WILBERT

Wildauer Bücher+E-Medien Recherche-Tool

Your email was sent successfully. Check your inbox.

An error occurred while sending the email. Please try again.

Proceed reservation?

Export
Filter
  • Annual Reviews  (23,895)
Collection
  • 1
    Electronic Resource
    Palo Alto, Calif. : Annual Reviews
    Annual Review of Entomology 51 (2006), S. 137-161 
    ISSN: 0066-4170
    Source: Annual Reviews Electronic Back Volume Collection 1932-2001ff
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: Boreal peat bogs contain distinctive insects in addition to widely distributed generalists, including species restricted to bogs (tyrphobionts) and species characteristic of bogs but not confined to them (tyrphophiles). Bogs raised above the water table form characteristic habitat islands in southern boreal and temperate forest zones. Many bogs have persisted for hundreds and even thousands of years, preserving relict ecosystems related to subarctic biomes. The historical development and nature of individual bogs are reflected by differences among their insects, which are of great biogeographical and ecological interest. The environmental sensitivity of bogs also makes insects valuable as bioindicators. Moreover, few readily accessible bogs remain in a natural state. Given the scientific interest of bog insects and the fact that each relict bog habitat island is unique, further studies of the diversity of bog faunas are merited, and the conservation of these habitats should be strongly supported by entomologists.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
    Location Call Number Limitation Availability
    BibTip Others were also interested in ...
  • 2
    Electronic Resource
    Palo Alto, Calif. : Annual Reviews
    Annual Review of Fluid Mechanics 38 (2006), S. 251-276 
    ISSN: 0066-4189
    Source: Annual Reviews Electronic Back Volume Collection 1932-2001ff
    Topics: Mechanical Engineering, Materials Science, Production Engineering, Mining and Metallurgy, Traffic Engineering, Precision Mechanics , Physics
    Notes: We review recent advances in understanding, modeling, and controlling oscillations in the flow past a cavity. The fundamental mechanisms underlying cavity flow oscillations have been known for at least 40 years, but suppressing these oscillations in a reliable and robust way is still a challenge today. Interest in controlling the flow past a cavity is motivated by aerospace applications, but in addition, cavity flows provide an attractive canonical problem for exploring general flow control techniques. The focus is on recent advances in modeling these flows, and in controlling them, using both open-loop and closed-loop techniques. A relatively new perspective is that cavity oscillations may not always be self-sustained, but under some flow conditions may be lightly damped resonances, sustained by external disturbances such as boundary layer turbulence. Areas in which our understanding is incomplete, and which deserve further study, are discussed, in particular the effects of high-frequency open-loop forcing, fundamental limitations of feedback control for a given configuration of sensors and actuators, and the development of a feedback design methodology that respects the limited range of validity of the available dynamical models.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
    Location Call Number Limitation Availability
    BibTip Others were also interested in ...
  • 3
    Electronic Resource
    Palo Alto, Calif. : Annual Reviews
    Annual Review of Medicine 57 (2006), S. 207-221 
    ISSN: 0066-4219
    Source: Annual Reviews Electronic Back Volume Collection 1932-2001ff
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Celiac disease is an autoimmune disease that occurs in genetically predisposed individuals as the result of an immune response to gluten. This immune response occurs in both the lamina propria and the epithelium of the small intestine. There is a close link to HLA DQ2 and DQ8, although these HLA genes account for only 40% of the genetic influence. Environmental factors, such as the amount and timing of gluten administration in infancy, as well as breastfeeding, influence the disease. Serologic screening studies that use sensitive and specific antibody tests have revealed the disease to be common, occurring in Đ♯1% of the population. Clinical presentations are diverse and atypical; the majority of patients lack diarrhea. Therapy is a gluten-free diet that requires avoidance of wheat, rye, and barley, although there is potential for other therapies based on our understanding of the pathophysiology of the disease.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
    Location Call Number Limitation Availability
    BibTip Others were also interested in ...
  • 4
    Electronic Resource
    Palo Alto, Calif. : Annual Reviews
    Annual Review of Medicine 57 (2006), S. 403-417 
    ISSN: 0066-4219
    Source: Annual Reviews Electronic Back Volume Collection 1932-2001ff
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Umbilical cord blood transplantation (UCBT) is an expanding practice for both pediatric and adult patients. Rapid availability, low risk of infectious disease transmission, lower risk of graft-versus-host disease, and lack of risk for the donor makes UCB an attractive alternative source of hematopoietic stem cells for transplantation. We review the state of the art of pediatric and adult UCBT and important aspects of UCB banking. Current strategies to improve clinical results and expand access to UCBT to a larger number of adult patients are discussed. New approaches to enhance hematopoietic recovery by the use of accessory cells or direct intra-bone marrow injection are also reviewed.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
    Location Call Number Limitation Availability
    BibTip Others were also interested in ...
