likely to be too low to finance the future higher expenditure. The main sustainability problem is not, however, the generally projected increase in the contribution rate, but the outstanding probability of the contribution being much higher than expected in the long term. A recent reform aimed at lowering the expected increase in the contribution rate by increasing the share of stocks in the portfolios of the pension funds. It is likely to do so, unless the increased risk causes unforeseen changes to the pension system, with sustainability implications that may outweigh the expected gains from better asset yields. A long-lasting solution to the sustainability problem could be the adoption of a Swedish type NDC pension system. Our simulations show, however, that the implied adjustment rules may not react early enough to the realized demographic or investment risks, and therefore risk sharing between generations would not be sufficient. Future research should study adjustment mechanisms that restrict the probability of large hikes in the contribution rate without fixing the contribution rate permanently.
    Keywords: H55 ; J11 ; ddc:330 ; Sustainability ; demographic risks ; investment risks ; pension funds ; Alterssicherung ; Pensionsfonds ; Rentenfinanzierung ; Bevölkerungsentwicklung ; Finnland
    Language: Finnish
    Type: doc-type:workingPaper
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  • 53
    facet.materialart.
    Helsinki: The Research Institute of the Finnish Economy (ETLA)
    Publication Date: 2018-11-30
    Description: This paper reviews the theoretical and empirical literature on job market signalling and on education as a job market signal. Possible economic implications of educational job market signalling to an individual and the society are represented based on existing theories. The paper also reviews central methods in empirical testing of the signalling/screening hypothesis. The empirical section of the paper carries out two alternative methods for testing the signalling/sorting hypothesis. The first method is a so-called natural experiment where the Finnish comprehensive school reform (implemented in the 1970's) is used as an exogenous shock variable in an econometric model explaining educational attainment. Besides qualitative changes to the old comprehensive school system, the reform increased minimum school leaving age from 12 to 15 years. Enforcing the idea of Lang and Kropp (1986), I argue that under the human capital hypothesis the reform should only have affected schooling choices of those individuals whose behaviour was directly constrained by the reform, whereas under the sorting hypothesis it should also have affected those who were not directly constrained. I find no evidence of such an indirect effect on post-comprehensive educational attainment as predicted by the sorting hypothesis. However, my results indicate that the reform may have had an effect on non-constrained individuals' tertiary educational attainment. I regard this result as tentative, because it clearly contradicts with the 'ripple effect' observed by Lang and Kropp. The second method studies the importance of relative education as an explanatory variable in a Mincerian- style wage equation. I find the conclusions of this method to be dependent on the reference group used in defining relative education. Consequently also the second method yields somewhat inconclusive results on the importance of education as a job market signal. The sorting hypothesis gains most support when I use jointly the regional distribution of education and the age distribution of education to define an individual's education relative to his reference group. The overall impression from the empirical section suggests that the signalling effect of education on wages is minor compared to the human capital effect. I conclude that even though the comprehensive school reform had a positive effect on average productivity, one should not make any hasty generalizations from this result regarding the whole educational system. The sample used in the empirical analysis consists of over 120 000 men, born in Finland between 1962 and 1966. It is a cross-section of the Finnish Longitudinal Census Data File generated by Statistics Finland.
    Keywords: I21 ; J31 ; ddc:330 ; education ; job market signalling ; sorting ; screening ; Finnish comprehensive school reform ; human capital ; Bildungsniveau ; Signalling ; Arbeitsmarkt ; Humankapital ; Bildungsertrag ; Finnland
    Language: Finnish
    Type: doc-type:workingPaper
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  • 54
    facet.materialart.
    Helsinki: The Research Institute of the Finnish Economy (ETLA)
    Publication Date: 2018-11-30
    Description: We study the extent to which retired households in Finland could supplement their mandatory pension benefits by releasing their equity. We also consider the tax treatment of different financial products that turn wealth into an income stream. In addition, we use a life cycle consumption-savings model to study which kind of households' in Finland would benefit the most from life annuities.
    Keywords: D14 ; G22 ; H24 ; ddc:330 ; Equity release ; taxation ; life annuities ; Leibrente ; Alterssicherung ; Steuer ; Lebenszyklus ; Finnland
    Language: Finnish
    Type: doc-type:workingPaper
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  • 55
    facet.materialart.
