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  • 1
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    Brasília: Instituto de Pesquisa Econômica Aplicada (IPEA)
    Publication Date: 2018-04-18
    Description: Integrating information for the purpose of articulating social protection policies is hard work. It takes from political will, to capacity for institutional cooperation, to software development and direct communication channels with citizens. Because of that complexity, countries that pursue this objective often cooperate to exchange knowledge and the Brazilian case of Cadastro Único (Single Registry), the backbone of some 20 social protection programs, is frequently cited as a success case of integration. By means of the Cadastro Único experience, this text debates some of the essential elements to constitute such instruments of social policy integration. Bringing to light some of the challenges that are still on the way, to fulfill the promise of greater integration amongst social protection programs, as well as provide greater ease of access and respect to citizens.
    Keywords: I38 ; ddc:330 ; Cadastro Único ; Bolsa Familia program ; Unified Registry ; Assistance ; Entitlements ; Family Allowances ; Food Stamp ; Means Testing ; Poverty Alleviation ; Public Assistance ; Safety Net ; Social Welfare Programs ; SSI ; Transfer Payments ; Transfers ; Welfare Effects ; Welfare Policy ; Welfare Program ; Welfare Provision ; Work Welfare
    Language: Portuguese
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  • 2
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    Brasília: Instituto de Pesquisa Econômica Aplicada (IPEA)
    Publication Date: 2018-04-18
    Description: The present study - descriptive - aimed to investigate federal funds through the management block of the National Health Fund (FNS). The analysis was conducted for all Brazilian municipalities, at the most disaggregated level: Action/Strategy/Service, but also at the Component level. The analysis contemplated the years 2013 to 2016, period or the term of the mayors elected in the 2012. The authors also developed a brief analysis of selected indicators of the budget cycle, for the year 2014. The analysis of the sublevels of the management block of the FNS indicates that there is a great number of actions related to psychosocial care. However, the action that is most geographically widespread is the Program for financing actions of feeding and nutrition. Among the other supported actions, there are many that have a small number of benefited municipalities and/or small values involved. The spatial analysis indicates that there is no concentration in richer regions. On the contrary, many municipalities from the North Region and from Maranhão - one of the poorest states - obtained transfers through the block. This geographical spread is due more because of the component of Implementation of health actions and services, than because of the component of Qualification of SUS's management.
    Keywords: H51 ; I18 ; H11 ; H41 ; ddc:330 ; National Health Fund ; financing ; Unified Health System ; federalism ; basic health care
    Language: Portuguese
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  • 3
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    Brasília: Instituto de Pesquisa Econômica Aplicada (IPEA)
    Publication Date: 2018-04-18
    Description: This paper was based on some previously delimited categories to guide a reflexive debate about the production on the institutionalized social participation in the scope of the public administration in Brazil. To that end, the analytical course was organized and developed around a new concept for a generic definition of these innovations in the field of democratic practice in the country, here called "participatory deliberation institutions" (PDI), each with its particular functional characteristics. For a better operationalization of this concept, the text is ordered from three analytical pairs: i) institutionalization and structural insertion of these innovations; ii) participation and representativeness; and iii) deliberation and effectiveness. On these pairs some arguments in the literature have been embedded and problematized in order to shed light on different issues that fall within this highly complex field, aiming also for a more precise detailing of the central characteristics in terms of the democratic advances and intrinsic contradictions found dispersed in the area debate. With this, it is believed that this text makes a relevant contribution to the mapping of the "master lines" of analysis on a field of practices that, despite the rich production already existing, still makes possible and even lacks other exploratory investigations, given the dynamism inherent in the very process of democratic consolidation.
    Keywords: Z18 ; ddc:330 ; participatory deliberation institutions ; social participation ; participatory democracy ; socio-state interfaces ; political project
    Language: Portuguese
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  • 4
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    Brasília: Instituto de Pesquisa Econômica Aplicada (IPEA)
    Publication Date: 2018-04-18
    Description: A subject that has gained prominence in the fields of political science and public administration is the Core of Government (CoG), that is, units and/or individuals responsible for the alignment and coordination of the main objectives of the president or first-minister. Although the topic has several names, a question still deserves to be better addressed: how do the planning, coordination and management of the Executive branch's priorities operate? However, the literature of CoG is still in early stage, especially in Brazil. In order to contribute to this debate, this paper develops a broad literature review with three primary goals: to present the concepts and findings of the international literature of core of government; to map the advances of the field of study of the Executive branch in Brazil and to indicate the future research agenda in the country. As a conclusion, the diversity of analytical strategies must be seen as constructive to the extent which there is a consensus that the frameworks' variations of the core of government are the rule, not the exception. In addition, the Brazilian case constitutes an excellent research laboratory on the Executive dynamics, due to its political-institutional particularities. Therefore, this research agenda tends to contribute to the description and explanation of how the political system operates and, above all, its effects on the decision-making processes and their outputs and outcomes in terms of public policies.
    Keywords: H83 ; ddc:330 ; core of government ; coordination ; Executive branch ; Brazil
    Language: Portuguese
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  • 5
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    Brasília: Instituto de Pesquisa Econômica Aplicada (IPEA)
    Publication Date: 2018-04-18
    Description: Since the 1930s, Labour Justice has played very important roles in resolving labour disputes in Brazil. Nonetheless, the question that arises today is whether that justice can (or even should) continue with those roles - or whether it is possible to conceive some alternatives, which involve active participation of workers' organizations. This doubt arises from the analysis of a set of evidences, which point to the difficulties of this justice in order to present reasonable solutions to labour conflicts.
    Keywords: K31 ; K40 ; K49 ; ddc:330 ; workers ; labour conflicts ; Labour Justice
    Language: Portuguese
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  • 6
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    Brasília: Instituto de Pesquisa Econômica Aplicada (IPEA)
    Publication Date: 2018-04-18
    Description: In the wake of the debates on Digitalized Finance, and updating some of its main findings regarding the prognoses of the Fourth Industrial Revolution, this paper presents an overview of recent developments, as well as the main tendencies of the process of digitalization of the Brazilian capital markets in the last decades. With this, it aims to shed light on an emerging phenomenon in the sector, presenting data and information that contribute to reflections on the consequences of such process for the Brazilian economy, within the framework of globally interconnected financial markets.
    Keywords: G15 ; G28 ; N26 ; O33 ; Z13 ; ddc:330 ; digitalization ; capital markets ; Brazil ; financialization ; ICT
    Language: Portuguese
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  • 7
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    Brasília: Instituto de Pesquisa Econômica Aplicada (IPEA)
    Publication Date: 2018-04-18
    Description: This paper analyzes the personnel expenditures in the Brazilian federal civil public service using administrative records from the Executive Branch. There are two contributions which are noteworthy because they may improve the understanding of policy makers regarding the evolution of those expenses in the upcoming years. First, we undertake simulations in order to assess the effects of the Proposal for Constitutional Amendment no 287. It should be noted that this exercise disregards that the federal govern will have to replace, to some extent, those people who are leaving the public service. Hence, in what follows, we formulate replacement scenarios to try and gauge the cost of different hiring strategies. Furthermore, we report the robustness of some results with respect to specific assumptions. In a nutshell, the results indicated that the reform will bring about economies for the public coffers over the next years, mainly due to the fall in the value of the survivors' pensions. Nonetheless, given the enormous amount of people that will become eligible for retirement, the replacement policy to be followed by the government has a substantial weight on the size the payroll will reach.
    Keywords: E66 ; H55 ; H68 ; M54 ; ddc:330 ; personnel expenditures ; federal civil public service ; microsimulations ; pension reform ; replacement
    Language: Portuguese
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  • 8
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    Brasília: Instituto de Pesquisa Econômica Aplicada (IPEA)
    Publication Date: 2018-04-18
    Description: The objective of this paper was to analyze how the process of formation of a national identity of the solidarity economy movement in Brazil was developed around a mobilizing paradigm in defense of associated work and economic relations not restricted to the mercantile sphere. In this sense, we sought to identify some of its main contextual particularities, such as: its multiplicity of subjects, its organizational strategies and its political interactions. It is a pluralistic social movement, composed of distinct identities, connected around common principles of economic organization and social reproduction. The research allowed to identify a repertoire with diversified routines of collective action, and a pattern of interaction with the public power very active, taking advantage of important contextual political opportunities, especially with respect to governments permeable to these ideas in their agendas.
