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  • 1
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    Paris: Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD), International Transport Forum
    Publication Date: 2015-04-18
    Keywords: ddc:330 ; Verkehrsinfrastruktur ; Verkehrspolitik ; Wirkungsanalyse ; OECD-Staaten
    Language: French
    Type: doc-type:workingPaper
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  • 2
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    Paris: Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD), International Transport Forum
    Publication Date: 2015-04-18
    Description: Promoting public transportation, which includes rail, metro, bus rapid transit, and bus services is one of the most popular urban transportation policies among transportation authorities in many countries. This popularity may reflect the social requirement to pursue a sustainable transportation system by motivating people to use an environmentally friendly transportation mode. In particular, the modal shift from the automobile to public transportation is highlighted in urban transportation planning because many cities have suffered from serious traffic congestion, which has caused economic losses as well as negative impacts on local, regional, and global environments. In order to attract individuals to use public transportation, the improvement of service is critical. This includes increasing service frequency, decreasing travel time, upgrading station facilities, and introducing higher-capacity vehicles. As most public transportation services are provided directly by public authorities or are financially supported by government/public-sector entities, an investment in public transportation is typically evaluated within a cost-benefit analysis framework. However, since public transportation service consists of many different components, including accessing public transit stops, waiting for the service, riding trains, transferring from one train to another, and exiting to a final destination, it is necessary to evaluate each component in detail. This has made it more difficult to analyze the benefit from public transportation projects than road projects. Thus, there is a strong need to develop a clear methodology by which to value the expected benefits stemming from a public transportation service change in monetary terms according to each service component.
    Keywords: ddc:330 ; Schienenpersonennahverkehr ; Ballungsraum ; Kommunale Verkehrspolitik ; Tokio ; Japan
    Language: French
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  • 3
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    Paris: Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD), International Transport Forum
    Publication Date: 2015-04-18
    Description: This paper reviews methods that seek to draw causal inference from non-experimental data and shows how they can be applied to undertake ex-post evaluation of transport interventions. In particular, the paper discusses the underlying principles of techniques for treatment effect estimation with non-randomly assigned treatments. The aim of these techniques is to quantify changes that have occurred due to explicit intervention (or 'treatment'). The paper argues that transport interventions are typically characterized by non-random assignment and that the key issues for successful ex-post evaluation involve identifying and adjusting for confounding factors. In contrast to conventional approaches for ex-ante appraisal, a major advantage of the statistical causal methods is that they can be applied without making strong a-priori theoretical assumptions. The paper provides empirical examples of the use of causal techniques to evaluate road network capacity expansions in US cities and High Speed Rail investments in Spain.
    Keywords: ddc:330 ; Verkehrsinfrastruktur ; Infrastrukturinvestition ; Wirkungsanalyse ; Schätzung ; USA ; Spanien
    Language: French
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  • 4
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    Geneva: United Nations Research Institute for Social Development (UNRISD)
    Publication Date: 2017-01-11
    Description: Depuis la première moitié du dix-neuvième siècle, sont apparus sous des formes diverses des propositions et des projets visant à assurer un développement local solidaire par un mécanisme monétaire et financier. On les aborde aujourd'hui sous la dénomination de 'microcrédit solidaire' et monnaies 'complémentaires, alternatives, citoyennes ou sociales'. De façon informelle, existent depuis des temps immémoriaux sous différents modèles des associations d'épargne et de prêt connues sous le terme en français de tontines. La contribution se propose de comparer l'apport de leurs modes spécifiques d'inclusion financière au développement local solidaire par la dynamique de dette entre les participants. D'un point théorique, l'analyse s'appuie sur la logique d'articulation de quatre principes d'intégration économique empruntés à Karl Polanyi : la réciprocité, la redistribution et l'autosuffisance faisant face à celui de concurrence. Leur mobilisation suppose une distinction entre solidarité et protection, cette dernière impliquant des formes de domination. Ces informations sont notamment renforcées par des enquêtes de terrain menées depuis la publication en 2006 de Banquiers aux pieds nus en Inde du Sud, au Maroc, au Nicaragua et au Mexique.
    Keywords: ddc:330
    Language: French
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  • 5
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    Brussels: European Centre for International Political Economy (ECIPE)
    Publication Date: 2018-02-15
    Keywords: ddc:330 ; Staatsfonds ; Investitionspolitik ; Patent ; Freihandel ; Frankreich
    Language: French
    Type: doc-type:report
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  • 6
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    Paris: Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD), International Transport Forum
    Publication Date: 2015-04-18
    Keywords: ddc:330 ; Schienenverkehr ; Effizienz ; Messung ; Frankreich
    Language: French
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  • 7
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    Paris: Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD), International Transport Forum
    Publication Date: 2015-04-18
    Description: In France, the obligation to conduct an ex-post assessment is relatively recent (1982) but it has in fact revealed some methodological problems that flow from the retrospective nature of the exercise. This report shows that some of those difficulties can be overcome through the establishment of permanent observatories. It presents examples of such observatories, with a particular focus on motorway ("autoroute", or "freeway" in North American usage) investments. A particular case is then investigated, concerning the socioeconomic observatory on the effects of the Sud-Europe-Atlantique [South-Europe-Atlantic] high-speed train line that is now under construction. This major project (€7.8 billion) has been let under a concession. The concession contract calls for the establishment of an observatory that also covers the construction period and is to remain in operation for 10 years after the line comes into service, or until 2027. Besides an overall presentation of the mechanism, the report deals in particular with the metrological precautions that must be taken in order to monitor the multimodal offer of transport for the areas concerned. One of the key issues here, in fact, is to explain the discrepancies between forecast and projected and actual traffic, an explanation that may be more complete than in the ex-post evaluation procedure.
    Keywords: ddc:330 ; Verkehrsinfrastruktur ; Verkehrspolitik ; Wirkungsanalyse ; Frankreich
    Language: French
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  • 8
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    Paris: Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD), International Transport Forum
    Publication Date: 2015-04-18
    Description: The UK National Audit Office (NAO) scrutinises public spending on behalf of Parliament, helping it to hold government departments to account and helping public bodies improve performance and delivery. We publish around 60 value for money studies each year across a range of government activities, of which, around three of these usually cover transport topics. Our reports look at how government projects, programmes and initiatives have been implemented and make recommendations on how it can be improved. Our value for money work is not strictly ex-post assessment in the usual sense of assessing a programme once it has been in operation for some time. Due to the length of time needed to complete major transport investments and our remit to focus on accountability, we often carry out an assessment of a project before its completion. In some cases, particularly for significant infrastructure investments, a series of value for money reports is appropriate as the programme will develop over time. These tend to focus on how the programme is being delivered, in terms of the planning, procurement or construction phases of infrastructure projects. We have had cause to comment on the Department for Transport's (the Department) failure to carry out full ex-post assessment of the UK transport projects that we have examined. Ex-post assessments have a valuable role to play in capturing learning and feeding into decision making about current and future projects. Given the long lead times such projects and programmes often have before they deliver their intended benefits, ex-post assessments should be one part of a wider programme of reviews throughout a project or programme's life. In carrying out our work our three main aims are to: Obtain robust evidence and analysis in order to draw sound conclusions about whether the investment of public money provided value for money; Address the issues which taxpayers and their elected representatives believe are pertinent in making that assessment; Draw out lessons for future programmes both within the transport sector and elsewhere in government. The first and third of these - the need for robust evidence and the desire to learn for the future - clearly have strong parallels in "classic" ex-post assessment. We base our work on a standard approach which we apply across the range of central government's activities and services. All our value for money work refers to an analytical framework shown in Appendix 2 of this paper (...)