  • 5
    Electronic Resource
    Palo Alto, Calif. : Annual Reviews
    Annual Review of Medicine 57 (2006), S. 535-551 
    ISSN: 0066-4219
    Source: Annual Reviews Electronic Back Volume Collection 1932-2001ff
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Existing treatments for neuropathic pain deliver inadequate pain relief, unacceptable side effects, or both. The unmet medical need for more effective treatment is driving a large volume of research to discover new drugs. Most existing treatments are drugs introduced to treat other pain conditions or other medical conditions, such as antidepressants and anticonvulsants, which were found empirically to be effective for neuropathic pain. Only recently have drug discovery efforts have become mechanistically driven, addressing targets identified by a molecular neurobiological approach to the pathophysiology of neuropathic states.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
    Location Call Number Limitation Availability
    BibTip Others were also interested in ...
  • 6
    Electronic Resource
    Palo Alto, Calif. : Annual Reviews
    Annual Review of Medicine 57 (2006), S. 419-436 
    ISSN: 0066-4219
    Source: Annual Reviews Electronic Back Volume Collection 1932-2001ff
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Recent advances have demonstrated that thrombotic thrombocytopenic purpura (TTP), characterized by widespread thrombosis in the arterioles and capillaries, is caused by deficiency of a circulating zinc metalloprotease, ADAMTS13. Two types of TTP are recognized: autoimmune TTP, caused by inhibitory antibodies of ADAMTS13, and hereditary TTP, caused by genetic mutations of ADAMTS13. This article reviews the characteristics and function of ADAMTS13, the mechanism by which ADAMTS13 deficiency may lead to thrombosis, and the causes of ADAMTS13 deficiency. It also discusses how the new knowledge may improve the diagnosis and treatment of this previously mysterious disorder.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
    Location Call Number Limitation Availability
    BibTip Others were also interested in ...
  • 7
    Electronic Resource
    Palo Alto, Calif. : Annual Reviews
    Annual Review of Medicine 57 (2006), S. 195-206 
    ISSN: 0066-4219
    Source: Annual Reviews Electronic Back Volume Collection 1932-2001ff
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: We review the diagnosis, categorization, and treatment of prostatitis/chronic pelvic pain syndrome based on the National Institutes of Health (NIH) classification. Prostatitis is an extremely common syndrome that afflicts 2%Đ??10% of men. Formerly a purely clinical diagnosis, prostatitis is now classified within a complex series of syndromes (NIH category IĐ??IV prostatitis) that vary widely in clinical presentation and response to treatment. Acute bacterial prostatitis (category I) and chronic bacterial prostatitis (category II) are characterized by uropathogenic infections of the prostate gland that respond well to antimicrobial treatment. In contrast, chronic prostatitis/chronic pelvic pain syndrome (category III), which accounts for 90%Đ??95% of prostatitis cases, is of unknown etiology and is marked by a mixture of pain, urinary, and ejaculatory symptoms with no uniformly effective therapy. Asymptomatic inflammatory prostatitis (category IV) is an incidental finding of unknown clinical significance. This review describes the current status of prostatitis syndromes and explores the future prospects of new diagnostic tools and therapies.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
    Location Call Number Limitation Availability
    BibTip Others were also interested in ...
  • 8
    Electronic Resource
    Palo Alto, Calif. : Annual Reviews
    Annual Review of Medicine 57 (2006), S. 331-347 
    ISSN: 0066-4219
    Source: Annual Reviews Electronic Back Volume Collection 1932-2001ff
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: A number of genetic disorders can result in the accumulation of excess iron in the body. These causes of hereditary hemochromatosis include defects in genes encoding HFE, transferrin receptor 2, ferroportin, hepcidin, and hemojuvelin. Hepcidin, with its cognate receptor, ferroportin, has emerged as a central regulator of iron homeostasis; all of the known causes of hemochromatosis appear to prevent this system from functioning normally. The most common form of primary hemochromatosis is that caused by C282Y mutation of the HFE gene. This mutation is most prevalent among Northern Europeans. Although the frequency of the homozygous genotype is approximately 5 per 1000, the disease itself is quite rare because the clinical penetrance of the genotype is very low.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
    Location Call Number Limitation Availability
    BibTip Others were also interested in ...