    Keywords: J23 ; J59 ; ddc:330 ; solidarity economy ; social movements ; public policy ; repertoires of collective action ; sociology of absences and emergencies
    Language: Portuguese
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  • 9
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    Brasília: Instituto de Pesquisa Econômica Aplicada (IPEA)
    Publication Date: 2018-04-18
    Description: The object of this discussion text typology was developed with the purpose of classifying the Brazilian municipalities according your insertion scale in the process of urbanization. Has focused on changes in the relationships between the different parts of the territory, is under productive population and switching work flows and study, is about the setting and trend of socio-spatial organization of the territory. The methodology employed in the construction of the typology and its results were presented by Moura and Pêgo (2016), and unleashed a series of developments, whether on the part of the team, this analysis related to other indicators, either by other researchers institutions that come by adjusting the information base and expanding the universe of research for other countries in Latin America. Search, too, offer information and summaries that contribute to the development of strategies to support the formulation and implementation of urban, regional policy and territorial development in national, regional and range of the States of the Federation.
    Keywords: R11 ; R12 ; R14 ; R23 ; R38 ; R58 ; ddc:330 ; urbanization ; Brazilian municipalities ; urban typology ; urban agglomerations ; metropolitan
    Language: Portuguese
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  • 10
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    Brasília: Instituto de Pesquisa Econômica Aplicada (IPEA)
    Publication Date: 2018-04-18
    Description: The purpose of the paper is to analyze Brazilian exports data between 1962 and 2016 by industries, verifying if the export structure has been modified in recent years towards a pattern more concentrated in primary products, due to a loss of competitiveness. Brazilian exports have been analyzed between these years by six industries. It has been utilized the Constant Market Share methodology in order to identify a change in competitiveness. The main conclusion is that competitiveness has increased in initial years, due to subsidies and government incentives to more technology intensive industries and also in the period of more intense trade openness. And the two more technology intensive industries, namely Machines and Equipment and Other Industries have seen a competitiveness loss in the final years. Therefore, changes in competitiveness seem to be strongly correlated with changes in manufacturing structure and industrial policies.
    Keywords: F14 ; ddc:330 ; export concentration in primary goods ; competitiveness ; Brazilian exports ; constant market share
    Language: Portuguese
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  • 11
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    Brasília: Instituto de Pesquisa Econômica Aplicada (IPEA)
    Publication Date: 2018-04-18
    Description: Regarding one of the most renowned mechanisms of social participation in the recent Brazilian democracy, this paper aims to offer a typological proposal for national conferences, considering the broadened definition established by the Decree no 8243/2014 and ex post aspects of conferential processes. Thus, databases hosted by Ipea were updated and expanded, reaching the conferences held until 2016 and its approved resolutions from 2011 to 2016. This data collecting process put together a documental collection of 154 national conferences realized from 1941 to 2016, besides a database of 5,369 resolutions approved in 28 of the 42 conferences finished in the past five years. This table was submitted to a lexical analysis through the IRAMuTeQ software, according to the ALCESTE method. Briefly, five lexical worlds were observed, each holding its own characteristics. Also, the position of a specific conference in the class map can change between its editions, and this lexical displacement can occur under different ways. Some hypotheses - about lexical displacement and implicit territoriality - could be raised for further research, after this analysis. Thus, the availability of data, in a public and accessible way, may be a stimulus to the development of studies about this phenomenon or, at least, a factor for reduction of costs and efforts involved in this data collection.
    Keywords: C88 ; D73 ; Z18 ; ddc:330 ; national conferences ; databases ; lexical analysis ; social participation
    Language: Portuguese
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  • 12
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    Brasília: Instituto de Pesquisa Econômica Aplicada (IPEA)
    Publication Date: 2018-04-18
    Description: The objective of this text is to present and address the spending on medicines of the Brazilian Public Health System (SUS) from 2010 to 2016 in a budgetary perspective. The analysis was based on the budget execution of the Ministry of Health and the health departments of the states, the Federal District and the municipalities, using data from two publicly available information systems, Siga Brasil and Siops. SUS spending on medicines rose from R$ 14.3 billion in 2010 to almost R$ 20 billion in 2015 (growth of 40%), falling to R$ 18.6 billion in 2016 (-7% in the last two years), in real terms, as a probable consequence of the economic crisis on these expenditures of subnational entities and greater role of the Ministry of Health to the medicines procurement and financing, including the Farmácia Popular Program. Between 2010 and 2016, SUS expenses with medicines registered growth of 30%. There was a significant increase in drug spending in the last seven years, with a special effort by the Ministry of Health, which started directly to execute the largest portion of the its budget for the purchase of these products. The Specialized and Strategic Components, as well as the Farmácia Popular Program, are very important for this increase. The incorporation of new medicines and the increase in lawsuits on pharmaceuticals may be driven the drug spending. The share of federal spending on pharmaceuticals in public health care spending rose from 11 percent in 2010 to 16 percent in 2016. The rising trend and the factors that drive higher spending can increase the drug spending which can compromise more significant portions of the Ministry of Health budget. That may reduce the availability of resources for the supply of other health goods and services to the population, because the federal budget is limited until 2036 by the Constitutional Amendment 95, approved in 2016.
    Keywords: H51 ; H60 ; I18 ; ddc:330 ; drug costs ; health expenditures ; budgets ; Unified Health System
    Language: Portuguese
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  • 13
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    Brasília: Instituto de Pesquisa Econômica Aplicada (IPEA)
    Publication Date: 2018-04-18
    Description: In the last decades, in an attempt to promote a model of agriculture of high productivity in the semiarid, successive governments have invested in the water infrastructure for the creation of several irrigation districts in the region. The purpose of this work is to analyze historically the evolution of irrigated agriculture and the policy options of the Federal Government in relation to its development in the Brazilian semiarid. From this portrait, the objective is to discuss the potential of irrigated agriculture as an inducer of agricultural development in the region and about different policy options for irrigation in the semiarid region. The success of these ventures in relation to the income and jobs generated, number of farmers settled, companies installed, among other factors, is diverse. There are those perimeters installed at the Petrolina and Juazeiro poles, which have developed over the decades until they reached the current stage, in which a modern and profitable agricultural production is turned to export. Otherwise, there are those that have not been completed and are partially operative.
    Keywords: Q1 ; Q18 ; ddc:330 ; semiarid ; irrigated agriculture ; national irrigation policy
    Language: Portuguese
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  • 14
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    Brasília: Instituto de Pesquisa Econômica Aplicada (IPEA)
    Publication Date: 2018-04-18
    Description: This paper aims to identify the profile of innovation in Brazil in 2014, positioning the country in relation to the countries of the European Union. The paper analysed the indicators resulting from the innovation surveys carried out in Brazil and in these countries in 2014. Based on the results found in a study performed with the 2000 indicators, considering Evolutionary approach as the theoretical reference and the Oslo manual in its third version, the study points out to a dynamic of innovation based on typical processes of imitative economies. The results of the innovation, which presented innovation rates similar to the average of the countries analysed, as well as the low degree of novelty and the innovation based mostly in process innovative enterprises only, show that Brazil still has a profile similar to that found in 2000. The innovative process is also similar, despite the significant increase in the percentage of innovative enterprises that received public funding for innovation, with little cooperation and innovative efforts based on the acquisition of machines, equipment and software in detriment of research and development. The results of the study, which must to be in-depth, indicate the need to review and improve the innovation policy developed in the period 2000-2014.
    Keywords: O31 ; O32 ; O33 ; O38 ; ddc:330 ; innovation indicators ; innovation surveys ; innovation dynamic
    Language: Portuguese
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  • 15
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    Brasília: Instituto de Pesquisa Econômica Aplicada (IPEA)
    Publication Date: 2018-04-18
    Description: Although there is agreement that the effect of broadband expansion on the economy, from an general overview, is positive; not an unanimous voice arguments that this impact be positive on all sectors. By applying a multivariate two way panel data model and estimated by bayesian methodology, this study aims to determine the effect of broadband expansion on the sectors of the economy. In order to take into account the geographical, social and economic differences among municipalities cluster analysis was employed in order to isolate groups of municipalities with approximate characteristics. The results illustrate that the impact of broadband is not positive for all sectors, being positive in the most dynamic and technology-intensive sectors such as the industrial and service sectors; and negative where this does not happen as in agricultural sector.