    Keywords: ddc:330 ; Verkehrsinfrastruktur ; Infrastrukturinvestition ; Wirkungsanalyse ; Finanzkontrolle ; Großbritannien
    Language: French
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  • 9
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    Ottawa: Bank of Canada
    Publication Date: 2014-11-20
    Description: Les taux de défaut sont des séries couramment utilisées dans les simulations de crise. Au Canada comme dans beaucoup d’autres pays, on ne dispose pas de séries rétrospectives relatives aux taux de défaut sectoriels sur les prêts bancaires aux entreprises. La connaissance de ces taux est indispensable pour pouvoir évaluer l’incidence de chocs sur le bilan des institutions financières et procéder à des tests de simulation de crise du système bancaire. Les auteurs présentent la méthodologie qu’ils ont utilisée pour construire des séries rétrospectives des taux de défaut des entreprises dans différents secteurs de l’économie canadienne, ainsi que les modèles dont ils se sont servis pour prévoir les taux de défaut. Leurs résultats confirment l’existence d’une relation non linéaire entre le produit intérieur brut, le taux de chômage et les taux de défaut.
    Description: Default rates are series commonly used in stress testing. In Canada, as in many other countries, there are no historical series available for sectoral default rates on bank loans to firms. Knowledge of such data is required to assess the impact of shocks on the balance sheets of financial institutions and to conduct stress-testing exercises of the banking system. The authors discuss the methodology used to construct historical series of firm default rates for selected sectors of the Canadian economy, as well as the models applied to predict default rates. Their findings confirm the existence of a non-linear relationship between the gross domestic product, the unemployment rate and default rates.
    Keywords: C13 ; C18 ; G21 ; G33 ; ddc:330 ; Méthodes économétriques et statistiques ; Stabilité financière ; Institutions financières ; Econometric and statistical methods ; Financial stability ; Financial institutions
    Language: French
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  • 10
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    Paris: Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD), International Transport Forum
    Publication Date: 2015-04-18
    Description: Factoring sustainable development into the appraisal of investment projects is a topical issue at both the analytical and the decision-making level. In the area of analysis, we find numerous studies and research projects devoted to the assessment of environmental damage and its translation into monetary terms. The analysis concerns both 'flow' damage such as pollution and noise, and 'stock' damage with long-term cumulative effect, such as global warming and the reduction of biodiversity. In the area of decisionmaking, efforts are being undertaken in many countries to achieve better integration of these concerns in project appraisal and the related cost-benefit analysis. France is no exception: a working party recently set up to revise the methodology for appraising public investment projects has just completed its deliberations. It paid close attention to considerations of sustainable development and the factoring of the long term, and the present paper is based largely on its recommendations. In what follows, we shall endeavour to analyse those recommendations in the light of scientific knowledge and place them in the French institutional and politico-administrative context. The present paper begins with an overall presentation of the working party's deliberations. It goes on to discuss factoring the long term and one of its key characteristics, uncertainty. That is followed by a discussion of the two major aspects of stock effects, namely global warming - including the issue of carbon cost - and biodiversity. Finally, the paper discusses flow effects - the classical effects of air pollution and noise - and numerous other effects that are less clearly defined. It concludes with an overview of the impact of the new provisions on the choice of projects.
    Keywords: ddc:330 ; Infrastrukturinvestition ; Projektmanagement ; Nachhaltige Entwicklung ; Kosten-Nutzen-Analyse ; Frankreich
    Language: French
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  • 11
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    Paris: Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD), International Transport Forum
    Publication Date: 2015-04-18
    Description: Over the past 10 to 15 years, the growth of passenger vehicle travel volumes has decelerated in several high-income economies and, in some, growth has stopped or turned negative. Drawing from work presented to and discussions at the ITF Roundtable on long-run trends in travel demand, held in November 2012, this paper presents evidence on known causes of this change in growth rates and discusses knowledge gaps, hypothetical explanations and policy implications.
    Keywords: ddc:330 ; Straßenverkehr ; Industrieländer
    Language: French
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  • 12
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    Paris: Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD), International Transport Forum
    Publication Date: 2015-04-18
    Description: This paper updates the database on heavy goods vehicle charges and taxes in Europe, with figures for 2012 on taxes and charges on vehicles, fuel and road use, including relevant information on rebates and exemptions. A short analysis of the level of charges and expected future developments is included. Data are collected for nearly 30 countries. A brief discussion of similar taxes and charges in the United States, Canada and Australia is included as well. The VTI library is the source for most of the information on these countries. The first step was to prepare an inventory of existing taxes and charges. This inventory is based mainly on a questionnaire forwarded to the respective Ministries of Transport or the responsible government agencies. Other sources include websites for ministries and toll operators. These data are used to analyse the fiscal and territorial structure of the charges. In order to allow for comparisons of road freight taxation regimes in different countries, net taxation levels are calculated for a standard domestic haul. These results are then assessed per vehicle-km and per tonne-kilometre.
    Keywords: ddc:330
    Language: French
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  • 13
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    Kiel und Hamburg: ZBW - Deutsche Zentralbibliothek für Wirtschaftswissenschaften, Leibniz-Informationszentrum Wirtschaft
    Publication Date: 2016-08-25
    Description: L’objectif de cet article est d’analyser l’impact de la structure du capital sur la profitabilité. Nous montrons, à partir d’un échantillon de 1846 entreprises industrielles françaises prises sur la période 1999-2006, à l’aide d’une étude sur panel dynamique en utilisant la méthode des moments généralisée (GMM), que la structure du capital n’a aucune influence sur la profitabilité des entreprises industrielles françaises quelle que soit la taille de l’entreprise.
    Description: The objective of this article is to analyze the impact of capital structure on profitability. This impact can be explained by three essential theories: signaling theory, tax theory and the agency costs theory. A sample of 1846 French industrial firms are taken over the period 1999-2006, as a dynamic panel study by using the generalized method of moments (GMM). We show that capital structure has no influence on the profitability of French firms, regardless the size of the company.
    Keywords: C33 ; G32 ; L25 ; ddc:330 ; Structure du capital ; profitabilité ; GMM ; données de panel
    Language: French
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  • 14
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    Paris: Max Planck Sciences Po Center on Coping with Instability in Market Societies (MaxPo)
    Publication Date: 2016-12-20
    Description: Les supérieurs femmes promeuvent-elles une plus grande égalité salariale entre hommes et femmes ? Par ailleurs, même si elles voulaient promouvoir plus d'égalité, elles pourraient manquer de pouvoir, non seulement pour mettre en oeuvre cette politique mais aussi pour améliorer les salaires de l'ensemble de leurs subordonnés hommes comme femmes. En nous fondant sur l'enquête SalSa et l'enquête COI, nous montrons que les différentiels de salaires entre hommes et femmes sont effectivement plus faibles lorsque le supérieur est de sexe féminin. Cette position est toutefois associée à des salaires plus faibles pour l'ensemble des subordonnés. La faiblesse relative des salaires sous la supervision d'une femme peut être liée à des biais de sélection : les femmes deviendraient plus facilement des supérieures dans des secteurs, des métiers, des services moins valorisés, où les salaires sont plus faibles. Même en multipliant les contrôles des effets de sélection mesurables, les salariés qui ont un supérieur femme touchent 2,5 à 4 % de moins que ceux qui ont un supérieur homme. En revanche, même si le phénomène demande encore plus ample confirmation, cet écart de salaire en fonction du sexe du supérieur semble plus important lorsque le salarié est un homme que lorsqu'il est une femme. Sous l'encadrement d'une femme, les écarts hommes-femmes seraient de ce fait réduits de 30 % à 85 %. L'interprétation de ce phénomène n'en est encore qu'à ses débuts. Quatre pistes sont proposées : des différences inobservées entre les positions d'encadrement masculines et féminines, l'impact à position hiérarchique identique de caractéristiques individuelles corrélées au sexe du supérieur, la différence de disposition des hommes et des femmes vis-à-vis de la négociation et de la compétition, et enfin un comportement discriminatoire des entreprises à l'égard des demandes des femmes.