  • 9
    Electronic Resource
    Palo Alto, Calif. : Annual Reviews
    Annual Review of Medicine 57 (2006), S. 455-471 
    ISSN: 0066-4219
    Source: Annual Reviews Electronic Back Volume Collection 1932-2001ff
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: More than three decades of clinical experience in cardiac transplantation resulted in the spread of the procedure worldwide with a wealth of knowledge and advancements. Developments included liberalization of recipient and donor selection criteria, improved surgical techniques, novel immunosuppressive drugs and protocols, new rejection surveillance techniques, and better understanding of the pathophysiology of cardiac allograft vasculopathy to direct interventions for prevention and treatment.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
    Location Call Number Limitation Availability
    BibTip Others were also interested in ...
  • 10
    Electronic Resource
    Palo Alto, Calif. : Annual Reviews
    Annual Review of Medicine 57 (2006), S. 139-154 
    ISSN: 0066-4219
    Source: Annual Reviews Electronic Back Volume Collection 1932-2001ff
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Influenza A viral infection causes substantial annual morbidity and mortality worldwide, particularly for infants, the elderly, and the immunocompromised. The virus mainly replicates in the respiratory tract and is spread by respiratory secretions. A growing concern is the recent identification of H5N1 strains of avian influenza A in Asia that were previously thought to infect only wild birds and poultry, but have now infected humans, cats, pigs, and other mammals, often with fatal results, in an ongoing outbreak. A human pandemic with H5N1 virus could potentially be catastrophic because most human populations have negligible antibody-mediated immunity to the H5 surface protein and this viral subtype is highly virulent. Whether an H5N1 influenza pandemic will occur is likely to hinge on whether the viral strains involved in the current outbreak acquire additional mutations that facilitate efficient human-to-human transfer of infection. Although there is no historical precedent for an H5N1 avian strain causing widespread human-to-human transmission, some type of influenza A pandemic is very likely in the near future. The possibility of an H5N1 influenza pandemic has highlighted the many current limitations of treatment with antiviral agents and of vaccine production and immunogenicity. Future vaccine strategies that may include more robust induction of T-cell responses, such as cytotoxic T lymphocytes, may provide better protection than is offered by current vaccines, which rely solely or mainly on antibody neutralization of infection.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
    Location Call Number Limitation Availability
    BibTip Others were also interested in ...
  • 11
    Electronic Resource
    Palo Alto, Calif. : Annual Reviews
    Annual Review of Medicine 57 (2006), S. 33-47 
    ISSN: 0066-4219
    Source: Annual Reviews Electronic Back Volume Collection 1932-2001ff
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: VELCADE?℗ (bortezomib, Millennium Pharmaceuticals, Inc., Cambridge, MA, and Johnson & Johnson Pharmaceutical Research & Development, L.L.C., Raritan, NJ) is a first-in-class proteasome inhibitor developed specifically for use as an antineoplastic agent. Inhibition of the proteasome results in disruption of homeostatic mechanisms within the cell that can lead to cell death. Bortezomib's first indication, for the treatment of relapsed myeloma in patients who have received at least two prior treatments and progressed on their previous treatment, was based in part on the magnitude of activity demonstrated in phase II trials. Bortezomib is currently indicated for patients who have received at least one prior therapy in the United States and European Union, although patients in the European Union must have already undergone bone marrow transplantation or be unsuitable for the procedure. A phase III trial demonstrated the superiority of bortezomib over high-dose dexamethasone in response rate, time to progression, and survival in patients with myeloma who had relapsed after 1Đ??3 prior therapies. Clinical development is ongoing to investigate its activity as monotherapy and in combination regimens for the treatment of non-Hodgkin's lymphoma, solid tumors, and earlier presentations of myeloma.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
    Location Call Number Limitation Availability
    BibTip Others were also interested in ...