    Keywords: O57 ; O47 ; L69 ; ddc:330 ; broadband ; multivariate model ; panel data ; clustering ; Gibbs sampler
    Language: Portuguese
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  • 16
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    Brasília: Instituto de Pesquisa Econômica Aplicada (IPEA)
    Publication Date: 2018-04-18
    Description: In 2016, the causal relationship between Zika virus infection in pregnant women and the occurrence of microcephaly in infants was confirmed. However, in the previous year, when an unexpected increase in the number of live births with microcephaly was observed in Brazil, this relationship was unknown in the scientific literature. Timely and coordinated actions - with the participation of national and international health authorities, health workers and researchers - allowed the Zika virus to be proven to be implicated in the causality of a congenital syndrome and Guillain-Barré Syndrome (GBS) in a few months. This discussion paper aims to present a brief review of the history of the Zika virus epidemic and microcephaly in Brazil, from its emergence, through its evolution, to the policies and actions adopted to tackle it. Initially, the trajectory of the Zika virus in the world, from its discovery, in the Zika forest in Uganda, through its occurrence in Southeast Asia, until its emergence in Brazil is presented. Next, the process of declaring the microcephaly epidemic as a Public Health Emergency of National Concern (PHENC), by the Brazilian government, and Public Health Emergency of International Concern (PHEIC), by the World Health Organization (WHO), as well as the processes triggered by those measures. One topic is dedicated to describe the findings that contributed to the confirmation of the causal relationship between Zika virus infection and the occurrence of microcephaly, as well as GBS. In another topic, the evolution of the microcephaly epidemic in Brazil is described, highlighting the nine-fold increase in the number of cases in 2015 compared to the average of the previous five years, and the occurrence of the epidemic peak in the last quarter of this year. Following the main actions aimed at confronting the Zika virus epidemic in Brazil are presented. Finally, challenges for the prevention and control of the Zika virus and the consequences in the Brazilian epidemiological scenario are highlighted. The role of the Brazilian National Health System (SUS) in mobilizing all sectors necessary to confront the Zika virus epidemic is pointed and the need for resources for the continuity and improvement of the surveillance and control actions of arboviral diseases, as well as the attention to affected families, is highlighted.
    Keywords: I12 ; ddc:330 ; Zika virus infection ; Zika virus ; microcephaly ; epidemics ; international sanitary regulations ; epidemiological surveillance ; Brazilian National Health System ; Pan American Health Organization ; World Health Organization
    Language: Portuguese
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  • 17
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    Brasília: Instituto de Pesquisa Econômica Aplicada (IPEA)
    Publication Date: 2018-04-18
    Description: The IMF has always supported the free financial flows of capital, based on the concept that they improve economic growth in itself. This perception has debilitated since the global economic crisis beginning in 2007. The purpose of this paper is to analyze the evolution of the IMF's way of understanding this issue; weather it were or not an important improvement to guide the future exchange policies of their shareholders. Still, it's relevant to highlight the impacts of these flows on the volatility of the exchange markets, and consequently on the macroeconomic consistence of developing countries.
    Keywords: F32 ; F38 ; ddc:330 ; international capital flows ; emergent countries ; exchange markets volatility
    Language: Portuguese
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  • 18
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    Brasília: Instituto de Pesquisa Econômica Aplicada (IPEA)
    Publication Date: 2018-04-18
    Description: This paper analyzes the relationship between social mobilization (of public and private actors) and the agenda of official participatory institutions in the field of solidarity economy. More specifically, it was sought to analyze, through participatory observation and documentary analysis, how this relationship occurred during the process of social-state interface promoted by the national conferences, especially the 3rd Conaes, which occurred in 2014 and triggered the elaboration of the National Plan of Solidarity Economy. In the end, it can be said that the conference process was appropriate for the part of the civil society involved in its theme as a link between its traditional mobilization repertoires and the opening of an official channel of contact with a representation of the public power.
    Keywords: H19 ; ddc:330 ; social participation ; public policies ; solidarity economy ; national conferences ; governmental agenda
    Language: Portuguese
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  • 19
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    Brasília: Instituto de Pesquisa Econômica Aplicada (IPEA)
    Publication Date: 2018-04-18
    Description: The paradigm of solidarity economy emerged at the end of the twentieth century as a proposal of self-management organization of work and production that involves a set of collective practices in search of new strategies of social inclusion and territorial development. Since then, it has become consolidated as a new field of research in several areas of scientific knowledge, not restricted to the social sciences. The purpose of this paper is to identify and characterize a scientific publication in indexed journals involving the field of solidarity economy in its various dimensions. It was tried to emphasize the methodological approaches used by the authors, the areas of knowledge and the main objects of analysis. This article aims at helping to understand a general picture about the production profile in the field of research, as well as new questions for new research, given a complexity of problems related academically related to the theme.
    Keywords: J23 ; Z13 ; ddc:330 ; solidarity economy ; bibliometric research ; self-management ; social inclusion ; social development
    Language: Portuguese
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  • 20
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    Brasília: Instituto de Pesquisa Econômica Aplicada (IPEA)
    Publication Date: 2018-04-18
    Description: We use data from the period 2009-15 to estimate the impact of the public policy aiming to decrease the taxes paid by companies over their payroll. The objective of this program, so called Less Taxes on the Payroll ("Desoneração da Folha de Pagamento"), was to burst the employment in the firms benefited by the tax cut. Overall our econometric results show no employment effect of this program.
    Keywords: C32 ; D04 ; ddc:330 ; tax cut ; employment ; payroll taxes ; public program evaluation ; difference in difference
    Language: Portuguese
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  • 21
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    Brasília: Instituto de Pesquisa Econômica Aplicada (IPEA)
    Publication Date: 2018-04-18
    Description: The purpose of this study is to evaluate the impact of the One Computer Per Student Program (Prouca), from the National Education Development Fund (FNDE), performance in the Brazil Test (Prova Brasil) and the National High School Examination (ENEM), both at school level, using the differences-in-differences method combined with the propensity score matching (PSM), and at the student level, using the PSM. The results showed that the program had a positive impact on students' performance in the final years of the Brazil Test (Portuguese and mathematics) and in the Enem language and codes and writing tests in 2010, as well as in all tests in 2011 - including the average of the exams - except in writing. At the school level, the program had a positive impact on the writing test and the average of the Enem assessments, the analysis between 2009 and 2010, and the natural science and writing tests as well as in the total average, in the research between 2009 and 2011.
    Keywords: C32 ; D04 ; ddc:330 ; One Computer Per Student Program ; Enem ; Brazil Test ; differences in differences ; propensity score matching
    Language: Portuguese
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  • 22
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    Brasília: Instituto de Pesquisa Econômica Aplicada (IPEA)
    Publication Date: 2018-04-18
    Description: The Índice de Vulnerabilidade Social (IVS) and the Atlas da Vulnerabilidade Social (AVS) of the municipalities and metropolitan regions arise by an effort of selection, development and georeferencing of indicators that could express conditions of social vulnerability in the different scales of brazilian territory. Such conditions may emerge from plural factors that are part of the social issue, like the contexts of income and labour, education and health, mobility, habitation and sanitation. The IVS is a sinthetic index constructed with indicators that express fragilities of this social factors. The text below presentes the process of criation of the IVS from your conceptual, methodological and statiscal aspects and limitations. After this presentation, the work will show na analysis of some IVS results, as well as your dimensions and indicatores for the years of 2000 e 2010, in order to delineate the conditions of social vulnerability in the brazilian territory and exemplify ways of data analysis available in the AVS.