    Description: Do female supervisors promote greater wage equality between men and women? Although female supervisors might want to promote greater equality, might they also lack power, not only to implement this policy, but also to improve the wages of both male and female subordinates? Based on the SalSa and COI surveys, we show that female supervisors do seem to reduce the wage gap between men and women. However, the subordinates of female supervisors also receive lower wages. This phenomenon could be related to selection bias : women become supervisors more easily in sectors, jobs, and departments that are less valued and where wages are lower. Even when adding controls for measurable selection effects, employees with a female supervisor earn 2.5 % to 4 % less than those with a male supervisor. Although the phenomenon still needs additional confirmation, the wage gap between women and men does seem wider when employees are men (-5 % to -10 %) than when they are women (0 % to -3 %). When the supervisor is a woman, the gender gap significantly reduces: from 30 % to 85 %. Interpreting this phenomenon is still in its infancy. We put forward four lines of interpretation: the unobserved differences between male and female managerial positions; the effect of individual characteristics correlated with the supervisor's gender; differences between male and female dispositions to negotiation and competition; and, finally, discriminatory corporate behavior towards female demands.
    Keywords: ddc:330
    Language: French
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  • 15
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    Paris: Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD), International Transport Forum
    Publication Date: 2015-04-18
    Description: India's road network of over 4.1 million km is second largest in the world consisting of expressways, national highways, state highways, major district roads and other roads. These roads carry about 65 per cent of freight and 80 per cent of passenger traffic. National highways constitute only 1.7 per cent of the road network, but carry about 40 per cent of the total road traffic. Road Transport has emerged as the dominant segment in India's transportation sector with a share of 4.7% in India's GDP in 2009-10. The number of vehicles on Indian roads has been growing at an average pace of 10.16% per annum over the last five years. Hence, development of road network assumes paramount importance in the context of a rapidly growing economy.
    Keywords: ddc:330 ; Autobahn ; Öffentlich-private Partnerschaft ; Indien
    Language: French
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  • 16
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    Paris: Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD), International Transport Forum
    Publication Date: 2015-04-18
    Description: This report is based on discussions at an International Transport Forum Roundtable1 convened in September 2012 to review experience with the regulation of public private partnerships (PPPs) in the transport sector. Conclusions from the debate are developed with reference to the literature, particularly in relation to managing the risks associated with forecasting traffic. The report focuses on actuarial, structural and behavioural approaches to improving the regulation of PPPs and containing liabilities created by PPPs for public finance. It also examines the potential for private financing of infrastructure by treating packages of transport projects as regulated utilities. The report aims to clarify the objectives of PPPs, their impact on public finance and the different types of risk that need to be managed.
    Keywords: ddc:330 ; Verkehrsinfrastruktur ; Öffentlich-private Partnerschaft ; Regulierung
    Language: French
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  • 17
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    Paris: Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD), International Transport Forum
    Publication Date: 2015-04-18
    Description: In most industrialised countries, it can be seen that urban mobility and car traffic have stagnated since the early 2000s. In France, the report on traffic conducted by the National Transport Accounts Commission shows a similar break in the trend, which was confirmed by household travel surveys (EMDs) in most major cities, including Lille, Lyon and Strasbourg, and later by the National Transport and Travel Survey (ENTD), which shows that the trend can be attributed primarily to people living in large urban areas and provides an overall view of mobility: trips have become less frequent (with unbroken workdays) and less exclusively taken by car (as more young adults adopt multimodal behaviours), and car ownership is decreasing in the centre of greater Paris, as, for that matter, in the centre of London. Does this levelling-off of traffic suggest that the saturation point is near (with a decoupling of traffic and income trends in the most densely populated areas or above a certain standard of living) or, rather, a cancelling out of opposite trends (continued growth in rural and suburban areas and decline amongst residents of the most densely populated areas)? Is this a structural phenomenon (population ageing, etc.) or a cyclical one linked to rising and volatile fuel prices and the recession? We shall explore these issues in the light of data collected in France, supplemented by selected data from other developed countries, and then move on to a comparison with a number of Mexican cities in order to consider the extent to which, and in what timeframe, these trends could spread southward to the emerging economies.
    Keywords: ddc:330
    Language: French
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  • 18
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    Paris: Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD), International Transport Forum
    Publication Date: 2015-04-18
    Description: This paper briefly discusses inter-modal coordination of transport services from a perspective of what could be called "diversity-based mobility policy". It examines the framework conditions for inter-modal competition and coordination under an approach to transport policy making that reflects the broad variety of mobility needs and aspirations in market economies and reflects the social opportunity costs of alternative ways of addressing the demand for mobility. The paper discusses integrated land-use planning and transport policy making, the importance of institutional frameworks for integrated transport planning and the fiscal framework for inter-modal competition, including in relation to external costs. Competition for resources between freight and passenger services is considered as well as truly inter-modal issues. The paper was prepared for the National Transport Development Policy Committee of the Government of India following a Workshop in Delhi in February 2012, supported by the World Bank, Ausaid and the International Transport Forum. At the request of the Committee the paper focuses mainly on transport policy making in Europe but it also draws on experience in Japan, Russia and North America.
    Keywords: ddc:330
    Language: French
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  • 19
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    Paris: Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD), International Transport Forum
    Publication Date: 2015-04-18
    Description: This paper discusses the initiatives and procedures necessary for the successful development of large-scale transportation PPP projects from a developer's point of view. The topics covered in this paper include: -Project Procurement, -Proper Risk Allocation, -Direct Investments by Pension Funds, et al.
    Keywords: ddc:330
    Language: French
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  • 20
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    Kiel und Hamburg: ZBW - Deutsche Zentralbibliothek für Wirtschaftswissenschaften, Leibniz-Informationszentrum Wirtschaft
    Publication Date: 2016-08-26
    Description: Cet article a pour objectif d’analyser l’effet de l’endettement sur la profitabilité. Cet effet peut être expliqué par trois théories essentielles: la théorie du signal, la théorie de l’agence et l’influence de la fiscalité. L’échantillon se compose d’un panel de 1078 entreprises françaises, non cotées, de type anonymes et de SARL, appartenant au secteur de la construction sur la période 1999-2006. Nous montrons, en utilisant la méthode des moments généralisée (MMG), que l’endettement affecte négativement la profitabilité, non seulement linéairement, mais aussi, de façon non linéaire (concave). Cependant, en détaillant l’analyse selon différentes classe de taille, nous constatons que l’effet négatif linéaire et l’effet non linéaire ne sont significatifs que dans les petites et moyennes entreprises (PME).