    Helsinki: The Research Institute of the Finnish Economy (ETLA)
    Publication Date: 2018-11-30
    Description: Tutkimuksessa vertaillaan työn tuottavuuden tasoja ja kehitystä maiden välillä. Tarkastelussa keskitytään erityisesti yrityssektoriin ja sen toimialoihin. Vertailuissa on käytetty useita eri aineistolähteitä, joihin kuuluvat Eurostatin tietokannat Structural Business Statistics ja Labour Costs Survey sekä EU KLEMS -hankkeen aineistot. Käyttämämme aineistokokoonpano tarjoaa mahdollisuuden vaihtoehtoisten tuottavuusmittojen laskemiselle. Vaihtoehtoisia tietoja käyttämällä saadaan parempi tuntuma tuottavuusvertailuihin liittyvistä epävarmuuksista kuin tukeuduttaessa vain yhteen aineistolähteeseen. Tulokset kertovat, että Suomi on noussut monella teollisuuden toimialalla kansainväliseen kärkijoukkoon. Myös monilla yksityisillä palvelualoilla on tapahtunut sangen myönteistä kehitystä muihin maihin verrattuna. Toisaalta Suomi on menettänyt merkittävän osan tärkeästä tuottavuuskasvunsa lähteestä, eli ns. perässätulijan edusta. Jatkossa on siten aikaisempaa vaikeampaa parantaa tuottavuutta muita maita nopeammin. Toisaalta suoritetut aineistoanalyysit kertovat tällaisiin tuottavuusvertailuihin sisältyvistä epävarmuuksista, jotka ovat sangen merkittäviä varsinkin yksityiskohtaista toimialajaottelua käytettäessä.
    Description: We compare the levels and development of labour productivity in different countries, especially in the private sectors of the economies. We use several data sources, including the Eurostat Structural Business Statistics and Labour Costs Survey databases as well as the data available from the EU KLEMS project. This combination of data allows for a comparison of alternative productivity indicators. The calculations give us a better understanding of the uncertainties in productivity comparisons than if only one data source were used. The results indicate that Finland has joined the top league of countries in many sectors of manufacturing. There have also occurred favourable developments in many sectors of private services relative to other countries. On the other hand, Finland has thus by now lost most of its earlier source of productivity growth, i.e. its position as a catching-up country. Consequently, it will be more difficult to raise productivity faster than other industrialised countries in the future. Meanwhile, our separate analysis of available data sources indicates that cross-country comparisons of productivity involve a lot of uncertainties, especially when using data at very disaggregated sectoral levels.
    Keywords: O47 ; ddc:330 ; Tuottavuus ; tuottavuuden mittaaminen ; Productivity ; measurement of productivity
    Language: Finnish
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  • 56
    facet.materialart.
    Helsinki: The Research Institute of the Finnish Economy (ETLA)
    Publication Date: 2018-11-30
    Description: Vaikka yritysten välistä verkostomaista yhteistyötä pidetään yleisesti yhtenä niiden liiketaloudellista menestystä tukevana tekijänä, aihetta on tutkittu varsin vähän. Tässä tutkimuksessa hyödynnämme Eurostatin ja kansallisten tilastokeskusten muutaman vuoden takaisessa pilottiprojektissa kerättyä aineistoa asian selvittämiseksi. Tutkimustulostemme perusteella yrityksen verkostoitumisen ja sen kannattavuuden tai kasvun välillä ei näyttäisi olevan selvää yhteyttä. Havaintomme ei välttämättä kerro siitä, etteikö verkostoitumisella olisi merkitystä yritysten liiketoiminnan kannalta, vaan itse tutkimuskysymys jää tämän työn perusteella avoimeksi. Pääjohtopäätöksemme on, että verkostoituminen ei ainakaan automaattisesti tai itsestään tue kannattavuutta tai kasvua; olennaista on verkostoitumisen muoto ja sisältö.
    Keywords: D21 ; L14 ; L22 ; L24 ; L25 ; ddc:330 ; Verkostoituminen, yritysyhteistyö, ulkoistaminen, kannattavuus, kasvu
    Language: Finnish
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  • 57
    facet.materialart.
    Helsinki: The Research Institute of the Finnish Economy (ETLA)
    Publication Date: 2018-11-30
    Description: According to EVA's annual attitude and value survey, two out of three Finns believe that globalization means loosing increasing amounts of jobs to low-cost-countries. However, 70 percent of the respondents think that their job is not easily transferrable and only 8 % are afraid that their own job is going to be offshored. As both national and international research indicates that the employment effects of globalization are rather modest, who is afraid of globalization and why? In this analysis it is found that highly educated, service sector, and male employees are the least afraid of globalization. Additionally, it is noticed that attitudes are more important than actual labour market experiences, when it comes to the expectations and perceptions of globalization.
    Keywords: F02 ; Z10 ; ddc:330 ; Globalization ; internationalization ; attitudes ; prejudice ; Globalisierung ; Beschäftigungseffekt ; Qualifikation ; Meinung ; Finnland
    Language: Finnish
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  • 58
    facet.materialart.