    Keywords: O15 ; O18 ; R23 ; J15 ; ddc:330 ; social vulnerability ; sinthetic index ; Brazil ; public policy ; regional development
    Language: Portuguese
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  • 23
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    Brasília: Instituto de Pesquisa Econômica Aplicada (IPEA)
    Publication Date: 2018-04-18
    Description: The adequate availability of infrastructure and its related services, is mandatory condition for further development of the country's competitive advantages, intensifying the productive specialization. Due to limited financial capacity, in the course of the last three decades, there have been an increasing private participation in these sectors under privatizations, concessions and Private-Public Partnerships (PPPs). This work has the following goals: i) to summarize the evolution of the concession's system in Brazil, Mexico, Chile, Colombia and USA, aiming to identify the characteristics and alternatives developed by each country; and ii) to conduct an economic analyze of the concession contracts between the public and private entities, focusing on the economic regulation aspects. We found a learning historic evolution, based in continuous enhancement of the public policy and in different degrees of success. The economic regulation aims to evolve in several issues as the risk-sharing, application of incentives and penalization and selection criteria, in despite of the difficulties created by economic crises. It's worth highlighting some innovations as: (Brazil) use of an "Investment trigger" to require capacity expansion; Use of real demand to reset the Financial-Economic Equilibrium (EEF); Distribution of productivity gains (Factor X); Use of the concession length as a tool to reset the EEF; (Chile) MVPR as selection criteria and risk-sharing tool; MCC as exchange rate risk-sharing tool; (Mexico) use of an account to accommodate the facility return at the concession end; Penalties grading system; (Colombia) use of a Trust Fund; Minimum revenue guarantee mechanism (MGR); (USA) Legislation and financial innovations; DBFOM mechanism. Part of the foreigner experience may contribute for the improvement of the Brazilian concession model. Notoriously, learning from the Mexican and Colombian experience, there are some policies shouldn't be carried out in Brazil. From the Chilean, the MVPR stands out as a solid success, commonly replicated by other countries. It's worth noting that Brazil has the largest share of highways under concession. Furthermore, it's possible that the share is near to its own limit (around 25%), as the highways that can attract the private sector, based on the vehicle flow, are mostly already contracted. To the left part of the share there are two alternatives: sponsored PPP and/or public resources. The PPPs mechanism, which includes fee payment from the private investor and requires the highway availability, would involve a cross-subsidy between the financially viable and non-viable projects using a trust fund. This mechanism failed in Chile. Beyond that, it's worth noting that the use of cross-subsidy creates unwelcome economic signs and, since Adam Smith, it's well known that it doesn't stimulates good results. The majority of the highway network is not attractive for private investor, thanks to low intensity traffic, requiring the use of public resources.
    Keywords: L51 ; L92 ; R48 ; ddc:330 ; highway concessions ; economic regulation ; concession's agreement ; public-private partnership
    Language: Portuguese
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  • 24
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    Rio de Janeiro: Pontifícia Universidade Católica do Rio de Janeiro (PUC-Rio), Departamento de Economia
    Publication Date: 2018-03-22
    Keywords: D8 ; E22 ; E3 ; E60 ; ddc:330
    Language: Portuguese
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  • 25
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    Rio de Janeiro: Pontifícia Universidade Católica do Rio de Janeiro (PUC-Rio), Departamento de Economia
    Publication Date: 2018-03-22
    Keywords: ddc:330
    Language: Portuguese
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  • 26
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    Rio de Janeiro: Pontifícia Universidade Católica do Rio de Janeiro (PUC-Rio), Departamento de Economia
    Publication Date: 2018-03-22
    Keywords: ddc:330
    Language: Portuguese
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  • 27
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    Rio de Janeiro: Pontifícia Universidade Católica do Rio de Janeiro (PUC-Rio), Departamento de Economia
    Publication Date: 2018-03-22
    Keywords: ddc:330
    Language: Portuguese
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  • 28
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    Rio de Janeiro: Pontifícia Universidade Católica do Rio de Janeiro (PUC-Rio), Departamento de Economia
    Publication Date: 2018-03-22
    Keywords: ddc:330
    Language: Portuguese
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  • 29
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    Brasília: Instituto de Pesquisa Econômica Aplicada (IPEA)
    Publication Date: 2018-04-18
    Description: This text aims to analyze the data of "solidarity finance" enterprises that make up the Information System of Solidarity Economy (Sies). The most common types of projects featured in this category are: community bank, credit cooperative and revolving fund. Each has different origing and operational structure. Such experiments are generally created in order to provide lines and credit channels more streamlined, taking into account the characteristics of this type of socioeconomic organization and enable viable alternatives to the official credit system and market. As in all branches of manifestation of solidarity economy, among solidarity finance enterprises there are also different examples of successful actions, as well as structural factors of precariousness.
    Keywords: J54 ; Z13 ; ddc:330 ; solidarity economy ; developments of solidarity finance ; collective organization ; local development ; self-management
    Language: Portuguese
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  • 30
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    Brasília: Instituto de Pesquisa Econômica Aplicada (IPEA)
    Publication Date: 2018-04-18
    Description: This article aims to analyze the evolution of the demographic and socioeconomic characteristics of the municipalities belonging to the Territory South Coast in the state of Bahia, in order to verify whether the inclusion in public programs of the territorial approach use is providing a greater rural development. For the analysis of data on geographic, demographic and socioeconomic, we used the statistical-descriptive method and comparative analysis. The results show that the Territory South Coast, markedly rural profile, maintained demographic characteristics that hampered territorial cohesion with a view to building a project that would overcome the rural-urban dichotomy. Their socioeconomic conditions showed improvement in poverty indicators, for example, but the territory still can not be classified as high development.
    Keywords: O18 ; D71 ; O29 ; ddc:330 ; poverty ; inequality ; territories development
    Language: Portuguese
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  • 31
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    Brasília: Instituto de Pesquisa Econômica Aplicada (IPEA)
    Publication Date: 2018-04-18
    Description: The present study has the main objective to analyze the labor market dynamics in the Matopiba region and to compare it with the evolution of the Brazilian agribusiness labor market as a whole. The paper is part of a broader research project that aims to make a diagnosis of the socioeconomics and the institutional conditions of the Brazilian Northeast and North macro-regions, in order to subsidize the implementation of public policies. Using the data from the Pesquisa Nacional por Amostra de Domicílios (Pnad) Contínua between the first quarter of 2012 and the first quarter of 2016, it was clear that, on the one hand, although agribusiness generated an increasingly smaller number of jobs within the sector itself, on the other, managed to boost the labor market of Matopiba, increasing the average income of the employed population of the region and improving the local services sector. Behind this seemingly contradictory dynamic there is the success of Brazilian agribusiness, which, through more capital-intensive and labor-saving technologies, has been able to increase its productivity and generate increasing income, freeing up workforces to other sectors. In Matopiba, the income generated by agribusiness has warmed the service sector, which in turn has boosted the local labor market, allowing the incorporation of a larger volume of employees. Although this dynamic was clear in Matopiba, in the rest of the country it is possible to observe only that agribusiness reduced the employed population in its activities.
    Keywords: Q1 ; Q12 ; ddc:330 ; labor market ; Matopiba ; agribusiness ; regional development ; agricultural frontier
    Language: Portuguese
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  • 32
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    Brasília: Instituto de Pesquisa Econômica Aplicada (IPEA)
    Publication Date: 2018-04-18
    Keywords: I280 ; ddc:330 ; Bildungspolitik ; Verwaltungskontrolle ; Brasilien
    Language: Portuguese
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  • 33
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    Brasília: Instituto de Pesquisa Econômica Aplicada (IPEA)
    Publication Date: 2018-04-18
    Description: This study sought to quantify the impact of demographics on the expense of the public pensions as a share (%) of the Gross Domestic Product GDP, by 2060 and 2100, based upon a simplified forecasting model. The results show a strong expansion in expenditures due to the fast and intense process of population ageing, an increase which can be alleviated by raising the retirement age, increasing the level of employment and limiting the transmission of the active workers productivity gains to retirees and pensioners and other adjustment possibilities. In any case, the government should conduct reforms in order to correct distortions and minimize risks for the financial and actuarial sustainability of the Brazilian social insurance schemes.