    Description: This article aims to analyze the effect of debt on the profitability. This impact can be explained by three essential theories: signaling theory, the agency costs theory and tax theory. The sample consists of a panel of 1,078 French firms, unlisted, anonymous type and Limited Liability Company; belonging to the construction sector over the period 1999-2006. We show, by using the generalized method of moments (GMM), that the debt affects negatively the profitability, not only linearly, but also, in a non-linear (concave) way. However, by detailing the analysis according to different class of size, we find that the linear negative effect and the non-linear effect are significant only in small and medium-sized enterprises (SME).
    Keywords: C33 ; G32 ; L25 ; ddc:330 ; Endettement ; Profitabilité ; Données de panel ; GMM
    Language: French
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  • 21
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    Kiel und Hamburg: ZBW - Deutsche Zentralbibliothek für Wirtschaftswissenschaften, Leibniz-Informationszentrum Wirtschaft
    Publication Date: 2016-08-25
    Description: L’objectif de cet article est d’analyser l’impact de la structure du capital sur la profitabilité. Cet impact peut être expliqué par trois théories essentielles: la théorie du signal, l’influence de la fiscalité et la théorie de l’agence. Nous montrons, à partir d’un échantillon de 9136 entreprises réparties sur sept secteurs prises sur la période 1999-2006, à l’aide d’une étude sur panel dynamique en utilisant la méthode des moments généralisée (GMM), qu’il y a une hétérogénéité des comportements entre les secteurs en ce qui concerne l’effet de la structure du capital sur la profitabilité. L’analyse empirique a permis de distinguer trois groupes différents de secteurs: pour le premier groupe (l’industrie, l’énergie et le service), la structure du capital n’a aucune incidence sur la profitabilité. Le deuxième groupe ne contient que le secteur de transport, c’est le groupe où l’endettement affecte négativement la profitabilité de manière linéaire. Le dernier groupe (l’agro alimentaire, la construction et le commerce) se caractérise par la présence d’un effet négatif de façon linéaire et non linéaire
    Description: The objective of this article is to analyze the impact of capital structure on profitability. This impact can be explained by three essential theories: signaling theory, tax theory and the agency costs theory. From a sample of 9136 firms distributed on seven sectors taken over the period 1999-2006 by means of a study on dynamic panel by using the generalized method of moments (GMM), we show that there exists heterogeneity of behavior between sectors regarding the impact of capital structure on profitability. The empirical analysis allowed us to distinguish three different groups of sectors: for the first group (industry, energy and service), the capital structure has no impact on profitability. The second group, containing only the transport sector, is the group where the debt affects negatively the profitability in a linear way. The last group (agro-food, construction and trade) is characterized by the presence of a negative effect in a linear and nonlinear way
    Keywords: C33 ; G32 ; L25 ; ddc:330 ; Structure du capital ; profitabilité ; GMM ; données de panel
    Language: French
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  • 22
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    Paris: Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD), International Transport Forum
    Publication Date: 2015-04-18
    Description: In early 2011, the Netherlands Institute for Transport Policy Analysis performed a mobility analysis, focussing on recent trends. This analysis showed that, following the remarkable growth in the 1980s and 1990s, the total national mobility of people in the Netherlands has not increased since 2005. This particularly appears to apply to car use. Except for the economic crisis around 2008/2009, the reasons for this development remained unclear at the time. Based on further analyses of the developments in mobility over the last 10 years and some findings from other countries, the following four hypotheses related to the apparent stabilisation of car use were formulated and investigated in further research: …
    Keywords: ddc:330
    Language: French
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  • 23
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    Kiel und Hamburg: ZBW - Deutsche Zentralbibliothek für Wirtschaftswissenschaften, Leibniz-Informationszentrum Wirtschaft
    Publication Date: 2016-08-26
    Description: Cet article a pour objectif d’élargir le champ de la connaissance empirique sur l’impact de l’endettement sur la profitabilité des entreprises. Nous analysons un échantillon de 568 entreprises françaises non cotées, de secteur d’Agro-alimentaires, observées sur la période entre 1999 et 2006. Nous montrons, en utilisant la méthode des moments généralisée (GMM), que l’endettement affecte négativement sur la profitabilité, mais cet effet est faible et parfois non significatif selon le ratio de profitabilité utilisé (Prof1, Prof2 ou ROA). De plus, nous trouvons une relation non linéaire (une courbe concave) de l’impact de la dette sur la profitabilité, mais, cet impact non linéaire n’est significatif que dans les toutes petites entreprises (TPE).
    Description: This article aims to expand existing empirical knowledge on the impact of debt level on profitability of companies. We analyze a sample of 568 unlisted French companies (Agro-food sector) spanning over a period of 1999 to 2006. We show, by using the generalized method of moments (GMM), that debt affects negatively on the profitability, but this effect is negligible and sometimes insignificant according to the ratio of profitability used (Prof1, Prof2 or ROA). Furthermore, we find existence of non-linear relationship (concave curve) between level of debt and profitability, but this non-linear impact is validated only in the case of very small enterprises.
    Keywords: C33 ; G32 ; L25 ; ddc:330 ; Données de panel ; Endettement ; GMM ; Profitabilité
    Language: French
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  • 24
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    Paris: Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD), International Transport Forum
    Publication Date: 2015-04-18
    Description: This paper examines the issue of financing infrastructure investment projects. It looks closely at what the market failures are that mean the private sector has not been able to cover the investment requirement itself. It will then assess the government failures associated with intervention, and identifies what public-private partnerships (PPPs) offer in overcoming these failures. The limitations of the PPPs are then addressed, and the regulated asset base (RAB) model is introduced as a potential alternative, with an assessment of its advantages and disadvantages.
    Keywords: ddc:330
    Language: French
    Type: doc-type:workingPaper
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  • 25
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    Paris: Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD), International Transport Forum
    Publication Date: 2015-04-18
    Description: Road networks are important lifelines for modern societies. Social prosperity and economic development are directly related to mobility and accessibility of communities and are, therefore, highly dependent upon the existence of high quality road networks. Currently, roadways are the dominant mode of transport, particularly in developed countries. In Europe for instance, over 75% of ground freight transportation is by road, while road passenger transport exceeds 80% (Eurostat, 2012). According to Urban Audit (Urban Audit, 2012), private vehicle usage for work related journeys in major European cities exceeds 40% in most cases, while the same figure for US cities is over 70%. Further, despite worldwide efforts for promoting sustainability and environmentally 'friendly' modes, road users tend to increase on a global scale, as developing countries gradually enter the world of motorization (Pucher et al., 2007).
    Keywords: ddc:330
    Language: French
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  • 26
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    Paris: Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD), International Transport Forum
    Publication Date: 2015-04-18
    Description: In 1993, the British government turned to the private sector to finance much needed investment in public infrastructure and manage services under its Public Private Partnerships (PPP) policy (Edwards et al., 2004), with transport forming by far the largest component by value of the PPP programme. (...)
    Keywords: ddc:330
    Language: French
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  • 27
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    Karlsruhe: Fraunhofer ISI
    Publication Date: 2014-09-08
    Keywords: ddc:330 ; Regionale Konzentration
    Language: French
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  • 28
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    Paris: Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD), International Transport Forum
    Publication Date: 2015-04-18
    Description: The purpose of this Round Table is to assess the economic effects of major transport infrastructure projects. The term "major projects" is used to designate qualitative leaps, be it the mapping out of new road or rail rings to link disparate radial penetration routes or the introduction of more-targeted innovations tackling frequency, speed or automation. (...)