    Helsinki: The Research Institute of the Finnish Economy (ETLA)
    Publication Date: 2018-11-30
    Description: Tutkimuksessa kehitetään mallia, jolla voidaan arvioida sosiaa-lietuuksien kustannusten vaikutuksia tuottajahintoihin sekä valtakunnallisiin ja alueel-lisiin kuluttajahintoihin. Tuottajahintoja määrittävä panos-tuotoshintamalli ottaa huo-mioon sosiaalietuuksien rahoitukseen käytettävien työnantajamaksujen korotusten suorat kustannus- ja hintavaikutukset kullakin toimialalla sekä välituotekaupan kautta muille toimialoille heijastuvat kustannus- ja hintavaikutukset. Kuluttajahintamalli määrittää tuottajahintojen ja kulutukseen kohdistuvan välillisen verotuksen vaikutuk-set erilaisten kulutushyödykkeiden hintoihin. Tutkimuksessa hintamallin ominaisuuk-sia kuvataan simuloimalla työnantajamaksujen ja arvonlisäverotuksen muutosten hin-tavaikutuksia. Työnantajien sosiaalivakuutusmaksujen korotus aiheuttaa suurimman hintapaineen työvaltaisten terveydenhoito- ja koulutuspalveluiden tuottaja- ja kulutta-jahintoihin. Arvonlisäverotuksen kiristäminen nostaa eniten elintarvikkeiden sekä kulttuurin ja vapaa-ajan menoryhmien kuluttajahintoja. Julkisen talouden kannalta neutraali elintarvikkeiden arvonlisäverotuksen keventäminen ja samanaikainen työn-antajamaksujen korotus hyödyttää eniten vanhus- ja eläkeläistalouksia, työttömiä ja maatalousyrittäjiä, joiden kulutusmenoissa elintarvikkeilla on suurin paino. Alueelli-sesti kuluttajahinnat alenevat tällöin eniten Pohjois-Suomessa ja vähiten Etelä-Suomessa.
    Keywords: D12 ; D57 ; E31 ; ddc:330 ; Tuottajahinnat, alueelliset kuluttajahinnat
    Language: Finnish
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  • 59
    facet.materialart.
    Helsinki: The Research Institute of the Finnish Economy (ETLA)
    Publication Date: 2018-11-30
    Description: Tutkimuksessa selvitetään nuorten naisten ja miesten urakehityseroja työuran ensimmäisten vuosien aikana. Kuvauksellisessa analyysissä vertaillaan naisten ja miesten ensimmäisen tehtävän vaativuustasoja sekä työmarkkinaliikkuvuutta. Ekonometrinen osuus koostuu ylennyksen ja tehtävänvaihdon todennäköisyyksien estimoinneista paneeliprobit -mallien avulla. Käytettävä aineisto on Elinkeinoelämän keskusliiton (EK) palkkakyselyihin perustava toimihenkilötilasto, josta on tätä tutkimusta varten poimittu nuoria uusia rekrytointeja. Tutkimuksen tulosten mukaan naisten ja miesten välillä ei ole merkittäviä eroja uran ensimmäisten vuosien aikana. Naiset vaihtavat tehtävää ja saavat ylennyksen yhtä usein kuin miehet. Naiset kuitenkin aloittavat uransa miehiä vähemmän vaativista tehtävistä. Lisäksi naisvaltaiset tehtävät osoittautuivat umpikujiksi. Naisten osuuden nousu tehtävässä pienentää sekä mahdollisuuksia vaihtaa tehtävää että saada ylennys.
    Keywords: J16 ; J62 ; M51 ; ddc:330 ; sukupuolten urakehitysero, työmarkkinaliikkuvuus
    Language: Finnish
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  • 60
    facet.materialart.
    Helsinki: The Research Institute of the Finnish Economy (ETLA)
    Publication Date: 2018-11-30
    Description: Analyses in this paper do not support the idea that job and worker flows have become more intensive and have deteriorated working conditions in the Finnish business sector. The magnitude of flow has in fact been rather stable since 1997. However, job flows are at a quite high level, as some 10% of jobs are destroyed every year. On the other hand, an even larger number of new jobs are created every year, resulting in positive net job creation. At the industry level, we find no relationship between working conditions and job flows. Job flows require worker mobility. Worker flows are nevertheless more than 100% larger than what job flows would require. Job flows constitute a central element of the mechanism through which technological change and productivity growth takes place in an economy. Quite normally, some 30-50% of an industry's productivity growth is due to this particular mechanism. Disruptions to this mechanism would have considerable effects on productivity growth and thereby the improvement of living standards.
    Keywords: J23 ; J28 ; O12 ; ddc:330 ; Job and worker flows ; working conditions