    Keywords: J11 ; H55 ; I00 ; ddc:330 ; demography ; social security ; pension expenditures
    Language: Portuguese
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  • 34
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    Brasília: Instituto de Pesquisa Econômica Aplicada (IPEA)
    Publication Date: 2018-04-18
    Description: The results presented in the text show that, by curbing the growth of primary expenditures, Constitutional Amendment 95 has the potential to stabilize and to reduce general government gross debt, thus guaranteeing the sustainability of the Brazilian public debt. The positive effects of a greater fiscal policy credibility can extrapolate the purely fiscal issue and spread to the real economy through improving economic agents' confidence. The new fiscal regime is clearly a gradualist strategy to deal with the current serious problem of the Brazilian public accounts. The 20-year term - with the possibility of change in the mid-term - also appears to be adequate. Depending on the economic performance over the next ten years, it may be possible to adopt a softer rule after 2027. However, the two-decade horizon gives more credibility to this type of strategy.
    Keywords: H6 ; H62 ; ddc:330 ; new fiscal regime ; Brazilian public debt
    Language: Portuguese
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  • 35
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    Brasília: Instituto de Pesquisa Econômica Aplicada (IPEA)
    Publication Date: 2018-04-18
    Description: Life conditions for teachers working in basic education are better than those of the average Brazilian working population. However, the high number of teachers living in households with per capita income below 0.5 of the minimum wage requires attention. Teachers in public schools have better conditions than private school teachers, when controlling for teachers schooling and union representation. Nevertheless, teachers' incomes are reduced and salaries vary quite a bit throughout the country. When teachers' average salaries equal the average of the population with tertiary education, it would create conditions that would foster improved student learning.
    Keywords: I25 ; ddc:330 ; school teachers ; education ; income ; public policies ; labor market
    Language: Portuguese
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  • 36
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    Brasília: Instituto de Pesquisa Econômica Aplicada (IPEA)
    Publication Date: 2018-04-18
    Description: The National Policy for Agroecology and Organic Production (Pnapo) was created in 2012 to integrate, articulate and adjust the existing public policies concerning sustainable production of chemical-contaminant-free products. The referred policy combines rural development, conservation of natural resources and valorization of traditional communities' knowledge. This article presents part of the results of an ongoing study about Pnapo. It analyses the constructive process of the program according to representatives of social and governmental institutions that manage this policy. In order to collect the historical background of Pnapo, main participants of the policy building were interviewed. The results of this research show that agroecology and organic production programs were slowly structured inside the government through pressure of organized groups in society. Another relevant factor to this development was the growth in social involvement in councils and commissions. Regarding Pnapo's conception, it was observed that dialogue spaces provided by the National Commission for Agroecology and Organic Production (Cnapo) (composed by representatives from the government and from civil society) and the Interministerial Chamber of Agroecology and Organic Production (Ciapo) (composed by representatives from the ministries that participates in the policy), have provided participative construction between government and society and stimulated an interministerial approach inside government. The main challenges are to improve the intersectional management of the program and to enforce the importance of Pnapo inside the government. It is concluded that the continuance of this policy will depend heavily on the society's acknowledgement of its importance, demanding from the government its maintenance and the enlargement of already acquired spaces.
    Keywords: Q01 ; Q18 ; Q28 ; ddc:330 ; agroecological transition ; public policy ; organic agriculture ; Planapo ; family farming
    Language: Portuguese
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  • 37
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    Brasília: Instituto de Pesquisa Econômica Aplicada (IPEA)
    Publication Date: 2018-04-18
    Description: The objective of this paper is to quantify and qualify the technological evolution of the Brazilian textile and construction supply chains between 1985 and 2009. The main conclusion is the following: it has not been strong changes on the technological emphasis of the two supply chains; however, it has been many secondary innovations inside each emphasis.
    Keywords: L6 ; O3 ; ddc:330 ; brazilian manufacturing ; textile and construction supply chains ; technology
    Language: Portuguese
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  • 38
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    Brasília: Instituto de Pesquisa Econômica Aplicada (IPEA)
    Publication Date: 2018-04-18
    Description: Based on the hypothesis that the rulers of monetary and fiscal policy in Brazil may have been submitted to different regimes, the present study applies Leeper model (1991; 2005) in order to identify the chronology of policy regimes regarding their active and passive character. The policy rules are estimated by the Markov Switching (MS) model in which the regimes are endogenously identified. The results obtained allow us to place that fiscal dominance occurred in 2010 and between 2013 and 2014 while monetary dominance happened in much of 2003 and during the period from 2005 to 2007. The model still seeks to explain why the rate of Inflation during 2015 remained on the rise even though the monetary policy imposed by Central Bank was active.
    Keywords: E52 ; E58 ; E62 ; ddc:330 ; active monetary policy ; fiscal dominance ; reaction function ; regime change ; Markov-Switching model
    Language: Portuguese
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  • 39
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    Brasília: Instituto de Pesquisa Econômica Aplicada (IPEA)
    Publication Date: 2018-04-18
    Keywords: H41 ; L78 ; O18 ; ddc:330
    Language: Portuguese
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  • 40
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    Brasília: Instituto de Pesquisa Econômica Aplicada (IPEA)
    Publication Date: 2018-04-18
    Description: Brazil continues as one of the largest producers of beef, pork and chicken. In terms of fish production, the performance is lower than expected, presenting low insertion in the domestic and international markets. Since 2004, national aquaculture production (particularly Tilapia) has grown 14.2% a year, emerging as an activity in the meat production chain. Even with this positive trend, there are challenges of developing the production chain as a whole to sustainable growth. Despite the difficulty of obtaining statistical data, studies that analyze the evolution of the sector and the productive development of the activity are necessary to draw future diagnoses and scenarios for the planning of public policies. This text aims to make an assessment of the activity in Brazil, especially analyzing the perspectives of productive growth.
    Keywords: O13 ; Q1 ; Q18 ; ddc:330 ; economic development ; agriculture ; supply chain ; fish farming
    Language: Portuguese
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  • 41
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    Brasília: Instituto de Pesquisa Econômica Aplicada (IPEA)
    Publication Date: 2018-04-18
    Description: In Brazil, it has been difficult to elaborate governmental planning surpassing the four-year spectrum from the Pluriannual Plans. Despite the fact of long-term planning attracting a wide range of sectors, it still occupies a small space in both political and State agendas. Hence, the present study intends to initiate a new cycle of debates regarding the issue as it presents questions and factors to subsidy long-term strategies. Using methodological tools from Strategic Prospective, we present both the methodological approach to scenarios and the trends and uncertainties regarding the relationship between State and Society - contemplating topics such as organization of the state apparatus, governmental planning, federative relations and social participation. This study is part of Brazil 2035, a project whose objective is to provide subsidies to formulate long-term development strategies for Brazil through Prospective Scenarios. Thus, this text presents a preliminary stage of a prospective process regarding the identification and analysis of the main variables. We do not intend to be conclusive; but rather to present some key factors and questions, which will affect Brazilian development until 2035.
    Keywords: C53 ; D73 ; L38 ; H10 ; H11 ; ddc:330 ; strategic prospective ; prospective scenarios ; long-term planning ; state ; public management ; public policy ; federalism ; social participation
    Language: Portuguese
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  • 42
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    Brasília: Instituto de Pesquisa Econômica Aplicada (IPEA)
    Publication Date: 2018-04-18
    Description: The objective of this study is to predict the potential broadband market in Brazil. This task is done by combining information from two national databases: the Demographic Census of 2010 and the National Survey by Household Sample (Pnad) of 2015. The Pnad 2015 is used to estimate the probability of the household accessing internet by broadband technology using a logit regression. The broadband market is predicted using the estimated model with the same covariates found in the Demographic Census 2010. The prediction indicated a potential market of 45 million households, an additional of 6 million households in relation to the current situation. The new size of the broadband market is estimated if there is a 10% increase in the average penetration of broadband services in the main metropolitan regions. In this scenario, it is observed that the new market reaches 50,7 million households.