    Keywords: ddc:330
    Language: French
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  • 29
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    Paris: Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD), International Transport Forum
    Publication Date: 2015-04-18
    Description: Cost-benefit analysis (CBA) is widely recognized to be helpful, even indispensible, for making good decisions on what transport projects to fund. It essentially aims to figure out which projects offer the best value for money, one of the core criteria for making decisions. However, the practical relevance of cost-benefit analysis does not always live up to its appeal in principle. One problem is that there is disagreement about what to include in both the costs and the benefits side of the analysis, so that value for money is not always a fully transparent concept. A second problem is that value for money is only a partial criterion for decision-making, leading to disagreement about the relative importance of the results from CBA compared to other inputs into the decision-making process. Discussions at the Roundtable aimed to shed light on these conceptual problems by analysing the practice of CBA and comparing approaches to it in different countries. In short the aim was to identify a checklist of items that should be included in a socially relevant cost-benefit analysis, i.e. analysis that can be produced in reasonable time and at reasonable cost but is good enough to help resolve trade-offs.
    Keywords: ddc:330
    Language: French
    Type: doc-type:workingPaper
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  • 30
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    Paris: Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD), International Transport Forum
    Publication Date: 2015-04-18
    Description: Good transport services contribute strongly to the productivity of an economy and extend the range of activities accessible to consumers. Good services require adequate infrastructure and reasonable usage conditions to that infrastructure. Much transport infrastructure is capital intensive and lumpy. Such cost structures imply that there will be few service providers. In some circumstances the structure of costs and technology is such that economic regulation is the best way to drive efficient outcomes. Achieving the right governance structures - including the question of when to regulate and how to regulate - is central to performance of the sector and the subject of this paper, which summarises discussions at a Roundtable held in December 2010.
    Keywords: ddc:330
    Language: French
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  • 31
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    Paris: Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD), International Transport Forum
    Publication Date: 2015-04-18
    Description: While greater account is increasingly being taken of gender in a variety of areas, little progress has been made in this respect in the transport sector. In both developed and developing countries, our societies are gendered in that women and men play different roles, notably because household chores and children are mainly the preserve of women, which reduces the time they have available for activities for which they are responsible and for the trips they need to make in order to perform these activities.
    Keywords: ddc:330
    Language: French
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  • 32
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    Paris: Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD), International Transport Forum
    Publication Date: 2015-04-18
    Description: We propose a series of kick-off points related to the economic appraisal of large urban infrastructure projects, taking some account of the specifics raised by the Grand Paris Express (GPE) regional automatic metro. The points, in the form of Maintained Hypotheses or Questions in Need of Answers, are crystallised around three orientations: demand model properties; overall effects on urbanisation; extensions of traditional appraisal. The conclusion contains a list of hard problems dodged and issues ignored in the discussion.
    Keywords: ddc:330
    Language: French
    Type: doc-type:workingPaper
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  • 33
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    Paris: Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD), International Transport Forum
    Publication Date: 2015-04-18
    Description: Cost benefit analysis has been used in the United Kingdom for the appraisal of road schemes over the past fifty years. It was less widely used for rail, where most investment was concerned with renewing the existing network. The Central London Rail Study (1988) used cost benefit analysis to address the problem of overcrowding on London's rail network. The Crossrail scheme proposed in the Study was discontinued because of a recession and because of the priority given the developing links to London's Docklands. Progress on Crossrail was resumed in 2002 at the same time as the Department's appraisal methods were being revised to incorporate Wider Economic Benefits. The quantification of these additional benefits, the resolution of a source of funding and the role of the Mayor all influenced the Government's decision that the scheme should be built. Identification of some of the Wider Benefits poses problems for transport models that are only partially resolved through the use of land use transport interaction models. Although the use of a Gross Value Added metric provides an alternative way of estimating the economic impacts of a scheme, it does not replace cost benefit analysis as a decision aid for government ministers.
    Keywords: ddc:330
    Language: French
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  • 34
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    Ottawa: Banque du Canada
    Publication Date: 2014-08-15
    Description: L’évolution de la croissance de l’économie mondiale joue un rôle crucial dans la conduite de la politique monétaire canadienne. À cet égard, les auteurs étudient l’utilité des indices mensuels des directeurs d’achats (PMI) pour la prévision de la croissance du PIB réel à court terme de la zone euro, du Japon, du Royaume-Uni, de la Chine, ainsi que de l’économie mondiale. Les indices PMI mensuels ont comme principal avantage d’être diffusés très rapidement comparativement aux données trimestrielles des comptes nationaux et aux autres indicateurs mensuels. L’objectif des auteurs consiste à déterminer si en plus de leur rapidité de diffusion, ces indices comportent de l’information permettant de prévoir la croissance du PIB réel, au-delà de celle contenue dans d’autres indicateurs généralement suivis. Pour ce faire, ils utilisent des modèles indicateurs simples et vérifient si l’inclusion des indices PMI permet d’améliorer les prévisions intra-échantillon et hors échantillon. Les auteurs concluent que les indices PMI ont un caractère statistiquement significatif et que leur prise en compte améliore considérablement la qualité des prévisions pour toutes les économies.
    Description: The forecast of world economic growth plays a key role in the conduct of Canadian monetary policy. In this context, the authors study the usefulness of the monthly Purchasing Managers' Indexes (PMIs) in predicting short-term real GDP growth in the euro area, Japan, the United Kingdom, and China, as well as in the world economy. The main advantage of the PMIs lies in the timeliness of their releases compared to that of quarterly national accounts data and other related monthly indicators. The authors' goal is to assess whether PMIs can help predict real GDP growth at the margin of other traditional monthly indicators (on top of the advantage related to their timeliness). To that end, the authors build simple indicator models and verify whether the addition of PMIs improves the in- and out-of-sample predictions. For all economies, PMIs turn out to be significant explanatory variables and to substantially improve the accuracy of predictions.
    Keywords: E37 ; F47 ; ddc:330 ; Business fluctuations and cycles ; International topics ; Cycles et fluctuations économiques ; Questions internationales ; Wirtschaftsprognose ; Wirtschaftswachstum ; Sozialprodukt ; Indexierung ; Konjunktur ; Industriestaaten
    Language: French
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  • 35
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    Geneva: International Centre for Trade and Sustainable Development (ICTSD)
    Publication Date: 2013-03-08
    Description: L'étude expose une vision commune sur des questions qui pourraient constituer des obstacles sanitaires, phytosanitaires et techniques dans les APE et examine dans quelle mesure un recours abusif à ces dispositions pourrait être un obstacle à l'accès au marché. L'étude promeut également le partage d'expérience entre différentes régions ACP en termes d'établissement des positions de négociation. Les questions couvertes comprennent : Les disciplines dans les APE sur des obstacles traditionnels à l'accès au marché, notamment les droits tarifaires et les contingents ; Les dispositions qui prennent en compte les obstacles non-traditionnels au commerce dans les accords de l'OMC et dans les divers APE ; Les réglementations et normes techniques et les procédures d'évaluation de la conformité ; Les mesures sanitaires et phytosanitaires ; La relation entre les règles des APE sur les obstacles non-traditionnels au commerce et celles qui figurent dans les accords de l'OMC.