  • 12
    Electronic Resource
    Palo Alto, Calif. : Annual Reviews
    Annual Review of Medicine 57 (2006), S. 99-118 
    ISSN: 0066-4219
    Source: Annual Reviews Electronic Back Volume Collection 1932-2001ff
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Researchers have made great progress in defining genetic and molecular alterations that contribute to cancer. New therapeutic targets have been identified and targeted therapeutic agents have been developed, but our ability to evaluate potential drugs has not kept pace. Molecular imaging technologies that monitor biological processes and/or measure levels of targeted macromolecules can contribute significantly to preclinical and clinical drug evaluation. This article describes the drug discovery process, economic problems facing drug discovery and development, and successes and failures in this realm. We briefly describe the available molecular imaging tools, with emphasis on positron emission tomography. We discuss biological processes that are altered in tumors and can be measured by molecular imaging; examples include gene expression, signal transduction, tumor cell metabolism, proliferation, apoptosis, hypoxia, and angiogenesis. We conclude with a proposal to integrate molecular imaging into the drug development process.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
    Location Call Number Limitation Availability
    BibTip Others were also interested in ...
  • 13
    Electronic Resource
    Palo Alto, Calif. : Annual Reviews
    Annual Review of Medicine 57 (2006), S. 365-380 
    ISSN: 0066-4219
    Source: Annual Reviews Electronic Back Volume Collection 1932-2001ff
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Various disciplines within nephrology investigate the mechanisms by which kidneys fail. Progress in the areas of glomerular hemodynamics, proteinuria, tubular biology, interstitial nephritis, fibroblast formation, and fibrosis have added kernels of information that together support a unified theory of renal progression. Prevention of progression to end-stage disease has largely focused on control of systemic and glomerular hypertension. Current success in delaying a decline in glomerular filtration rate underlines the promise of a more comprehensive approach. New knowledge about the cell biology of progression also suggests that other adjunctive therapies may be possible. We describe the progress and highlight those spheres where new-targeted interventions may arise.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
    Location Call Number Limitation Availability
    BibTip Others were also interested in ...
  • 14
    Electronic Resource
    Palo Alto, Calif. : Annual Reviews
    Annual Review of Medicine 57 (2006), S. 19-31 
    ISSN: 0066-4219
    Source: Annual Reviews Electronic Back Volume Collection 1932-2001ff
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Advances in radiation oncology have been made on three major fronts: biology, physics, and clinical application. Our biological understanding of how radiation kills cells and how malignant cells avoid damage has identified new targets for therapeutic manipulation. Research in physics has yielded sophisticated methods to direct the deposition of radiation energy in ways that enhance target coverage while minimizing dose to normal structures as much as possible. Intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) and image-guided radiation therapy represent new paradigms in treatment planning and dose delivery. Clinical management of the cancer patient is multidisciplinary. Increasingly, combinations of radiation and chemotherapy, with or without surgery, are enhancing cure rates, often with preservation of organ function. Taken together, these advances have increased the effectiveness of radiation therapy and promise better treatment results in the future.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
    Location Call Number Limitation Availability
    BibTip Others were also interested in ...
  • 15
    Electronic Resource
    Palo Alto, Calif. : Annual Reviews
    Annual Review of Medicine 57 (2006), S. 49-63 
    ISSN: 0066-4219
    Source: Annual Reviews Electronic Back Volume Collection 1932-2001ff
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Prostate cancer is an attractive target for chemoprevention because of its ubiquity, treatment-related morbidity, long latency between premalignant lesions and clinically evident cancer, and defined molecular pathogenesis. The Prostate Cancer Prevention Trial has provided the first firm evidence that this cancer can be prevented by a relatively nontoxic oral agent. Additional agents, many of which are antioxidants with antiandrogenic effects, are being tested (or soon will be) in large clinical trials. The current body of evidence is insufficient to make a routine recommendation of any dietary or nutritional supplement for the prevention of prostate cancer.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
    Location Call Number Limitation Availability
    BibTip Others were also interested in ...
  • 16
    Electronic Resource
    Palo Alto, Calif. : Annual Reviews
    Annual Review of Medicine 57 (2006), S. 181-194 
    ISSN: 0066-4219
    Source: Annual Reviews Electronic Back Volume Collection 1932-2001ff
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: West Nile virus (WNV) was first detected in North America in 1999 during an outbreak of encephalitis in New York City. Since then the virus has spread across North America and into Canada, Latin America, and the Caribbean. The largest epidemics of neuroinvasive WNV disease ever reported occurred in the United States in 2002 and 2003. This paper reviews new information on the epidemiology and clinical aspects of WNV disease derived from greatly expanded surveillance and research on WNV during the past six years.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
    Location Call Number Limitation Availability
    BibTip Others were also interested in ...