    Keywords: L51 ; L96 ; ddc:330 ; broadband ; internet ; logit regression ; potential market ; prediction
    Language: Portuguese
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  • 43
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    Brasília: Instituto de Pesquisa Econômica Aplicada (IPEA)
    Publication Date: 2018-04-18
    Description: This article estimates the market value of public education by comparing standardized test scores of students in public and private schools. The idea is to assign to the education of each public school student a market value equivalent to the tuition paid by private school students with similar test score results. The implementation requires an expenditure survey, or other database to provide information on tuitions, and standardized test scores available for both private and public schools. This article uses Brazilian test score data, which are particularly good. The main results are not surprising. Pre-school, primary, and secondary education are all highly progressive government transfers. Furthermore, since their market value is superior to public expenditures in each of these educational levels, they are also welfare enhancing. The flip side is that public higher education is both highly regressive and welfare reducing.
    Keywords: I24 ; ddc:330 ; public education ; value of education ; educational proficiency
    Language: Portuguese
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  • 44
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    Brasília: Instituto de Pesquisa Econômica Aplicada (IPEA)
    Publication Date: 2018-04-18
    Description: This study, which belongs to the series new generation of infrastructure, reflects the major advances of information technology, biotechnology and nanotechnology in the development of sanitation and water resources sectors. International and notorious cases have been catalogued in compared studies with the case of southeastern Brazil, the State and the city of Rio de Janeiro. The research made it possible to identify conceptual models of ecological sanitation that approximate human actions to natural systems. The evaluation was extended to management mechanisms for water production, sewerage, drainage and solid waste systems, in anticipation of the need for addressing future challenges, such as extreme events and climate change. Finally, propositions are designed along the study, urging reflection on the range of possible choices.
    Keywords: L95 ; ddc:330 ; sustainable infrastructure ; sanitation models ; water resources ; Rio
    Language: Portuguese
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  • 45
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    Brasília: Instituto de Pesquisa Econômica Aplicada (IPEA)
    Publication Date: 2018-04-18
    Description: The functioning of the labor market can be represented by worker flows, and the fluctuation of these flows determines the fluctuation of unemployment. The literature measures the importance of a flow such as the proportion of the variance of long-term or stationary unemployment that is explained by the fluctuation of this component. This result is useful for analyzing short-term unemployment when long-term unemployment is a good proxy for short-term unemployment. Our contribution was to propose a decomposition of these kind of proxies using any period (h), which allows to explain the effect of the estimated transition in the period (t) on the unemployment rate in the periods (t + h). This construction puts in the same environment the effect of the short and long term transition on unemployment. It is worth mentioning that the trajectory of the decomposition factors does not always follow a monotonous trend, which makes more important the consideration of the intermediate periods.
    Keywords: E24 ; E32 ; J63 ; ddc:330 ; unemployment ; flows ; decomposition
    Language: Portuguese
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  • 46
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    Brasília: Instituto de Pesquisa Econômica Aplicada (IPEA)
    Publication Date: 2018-04-18
    Description: In this paper, we evaluate the impact of a qualification program for young people in which training is fully offered by a group of potential employers. We perform this evaluation comparing such initiative to the Jovem Aprendiz Program, whose participants make up a pertinent control group in order to measure the effects of the differentiated training provided by the studied program. Using methods based on propensity score matching and Rais data, we investigate the placement of those young people in the labor market after the period of participation in the respective programs. Our results indicate that participation in the training program positively affects the employability of youngsters, having an impact on obtaining formal employment and in larger companies (in number of employees) and that pay higher average wages. Regarding the remuneration of the participants, the results suggest no effect in the short term and negative effects in the medium term, compared to the participants of the Jovem Aprendiz Program.
    Keywords: J13 ; J24 ; J38 ; ddc:330 ; training ; youth ; labor market
    Language: Portuguese
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  • 47
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    Brasília: Instituto de Pesquisa Econômica Aplicada (IPEA)
    Publication Date: 2018-04-18
    Description: In Brazil, the Technical Assistance and Rural Extension services originated in the late 1940s, when the Association of Credit and Rural Assistance was created in the state of Minas Gerais in 1948. The purpose of this work is to analyze the evolution of such service in Brazil since its creation and its relation with family agriculture, culminating with considerations about the recent National Policy of Technical Assistance and Rural Extension (Pnater). For this, a brief history of rural extension in Brazil is presented, as well as a summary of the current situation of this service in the country and the discussion about the reformulation of the public rural extension service, main service provider for family farmers. The actual construction of this new public system is still almost entirely to be done. To rebuild at least part of its capacity and to build partnerships with non-state entities for this purpose, while incorporating new concepts into the process, is not a trivial task. There are doubts about the state's capacity to conduct this work, as well as the results that will be obtained from this.
    Keywords: Q1 ; Q16 ; Q18 ; ddc:330 ; family farming ; technical assistance ; rural extension ; National Technical Assistance and Rural Extension Policy
    Language: Portuguese
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  • 48
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    Brasília: Instituto de Pesquisa Econômica Aplicada (IPEA)
    Publication Date: 2018-04-18
    Description: This text for discussion is part of a research aimed to understand the institutional constraints to the implementation of investment in infrastructure in contemporary Brazil and to propose public policy improvement. The rationale for their implementation is that there is evidence that indicate the low capacity of the Federal Government and Brazilian companies to perform "accelerated" investment in infrastructure projects. For analysis were selected six case studies, three successful and not successful three considered, namely: exitosos: thermoelectric of Candiota III hydroelectric power plant phase Teles Pires and BRT south exit DF; and successful not-Transnordestina, subway of Salvador and BR-163 North of Mato Grosso, Santarém (Pará). For each case study, seven conditions were analyzed: planning, designing, managing and coordinating intragovernamental; Bidding and Contracting; Socio-environmental licensing; Expropriation and land conflicts; Federal joint, State and society; Bureaucratic and judicial controls ("U"); and private protection Market of goods and services. This text, in particular, addresses the environmental licensing etching. In Brazil, through licensing, in recent years, through changes in its regulatory framework, has been a theme yet little understood and object of permanent criticism, particularly by the productive sector and linked to major economic infrastructure projects. Are cited issues such as slow decision-making and reasoning, ideological content, process and contribute to delays, increased costs, judicialization, creation of contingent liabilities and non-compliance with service delivery goals to improve the well-being of society. This text aims to make a general analysis of the problems, with the general question: what are the guiding factors and institutional conditions that interfere with the implementation of public and private investment in economic infrastructure in Brazil? Two specific questions are were defined: i) how and why the licensing relates to the ability to execute? and ii) what are the possible alternatives to improve it? Given this, some points analyzed in references and in six selected case studies help answer the question guiding general: i) the still low overall coordination capacity of MMA; ii) little articulation and cooperation between the institutions involved within and outside of Amazonia; iii) the licensing body is continually overwhelmed with questions and demands that are not necessarily of its responsibility; and iv) important intervention but sometimes excessive MPF; among others. As to the first question guiding specific, can be answered by licensing be deprecated or little considered in decision-making; by the progress of works of the projects; ideological contamination of the process; excess "developmentalism" of entrepreneurs; entrepreneurs with great economic and political power; poor quality of technical studies; among others. As for the second question guiding specific suggestions for improvements are make involving policy, regulatory, institutional issues contracts, multiplicity of actors, judicialization, etc.
    Keywords: Q01 ; Q41 ; Q48 ; Q51 ; Q56 ; Q58 ; R53 ; R58 ; ddc:330 ; environmental licensing ; economic infrastructure ; productive sector ; large enterprises ; environmental impact
    Language: Portuguese
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  • 49
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    Brasília: Instituto de Pesquisa Econômica Aplicada (IPEA)
    Publication Date: 2018-04-18
    Description: The aim of this study was to analyze the structural characteristics of collective enterprises of pickers of recyclable material in Brazil, addressing questions about its administrative organization and its economic efficiency. Therefore, in addition to a wide bibliography that deals with the topic, it was also consulted the data from two nationwide surveys that provide important analytical overview on the structural dimensions of these enterprises. In general, the social segment of collectors involves people who are in situations of job insecurity, although practicing an admittedly beneficial activity for society. All information identified demonstrate that the developments are marked by a large structural heterogeneity, in a set of factors that directly impacts on the level of efficiency and labor productivity, the average income, working conditions and hence the satisfaction of collectors in be part of a collective enterprise.