    Keywords: ddc:330
    Language: French
    Type: doc-type:report
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  • 36
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    Paris: OECD/ITF Joint Transport Research Centre
    Publication Date: 2015-04-18
    Keywords: ddc:330
    Language: French
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  • 37
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    Paris: OECD/ITF Joint Transport Research Centre
    Publication Date: 2015-04-18
    Keywords: ddc:330
    Language: French
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  • 38
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    Geneva: International Centre for Trade and Sustainable Development (ICTSD)
    Publication Date: 2016-12-12
    Description: L'étude du Dr. Cosmas Milton Obote Ochieng, intitulé "Questions juridiques et systémiques dans les Accords de partenariat économique: Quelle voie suivre à présent?" propose une analyse légale de certaines questions clés sur la relation entre l'OMC et les APE. Voici quelques une de ces questions : L'application de la clause de la nation la plus favorisée, l'article XXIV du GATT et son lien avec les APE; Les effets de la clause de statu quo sur les taux tarifaires appliqués aux pays ACP par les membres de l'OMC; Les effets politiques et juridiques de la clause de non exécuti on dans les APE; L'articulation des mécanismes de règlements de différends de l'APE et de leurs interactions avec celui de l'OMC; Le document se termine par une série de recommandations d'ordre juridique qui pourraient être utiles à tous les intervenants dans la compréhension des enjeux des négociations des APE.
    Keywords: ddc:330
    Language: French
    Type: doc-type:report
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  • 39
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    Paris: La Documentation Française
    Publication Date: 2016-12-19
    Description: The Franco-German Ministerial Council decided on February 4, 2010 to ask the French Conseil d’Analyse Économique (CAE) and the German Council of Economic Experts (GCEE) to follow-up on the outcome of the “Commission on the Measurement of Economic Performance and Social Progress” (Stiglitz-Sen-Fitoussi Commission, or SSFC). The corresponding report of the CAE and GCEE discusses how comprehensiveness and accuracy of an indicator set might be traded off optimally with parsimony and cost to provide a reliable basis for regular, timely and digestible reporting on three key issues regarding economic performance, quality of life and sustainability.
    Keywords: ddc:330
    Language: French
    Type: doc-type:report
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  • 40
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    Paris: Presses de Sciences Po
    Publication Date: 2018-01-25
    Description: Comment s’articulent la question des inégalités sociales et de leur évolution et la question des modes de participation développés par les descendants de migrants au sein de cadres nationaux spécifiques aux niveaux historique, culturel, institutionnel et structurel ? Cet article se fonde sur l’exploitation de deux grandes enquêtes (l’enquête Étude de l’histoire familiale pour la France et le Panel socio-économique pour l’Allemagne) pour montrer que les modes de participation à l’école et au marché du travail des descendants de migrants turcs en Allemagne et maghrébins en France sont contrastés. En effet, le handicap ne se cristallise pas au même moment au cours de leurs trajectoires. Les descendants de migrants turcs sont exclus dès l’école (mise à distance sociale par la relégation) alors que l’exclusion des descendants de migrants maghrébins intervient à leur entrée sur le marché du travail (mise à distance sociale par la discrimination). Après la présentation des résultats, cet article aborde dans une perspective plus théorique ces deux logiques sociales et les mécanismes qui les sous-tendent.
    Description: How do social inequalities and changes in those inequalities fit with the ways that descendants of immigrants participate in their given national frameworks at the historical, cultural, institutional and structural levels ? Analysis of two major surveys (France’s “Study of family history” [Étude de l’histoire familiale] and Germany’s “Socio-economic panel” [SOEP]) brings to light a contrast between descendants of Turkish immigrants in Germany and descendants of North African immigrants in France in connection with schooling and the labor market. The disadvantage that these two groups are at does not crystallize at the same point in their trajectories : Turkish immigrants’ descendants undergo exclusion relatively early, at the level of schooling (social distancing through relegation), whereas North African immigrants’ descendants get excluded when they arrive on the labor market (social distancing through discrimination). After presentation of the results, these two social dynamics and the mechanisms underlying them are discussed from a more theoretical perspective.
    Keywords: ddc:300 ; Migranten ; Soziale Integration ; Vergleich ; Deutschland ; Frankreich
    Language: French
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  • 41
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    Paris: OECD/ITF Joint Transport Research Centre
    Publication Date: 2015-04-18
    Keywords: ddc:330
    Language: French
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  • 42
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    Paris: OECD/ITF Joint Transport Research Centre
    Publication Date: 2015-04-18
    Keywords: ddc:330
    Language: French
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  • 43
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    Paris: OECD/ITF Joint Transport Research Centre
    Publication Date: 2015-04-18
    Keywords: ddc:330
    Language: French
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  • 44
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    Paris: OECD/ITF Joint Transport Research Centre
    Publication Date: 2015-04-18
    Keywords: ddc:330
    Language: French
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  • 45
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    Paris: OECD/ITF Joint Transport Research Centre
    Publication Date: 2015-04-18
    Keywords: ddc:330
    Language: French
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  • 46
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    Ottawa: Banque du Canada
    Publication Date: 2014-08-15
    Description: The author constructs a formal analytic framework to simulate the impact of various economic shocks on the household debt-service ratio, using data from the Canadian Financial Monitor (CFM) survey. The impact of these shocks on individual households depends on the socio-economic characteristics of the latter. The framework also allows consideration of both symmetric and asymmetric shocks to incomes. The author's work is original in several respects: it captures the heterogeneity of the impact of these shocks on households, it uses cross-sectional data to estimate credit-growth equations, and it determines household credit growth based on income, interest rates, and housing prices. To illustrate the usefulness of his approach, the author provides income, debt, and interest rate scenarios, and then simulates his model over twelve periods. This methodology can, of course, be used with other microdata.
    Keywords: C15 ; C31 ; D14 ; E51 ; ddc:330 ; Econometric and statistical methods ; Financial stability ; Finanzmarkt ; Preisniveaustabilität ; Statistische Methode ; Ökonometrie
    Language: French
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  • 47
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    Paris: OECD/ITF Joint Transport Research Centre
    Publication Date: 2015-04-18
    Keywords: ddc:330
    Language: French
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  • 48
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    Paris: OECD/ITF Joint Transport Research Centre
    Publication Date: 2015-04-18
    Keywords: ddc:330
    Language: French
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  • 49
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    Nairobi: African Economic Research Consortium (AERC)
    Publication Date: 2014-03-12
    Description: Ce papier examine les grandes caractéristiques, tendances et évolutions dans les principales relations par le truchement desquelles les répercussions de la croissance de la Chine atteignent la Guinée. Il recommande que des données probabantes soient reunies pour susciter le dialogue sur les politiques de l’offre au niveau de la Guinée afin d’aborder les mesures qui devraient être prises pour réagir à la montée de la Chine et de manière à favoriser le développement socio-économique de la Guinée.
    Keywords: F10 ; F14 ; ddc:330 ; Avantage Comparatif ; Commerce ; Aide ; Investissement ; Chine ; Guinée
    Language: French
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  • 50
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    Nairobi: African Economic Research Consortium (AERC)
    Publication Date: 2014-03-12
    Keywords: ddc:330 ; Internationale Wirtschaftsbeziehungen ; China ; Kongo (Demokratische Republik)
    Language: French
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  • 51
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    Nairobi: African Economic Research Consortium (AERC)
    Publication Date: 2014-03-12
    Keywords: ddc:330 ; Internationale Wirtschaftsbeziehungen ; China ; Tschad
    Language: French
    Type: doc-type:workingPaper
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  • 52
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    Nairobi: African Economic Research Consortium (AERC)
    Publication Date: 2014-03-12
    Keywords: ddc:330 ; Internationale Wirtschaftsbeziehungen ; China ; Elfenbeinküste
    Language: French
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  • 53
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    Nairobi: African Economic Research Consortium (AERC)
    Publication Date: 2014-03-12
    Keywords: ddc:330 ; Internationale Wirtschaftsbeziehungen ; China ; Madagaskar
    Language: French
    Type: doc-type:workingPaper
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  • 54
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    Paris: OECD/ITF Joint Transport Research Centre
    Publication Date: 2015-04-18
    Keywords: ddc:330
    Language: French
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  • 55
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    Paris: OECD/ITF Joint Transport Research Centre
    Publication Date: 2015-04-18
    Keywords: ddc:330 ; Terrorismus ; Kosten-Nutzen-Analyse
    Language: French
    Type: doc-type:workingPaper
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  • 56
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    Paris: OECD/ITF Joint Transport Research Centre
    Publication Date: 2015-04-18
    Keywords: ddc:330 ; Infrastrukturinvestition ; Verkehrsträgerwettbewerb ; Hochgeschwindigkeitsverkehr ; Kosten-Nutzen-Analyse ; Europa
    Language: French
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  • 57
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    Göttingen: Georg-August-Universität Göttingen, Volkswirtschaftliches Seminar
    Publication Date: 2017-07-28
    Description: This study by order of the Gesellschaft für Technische Zusammenarbeit (GTZ) provides an overview of the SME definition and the system of SME statistics in the European Union. The European SME definition is particularly examined with respect to the inclusion of specific groups such as the crafts as well as the professions. This serves as a basis for analysing the institutional design of the European SME statistics and the practical problems of collecting data at the national level. The analysis of the statistical system focuses both on the application of the European SME definition as well as the question in how far the whole population of European SME is represented in the existing statistics. Where necessary, the German case serves as an example to illustrate practical problems and national particularities.
    Keywords: C80 ; H83 ; ddc:330 ; SME ; SME definition ; SME statistics ; EU ; crafts ; the professions
    Language: French
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  • 58
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    Nairobi: African Economic Research Consortium (AERC)
    Publication Date: 2014-03-12
    Keywords: ddc:330 ; Internationale Wirtschaftsbeziehungen ; China ; Mali
    Language: French
    Type: doc-type:workingPaper
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  • 59
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    Paris: OECD/ITF Joint Transport Research Centre
    Publication Date: 2015-04-18
    Keywords: ddc:330
    Language: French
    Type: doc-type:workingPaper
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  • 60
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    Paris: OECD/ITF Joint Transport Research Centre
    Publication Date: 2015-04-18
    Keywords: ddc:330 ; Flughafen ; Fluggesellschaft ; Lieferantenmanagement
    Language: French
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  • 61
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    Marburg: Univ., Fachbereich Wirtschaftswiss.
    Publication Date: 2010-02-13
    Description: In this paper, German federalism is analysed with respect to its implications for public spending and revenue. Since the Second World War, taxing and spending competencies in Germany have become more and more centralised. This is demonstrated with respect to (1) changes of the power to tax, (2) the important territorial reforms, and (3) the increase of the federal influence on spending of sub-federal jurisdictions. In addition, the fiscal equalization system between jurisdictions is too egalitarian and the effects of German fiscal federalism on regional development are disastrous. Compared to unitary states with a powerful central government, this kind of cooperative federalism has the disadvantage of a federal state which cannot often decide anything without the consent of the states. Consequently, many reforms are blocked in the struggle between Bundestag and Bundesrat. It appears that only the introduction of fiscal competition between the states is able to improve economic policy in Germany.
    Keywords: ddc:330 ; Finanzföderalismus ; Finanzausgleich ; Deutschland
    Language: French
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  • 62
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    Hannover: Verlag der ARL - Akademie für Raumforschung und Landesplanung
    Publication Date: 2015-04-27
    Keywords: ddc:330
    Language: French
    Type: doc-type:bookPart
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  • 63
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    Marburg: Univ., Fachbereich Wirtschaftswiss.
    Publication Date: 2010-02-13
    Description: L’Etat fédéral suisse est l’un des pays dont le pouvoir fiscal est le plus décentralisé. Cette décentralisation se vérifie particulièrement dans le cadre des impôts sur le revenu et la fortune des personnes physiques d’une part et, celui des impôts sur le bénéfice net et le capital des personnes morales d’autre part. En conséquence, de fortes disparités de charges fiscales sur les personnes physiques et morales sont observées entre les cantons et les communes. Les résultats empiriques ont permis de vérifier l’existence de concurrence fiscale horizontale entre les niveaux de gouvernement sous-nationaux suisses. Cependant, cette concurrence ne semble pas avoir de conséquences négatives ni en termes de fourniture des services publics, ni en termes de redistribution des ressources par l’Etat. En outre, le développement régional ne parait pas être négativement affecté par cette concurrence fiscale.
    Keywords: ddc:330 ; Finanzföderalismus ; Steuerwettbewerb ; Regionale Entwicklung ; Schweiz
    Language: French
    Type: doc-type:workingPaper
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    Mannheim: Zentrum für Europäische Wirtschaftsforschung (ZEW)
    Publication Date: 2016-11-18
    Description: La première affirmation résume de manière péremptoire la description d'une France où le quart de la population active travaillerait pour un service public pléthorique incapable de se réformer, où les salaires sont fixés par une grille rigide et le statut « privilégié », une France où le travailleur et le citoyen seraient surprotégés par des législations du travail et sociale généreuses mais étouffantes. Pourtant la France vient de vivre une période (1998-2001) pendant laquelle 400.000 emplois par an furent créés, malgré une croissance, certes élevée, mais non exceptionnelle. Cette performance macroéconomique, la meilleure en Europe après l'Espagne, n'a eu de précédent en France que lors de circonstances particulières : 7% de croissance en 1969, année de l'après mai 1968 et d'une importante dévaluation et 1963, année suivant la fin de la guerre et le rapatriement des réfugiés d'Algérie (Pisani-Ferry, 2000). La phrase polémique du Président de la République se base sur un rapport de la Commission Européenne plaçant la France au douzième rang en terme de richesse par habitant dans l'Union Européenne. Toutefois un rapport de l'OCDE indique que la richesse produite par heure de travail par l'actif français est la plus élevée au monde. La contradiction n'est ici qu'apparente. D'une part la France fait preuve d'un certain dynamisme démographique. D'autre part le Français arrive tardivement sur le marché de l'emploi et part précocement à la retraite. De plus le contingent d'heures travaillées annuel est relativement faible.
    Keywords: ddc:330 ; Arbeitsmarktpolitik ; Sozialpolitik ; Beschäftigungspolitik ; Frankreich
    Language: French
    Type: doc-type:report
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    Göttingen: Ibero-Amerika-Inst. für Wirtschaftsforschung
    Publication Date: 2014-11-17
    Description: Du fait du manque de données de panel, il existe peu d’études sur la dynamique de la pauvreté dans les pays en développement. De plus, il est difficile d’en tirer des conclusions générales en raison des différences méthodologiques entre elles. Notre étude sur la dynamique de la pauvreté urbaine à Madagascar et au Pérou est basée sur un large panel de ménages couvrant la période 1997-1999. En appliquant des méthodes rigoureusement comparables dans les deux pays, nous cherchons à identifier les traits généraux et spécifiques de la pauvreté chronique et transitoire. L’importance des transitions de pauvreté, ainsi que les caractéristiques des ménages pauvres (de manière transitoire ou chronique), sont d’abord étudiées. A l’aide d’un modèle logit multinomial, on mesure ensuite la contribution à la pauvreté chronique et aux transitions de pauvreté (entrées/sorties) de trois groupes de variables : caractéristiques des ménages (démographiques, capital humain et physique) ; chocs subis par les ménages (démographiques et liés au marché du travail) ; variables géographiques liées au voisinage (fourniture de biens publics, niveau de revenu, capital humain et structure de l’emploi, etc.). Nos résultats infirment la thèse selon laquelle les chocs seraient la seule variable explicative des formes transitoires de pauvreté. Le mode d’entrée sur le marché du travail, ainsi que les caractéristiques du voisinage apparaissent également pertinentes pour l’analyse de la dynamique de la pauvreté. Nos résultats suggèrent que la dimension liée à l’inégalité spatiale mériterait d’être analysée dans les analyses sur les dynamiques de pauvreté et de revenus.