    Keywords: J54 ; Z13 ; ddc:330 ; solidarity economy ; pickers of recyclable material ; collective organization ; income generation ; social inclusion policies
    Language: Portuguese
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  • 50
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    Brasília: Instituto de Pesquisa Econômica Aplicada (IPEA)
    Publication Date: 2018-04-18
    Description: This paper assumes that the recognition of the diversity of popular strategies for the collective generation of jobs and income is a key step in the creation of mechanisms to the promotion of their productive potential. The aim was to analyze the main information provided by the System database Solidarity Economy Information (Sies) to draw an overview of the operational structure of the social economy enterprises in Brazil. In this sense, the work focused more directly on information to provide a more comprehensive characterization of their organizational, economic and political dimensions, also trying to capture the structural differentiation factors among solidarity economy enterprises in the country. The data discussed reaffirm the hypothesis of structural heterogeneity that characterizes these enterprises.
    Keywords: J54 ; Z13 ; ddc:330 ; solidarity economy ; collective enterprises ; socio-structural dimensions ; income generation ; public policy
    Language: Portuguese
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  • 51
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    Brasília: Instituto de Pesquisa Econômica Aplicada (IPEA)
    Publication Date: 2018-04-18
    Description: This text discusses the dynamics of cultural funding in the Brazilian federal government from 1995 to 2013. It describes the historical context and faces some of the arguments present in the public debate on the principles that can justify reforms in the administration of culture and reconfiguration of the stock financing model public in the area. Moreover, it faces discussion of these general ideas in the light of the plurality of criteria and instruments used by the public administration. The dialectic between general ideas, tools and practices allows for more precise delimitation between the financing paradigms or models.
    Keywords: Z18 ; ddc:330 ; financing of public policies ; cultural policies ; cultural spending
    Language: Portuguese
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  • 52
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    Brasília: Instituto de Pesquisa Econômica Aplicada (IPEA)
    Publication Date: 2018-04-18
    Description: The demand for sustainable mobility in Brazil is driven by the Brazilian cities growing urban density, the increased travel time in different transportation modes, the increasing number of motorcyclists deaths who migrated from active modes driven by household income growth as well as drivers, pedestrians and cyclists deaths, and the worsening air pollution level linked to combustion engines which has serious consequences for health. Brazil has more bikes than cars, respectively 50 million to 41 million. Around 7% of all trips are made by bicycle with a potential to reach 40%. This qualitative research tried to understand what are the cycling networks future scenarios and sustainability factors that can guide the empowering of cycling policies and the sustainable mobility in Brazil. It used the pressure-state-response methodology associated with life cycle thinking methodology (PCV) to understand the cycling networks stakeholder perceptions from academia, government, cycling associations and business associations. Short-term scenarios indicated a database construction to support the development of social, economic and environmental indicators, and the empowering of the social actors' participation in the cycling policy institutionalization. Medium-term scenarios indicated the construction of strategic alliances among stakeholders and the strengthening of bicycle culture or "bike wave" through events and production of information to social actors in different territory scales (local, national and international). The sustainability factors to empower cycling policies were: the policy implementation timing; the mobility approach strand used to guide the cycling policy; the levels of economic and tax incentives; the participatory methodologies use; the database on number and location conflicts among drivers, pedestrians and cyclists; the level of cycling policy integration with other public policies; and the urban space available area for the expansion of cycling networks. Moreover, the Life Cycle Thinking methodology indicated the development of a life cycle assessment (LCA) that models the impacts on each transportation mode and its available urban space (pedestrian, bicycle, subway, train, and bus). This LCA can produce indicators that support an integrated sustainable mobility where the bicycle may have multiple roles: transportation mode, integration vehicle among modes and sustainability symbol.
    Keywords: R40 ; ddc:330 ; mobility ; sustainable ; urban ; bike ; bicycle path
    Language: Portuguese
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  • 53
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    Brasília: Instituto de Pesquisa Econômica Aplicada (IPEA)
    Publication Date: 2018-04-18
    Keywords: M11 ; H40 ; O18 ; ddc:330 ; Infrastrukturinvestition ; Projektmanagement ; Brasilien
    Language: Portuguese
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  • 54
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    Brasília: Instituto de Pesquisa Econômica Aplicada (IPEA)
    Publication Date: 2018-04-18
    Description: This text undertakes to examine two questions. First, the text considers the intellectual roots of two celebrated and discussed concepts - in Brazil and in the world, specifically the social function of property - enshrined in the 1988 Constitution - and the right to the city, which is guaranteed by Law 10.257 of 2001 (the City Statute). This contribution suggests that the union of these two ideas in Brazil is curious from an intellectual point of view. This is because the social function of property originated, in part, as an intellectual reaction to the extremism of the socialist (and in turn, communist) ideas of the era, while the right to the city has been formulated by a Marxist intellectual. Nevertheless, in the Brazilian articulation of these ideas, the two ideas are considered complementary, and with success. Second, and in a demonstration of the successful intellectual marriage of the two ideas, the text examines more than thirty cases from Brazilian courts alleging violations of the right to the city and the social function of property. While there exists a common perception that Brazilian courts are conservative with respect to urban matters, the evidence of this research shows a high level of awareness about these concepts on the part of the courts, which defend the rights of population to them - concluding that property needs both to respect its social function and that all citizens have a right to the city. The text concludes with the suggestion, therefore, that, in the future, the mobilization in favor of these concepts needs to come from other social sectors, using the favorable court decisions to realize the aspiration of the two concepts.
    Keywords: Y80 ; ddc:330 ; urbanism ; social function of property ; right to the city ; urban jurisprudence ; puplic participation
    Language: Portuguese
    Type: doc-type:workingPaper
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  • 55
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    Brasília: Instituto de Pesquisa Econômica Aplicada (IPEA)
    Publication Date: 2018-04-18
    Keywords: H83 ; ddc:330 ; Öffentliche Verwaltung ; Ombudsmann ; Verwaltungskontrolle ; Partizipation ; Brasilien
    Language: Portuguese
    Type: doc-type:workingPaper
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  • 56
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    Brasília: Instituto de Pesquisa Econômica Aplicada (IPEA)
    Publication Date: 2018-04-18
    Description: This Discussion Paper presents an overview of Brazilian public finances through a meticulous work of adjusting and consolidating fiscal statistics, in which central government data were adjusted to deal with creative accounting and subsequently consolidated with data from subnational governments. The result is new monthly estimates of the general government's "above the line" primary balance for the period from January 2002 to April 2016. The analysis based on these fiscal series rejects the hypothesis that the recent deterioration of primary balances was generated by deeper fiscal expansion through expenditures. It can, however, be said that subsidies played a prominent role in recent fiscal expansionism, alongside with tax exemptions, and that this change in the fiscal policy mix - in lieu of public investment - might have been ineffective to sustain growth economic, as well as presented a high fiscal cost.
    Keywords: E62 ; H6 ; H72 ; ddc:330 ; creative accounting ; fiscal expansion ; primary balance
    Language: Portuguese
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  • 57
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    Brasília: Instituto de Pesquisa Econômica Aplicada (IPEA)
    Publication Date: 2018-04-18
    Description: This paper presents the challenges for the implementation of the intergovernmental transferring criteria established in Complementary Law 141, of January 2012, which regulates Constitutional Amendment No. 29, of 2000, for the Unified Health System (SUS). The Law establishes norms for a resource allocation that aims the reduction of regional disparities, old demand of this sector's researchers. This new model of financial resources allocation requires a shift in the logic that has driven the federal resources allocation on health sector in Brazil, furthermore it implies structural changes in the distribution patterns applied by the Ministry of Health.
    Keywords: I18 ; ddc:330 ; public health ; government expenditures ; financial resources allocation
    Language: Portuguese
    Type: doc-type:workingPaper
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  • 58
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    Brasília: Instituto de Pesquisa Econômica Aplicada (IPEA)
    Publication Date: 2018-04-18
    Description: This study presents results obtained from interviews took by a team of researchers from a chosen group of public servants in four Brazilian state governments (Sergipe, Goiás, Rio Grande do Sul and Santa Catarina) during the year of 2013. Our aim was to question such policy makers about intergovernmental relations developed by them in their everyday public duties. It was investigated their own positions on institutional issues, successful and critical points, as well as their views on agreements and negotiations among federative entities. In sum, our interests lied on elements to realize and contrast dynamics, obstacles and consensus present on intergovernmental relations in Brazilian federalism.