    Keywords: I32 ; D63 ; D31 ; ddc:330
    Language: French
    Type: doc-type:workingPaper
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    München: Ludwig-Maximilians-Universität München, Volkswirtschaftliche Fakultät
    Publication Date: 2015-02-17
    Description: This paper describes a two-sector demo-economic model (agricultural and non-agricultural sectors) applied to Europe and spanning the period from the neolithic agricultural revolution to the Industrial Revolution. The model describes the "incessant contest" between population growth and food production. As long as per capita agricultural output is above a critical minimum, the population is assumed to grow at a constant rate. When this output drops below the minimum, the population is subjected to random mortality "shocks" which lower the population until the production grows above the minimum. Society is thus in a "Malthusian trap". The average magnitude of the mortality crises is assumed to decrease as capital increases, which captures an increased "resistance" that comes with increased knowledge and technology. The slow accumulation of capital thus diminishes the severity of the mortality shocks; as a result both the population of the non-agricultural sector and capital grow sufficiently to bring about a permanent escape from the Malthusian trap, i.e. the Industrial Revolution.
    Keywords: N13 ; I12 ; ddc:330 ; Industrial Revolution ; Malthusian Trap
    Language: French
    Type: doc-type:workingPaper
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    Göttingen: Ibero-Amerika-Inst. für Wirtschaftsforschung
    Publication Date: 2014-11-17
    Description: Le développement considérable de l’enseignement qui caractérise le Pérou depuis le début du vingtième siècle suggère que l’accès à l’éducation scolaire est devenu plus égalitaire. Dans cet article, je cherche à savoir si réellement le développement a profité à tous de la même manière et s’il s’est accompagné d’une égalisation des opportunités scolaires. Pour cela, j’analyse l’évolution des inégalités sociales devant l’école tout au long du vingtième siècle en étudiant l’évolution du lien entre le niveau d’éducation des personnes et leur origine culturelle. Ensuite, j’examine si le relâchement de ce lien que l’on observe s’explique par une plus forte égalité d’opportunités scolaires ou s’il n’est que le résultat de l’allongement généralisé des études. Enfin, j’étudie quelles politiques publiques pourraient être conduites pour accroître l’égalité des chances devant l’école. L’originalité de cet article est de pouvoir aborder cette problématique pour un pays en développement grâce à la base de données exceptionnelle dont on dispose ici.
    Keywords: ddc:330
    Language: French
    Type: doc-type:workingPaper
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    Geneva: World Trade Organization (WTO)
    Publication Date: 2015-02-14
    Description: Cette étude de l'OMC explique les liens fondamentaux entre le commerce et le secteur financier, et les relations d'interdépendance entre les crises financières et le commerce.
    Description: This study by the WTO explains the basic links between trade and the financial sector, and how financial crises are interrelated with trade.
    Keywords: ddc:330
    Language: French
    Type: doc-type:report
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    Geneva: World Trade Organization (WTO)
    Publication Date: 2015-02-14
    Description: Le professeur Dan Ben-David de l'Université de Tel Aviv présente un examen approfondi des liens entre le commerce, la croissance économique et la disparité des revenus entre les pays. Le professeur L. Alan Winters de l'Université du Sussex décrit les divers moyens par lesquels le commerce peut influer sur les possibilités de revenu des personnes pauvres. Cette publication contient également un aperçu non technique des deux rapports d'experts.
    Description: Professor Dan Ben-David of Tel Aviv University takes an in-depth look at the linkages between trade, economic growth, and income disparity among nations. Professor L. Alan Winters of the University of Sussex discusses the various channels by which trade may affect the income opportunities of poor people. The publication also includes a non-technical overview of the two expert reports.
    Keywords: ddc:330
    Language: French
    Type: doc-type:report
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    Geneva: World Trade Organization (WTO)
    Publication Date: 2015-02-14
    Description: En s'appuyant sur cinq études de cas concernant l'agriculture intensive, la déforestation, le réchauffement de la planète, les pluies acides et la surpêche, elle montre que le commerce pourrait jouer un rôle positif dans la diffusion de technologies respectueuses de l'environnement dans le monde.
    Description: The study shows that trade could play a positive role in the diffusion of environment-friendly technologies around the world and is backed up by the five case studies on chemical-intensive agriculture, deforestation, global warming, acid rain, and overfishing.
    Keywords: ddc:330
    Language: French
    Type: doc-type:report
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    Geneva: World Trade Organization (WTO)
    Publication Date: 2015-02-14
    Description: Elle a pour but de donner des informations de base aux Membres de l'OMC qui sont en train de définir la ligne de conduite à adopter face à cette nouvelle forme d'échanges. Rédigée par une équipe d'économistes du Secrétariat de l'OMC, elle décrit la complexité ainsi que les avantages potentiels des échanges effectués par Internet, et met en évidence l'extraordinaire élargissement des possibilités qu'offre le commerce électronique, y compris aux pays en développement.
    Description: The study was written as a means of providing background information for the 132 WTO members who are now developing policy responses to this new form of commerce. Written by a team of economists from the WTO Secretariat, it identifies the complexities as well as the potential benefits of trade via the Internet. The book describes the extraordinary expansion of opportunities that electronic commerce offers, including for developing countries.
    Keywords: ddc:330
    Language: French
    Type: doc-type:report
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    Geneva: World Trade Organization (WTO)
    Publication Date: 2015-02-14
    Description: Cette publication porte sur certaines des questions soulevées dans les négociations sur les services financiers; les auteurs analysent les enjeux et évaluent les résultats obtenus par les Membres de l'OMC dans des négociations antérieures.
    Description: This publication explores some of the issues surrounding the financial services negotiations, analyzes what is at stake, and assesses what WTO members have already achieved in previous negotiations.
    Keywords: ddc:330
    Language: French
    Type: doc-type:report
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    Bern ; Stuttgart ; Wien: Verlag Paul Haupt
    Publication Date: 2016-11-24
    Keywords: ddc:300 ; Mediation ; Bundesrepublik Deutschland ; Umweltpolitik ; Konfliktbewältigung ; Verhandlung ; Niedersachsen ; Nordrhein-Westfalen
    Language: German , French
    Type: doc-type:bookPart
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    Luxembourg: Luxembourg Income Study (LIS)
    Publication Date: 2017-05-30
    Keywords: ddc:330
    Language: French
    Type: doc-type:workingPaper
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    Berlin: Wissenschaftszentrum Berlin für Sozialforschung (WZB)
    Publication Date: 2016-11-24
    Keywords: ddc:330 ; Ökologie ; Ökonomie ; Umweltschutz ; Umweltpolitik ; Bundesrepublik Deutschland ; Japan ; Wirtschaftspolitik ; Sozialpolitik ; Arbeitslosigkeit ; Entwicklungsland ; Umweltbelastung
    Language: German , English , Spanish , French , Japanese
    Type: doc-type:book
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