    Keywords: H77 ; ddc:330 ; federalism ; intergovernmental relations ; state capacities
    Language: Portuguese
    Type: doc-type:workingPaper
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  • 59
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    Brasília: Instituto de Pesquisa Econômica Aplicada (IPEA)
    Publication Date: 2018-04-18
    Description: This paper addresses different patterns of early work in Brazil, proposing a typology based both in quantitative and qualitative data. We first distinguish four categories of early work in the basis of age started to work and hours worked weekly. Applying linear regressions to quantitative data, we find that early work is statistically associated with lower levels of income during adulthood, except for those who worked during adolescence for up to 20 hours a week. With content analysis supported by the Reinert Method, we find that this last category of early work is also associated with a pedagogical orientation attempting to edges off school to work transitions. The content analysis also indicates that, in some cases, the work during childhood, although detrimental for educational and economical achievement, takes place in a caring familiar environment, a difference that may be relevant for the aim of public policies design. The quantitative data is from a Brazilian national survey: Pesquisa sobre Aspetos Sociais da Desigualdade - Instituto do Milênio, 2008. The qualitative data is from the project Radiografia do Brasil Contemporâne, Instituto de Pesquisa Econômica Aplicada, 2016.
    Keywords: J24 ; ddc:330 ; early-work ; child labor ; adolescent employment ; income ; education
    Language: Portuguese
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  • 60
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    Brasília: Instituto de Pesquisa Econômica Aplicada (IPEA)
    Publication Date: 2018-04-18
    Keywords: L74 ; N60 ; O18 ; ddc:330
    Language: Portuguese
    Type: doc-type:workingPaper
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  • 61
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    Brasília: Instituto de Pesquisa Econômica Aplicada (IPEA)
    Publication Date: 2018-04-18
    Description: The purpose of this work is the exploration of statistical methods and evaluation criteria of relational technology diversification of technical-scientific services provided by the infrastructure of Brazilian scientific and technological research. The technical and scientific services of a research infrastructure present relational diversification when technology have affinities with each other resulting in potentially positive synergies. The results of the analysis indicate the validity of the statistical analysis of data and information on the technical and scientific services for research infrastructure, with a view to analysis of relational diversification. In larger perspective, this approach can be taken as a first effort to build methodologies to assess the relational technological diversification of technical-scientific services provided by the infrastructure of research. This result benefits decision-making processes as those dealing with investment in infrastructure, both in terms of its management as of public policies for the promotion of scientific and technological development.
    Keywords: C1 ; D02 ; O31 ; O32 ; ddc:330 ; technological innovation ; technological diversification ; related technological diversification ; infrastructure of scientific and technological research ; correspondence analysis ; odds ratio
    Language: Portuguese
    Type: doc-type:workingPaper
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  • 62
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    Brasília: Instituto de Pesquisa Econômica Aplicada (IPEA)
    Publication Date: 2018-04-18
    Description: This article analyses the effects of public expenditure on the Bolsa Família Program on the Brazilian crime rate. It covers 10 of the 12 years of the Program's intervention and suggests a unique approach in the national literature. The empirical strategy is based on a balanced regression panel model with fixed effects, using data from the 27 Brazilian Federative units between 2005 and 2014, totalizing 270 observations and 27 cross sections. The dependent variable of the model is the number of intentional homicides per 100.000 inhabitants. The difference of this article to other empirical studies is the inclusion, as an independent variable of the model, of the public expenditure on the Bolsa Família. The results suggest a negative relationship between homicide rates and the expenditure on the Bolsa Família and indicate that the Program may have extensive social consequences to be considered when social policy is designed. Therefore, the results of this article become important to support future Program adjustments and suggest that Conditional Welfare Programs may reduce violent crimes in developing countries.
    Keywords: I30 ; K14 ; ddc:330 ; crime ; inequality ; social programs
    Language: Portuguese
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  • 63
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    Brasília: Instituto de Pesquisa Econômica Aplicada (IPEA)
    Publication Date: 2018-04-18
    Description: The urban population growth in developing countries, the middle class expansion and the increase in per capita income have increased the demand for food. This work aims to identify, from the Constant Market Share (CMS) method, the sources of growth of agricultural exports among the main countries that operate in international trade. This paper analyses two periods: i) from 1992 to 2001; and ii) from 2002 to 2013. At the same time, it was studied the following countries: Brazil, Argentina, Germany, France, United States, India and Argentina. It was verified that Brazil and Argentina stood out in the comparison, although the competitiveness has reduced in the time. On the other hand, India has maintained a strong rise, which has been first associated to world growth than to gains in competitiveness. The United States had a growth rate exports lower than the world average, a factor that can be explained by the loss of competitiveness. In European Union, France has lost ground to Germany, which unlike the French economy presented notorious performance in exports. China experienced a decline in its exports in the whole period analyzed, a movement associated to the expansion of domestic market. Finally, the results point to a growing representation of emerging countries with natural resource potential (Brazil, Argentina and India), while developed economies (the United States and European countries) plus China (this country due to its own internal dynamics) lose space in international market.
    Keywords: Q17 ; Q10 ; F10 ; ddc:330 ; foreign trade ; growth ; agriculture ; market share ; agribusiness
    Language: Portuguese
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    Brasília: Instituto de Pesquisa Econômica Aplicada (IPEA)
    Publication Date: 2018-04-18
    Description: The paper's main goal is to map trends in terms of management principles and directives, as well as transformations that permeate the public administration in the last decades. Grounded on the recent academic production, central issues are discussed in order to understand the changes in the public sector and to contribute to the theoretical debate and to future empirical investigations in an analytical framework of functions and, above all, innovative experiences. As a result, the literature converges to a perception of the principles and directives of post-NPM administration as a process of continuity or incrementalism rather than a rupture with the previous paradigm. However, when compared to the original assumptions of the Movement, regarding the dimensions of focus, inspirational source, strategic, fundamental beliefs, among others, the post-NPM differs categorically. In addition, the trends, as well as in the NPM, are present different forms, varying according to the context and institutional framework of each government. That is, institutions and history, endogeneously developed, matter for the understanding of the public administration framework. The most emblematic feature of the current public management is the prevalence of the governance, which in different formats can aggregate a significant part of the post-NPM principles and directives mapped in the literature. Finally, another central aspect of the debate is the incongruity of pure and complete overcoming of management paradigms, between NPM and traditional bureaucracy or between post-NPM and new public management. The literature suggests an incremental and disorderly process, independent of the country or the moment analyzed.
    Keywords: H83 ; ddc:330 ; reform ; public administration ; management ; federal government
    Language: Portuguese
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    Brasília: Instituto de Pesquisa Econômica Aplicada (IPEA)
    Publication Date: 2018-04-18
    Description: The aim of this study is to evaluate the effect of broadband on the GDP taking into account regional differences. This is done by using the econometric model of panel data based on database of 5564 municipalities from 2007 to 2014. In order to incorporate the regional differences we use information derived from cluster analysis that isolates homogeneous groups of municipalities. Simultaneous causality between broadband and GDP is identified through instrumental variable method. Regional differentiated effects of broadband among municipalities were observed. The greatest impact of broadband occurs on those municipalities with the highest income per capita and high urban concentration followed by ones with a strong concentration in the service, commerce and construction sectors. The impact of broadband is also significant in the municipalities linked to the dynamic agricultural sector. In poorer municipalities the effect of broadband also occurs although with less intensity. Finally, we test the hypothesis that the effect of broadband on the output has an "inverted U" form that indicates that the effect rises to a certain level of access, but decreases after it is exceeded. The econometric results do not indicate that this hypothesis can be denied so that the impact is more intense in the intermediate levels of access of broadband.
    Keywords: C21 ; O33 ; ddc:330 ; broadband ; cluster analysis ; K-means ; panel data ; instrumental variable
    Language: Portuguese
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