  • 17
    Electronic Resource
    Palo Alto, Calif. : Annual Reviews
    Annual Review of Medicine 57 (2006), S. 381-402 
    ISSN: 0066-4219
    Source: Annual Reviews Electronic Back Volume Collection 1932-2001ff
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: The human immune system mounts specific responses to a vast array of antigens. Although this is clearly beneficial in fighting off harmful infections and cancerous cells, the system must be carefully controlled to ensure that normal self-antigens are not targeted. A recently characterized subset of T cells, identified by their cell surface expression of CD4 and CD25, is critical in regulating the function of other immune cells and preventing potentially harmful autoimmune responses. This article reviews what is currently known about these so-called regulatory T cells and discusses the therapeutic potential of these cells to modulate human immune-based diseases.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
    Location Call Number Limitation Availability
    BibTip Others were also interested in ...
  • 18
    Electronic Resource
    Palo Alto, Calif. : Annual Reviews
    Annual Review of Physiology 68 (2006), S. 491-505 
    ISSN: 0066-4278
    Source: Annual Reviews Electronic Back Volume Collection 1932-2001ff
    Topics: Medicine , Biology
    Notes: The sodium-hydrogen exchanger regulatory factors (NHERF-1 and NHERF-2) are a family of adaptor proteins characterized by the presence of two tandem PDZ protein interaction domains and a C-terminal domain that binds the cytoskeleton proteins ezrin, radixin, moesin, and merlin. The NHERF proteins are highly expressed in the kidney, small intestine, and other organs, where they associate with a number of transporters and ion channels, signaling proteins, and transcription factors. Recent evidence has revealed important associations between the NHERF proteins and several G proteinĐ??coupled receptors such as the ?‚2-adrenergic receptor, the ?”-opioid receptor, and the parathyroid hormone receptor, as well as growth factor tyrosine kinase receptors such as the platelet-derived growth factor receptor and the epidermal growth factor receptor. This review summarizes the emerging data on the biochemical mechanisms, physiologic outcomes, and potential clinical implications of the assembly and disassembly of receptor/NHERF complexes.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
    Location Call Number Limitation Availability
    BibTip Others were also interested in ...
  • 19
    Electronic Resource
    Palo Alto, Calif. : Annual Reviews
    Annual Review of Psychology 57 (2006), S. 27-53 
    ISSN: 0066-4308
    Source: Annual Reviews Electronic Back Volume Collection 1932-2001ff
    Topics: Psychology
    Notes: Traditional approaches to the study of cognition emphasize an information-processing view that has generally excluded emotion. In contrast, the recent emergence of cognitive neuroscience as an inspiration for understanding human cognition has highlighted its interaction with emotion. This review explores insights into the relations between emotion and cognition that have resulted from studies of the human amygdala. Five topics are explored: emotional learning, emotion and memory, emotion's influence on attention and perception, processing emotion in social stimuli, and changing emotional responses. Investigations into the neural systems underlying human behavior demonstrate that the mechanisms of emotion and cognition are intertwined from early perception to reasoning. These findings suggest that the classic division between the study of emotion and cognition may be unrealistic and that an understanding of human cognition requires the consideration of emotion.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
    Location Call Number Limitation Availability
    BibTip Others were also interested in ...
  • 20
    Electronic Resource
    Palo Alto, Calif. : Annual Reviews
    Annual Review of Psychology 57 (2006), S. 55-85 
    ISSN: 0066-4308
    Source: Annual Reviews Electronic Back Volume Collection 1932-2001ff
    Topics: Psychology
    Notes: It is usually assumed that stressful life events interfere with our ability to acquire new information. However, many studies suggest that stressful experience can enhance processes involved in learning. The types of learning that are enhanced after stressful experiences include classical fear and eyeblink conditioning, as well as processes related to learning about threatening stimuli. Stressful life experiences do seem to interfere with processes involved in memory, often expressed as deficits in the retention or retrieval of information that was acquired prior to and was unrelated to the stressful experience. The trends are limited, as are their implications, because most studies examine adult males, yet the effects of stress on learning processes are influenced by age and sex differences. With respect to mechanisms and anatomical substrates, the effects of stress on learning are usually dependent on the action of stress hormones in combination with neuronal activities within the hippocampus, amygdala, the bed nucleus of the stria terminalis, and the prefrontal cortex.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
    Location Call Number Limitation Availability
    BibTip Others were also interested in ...
  • 21
    Electronic Resource
    Palo Alto, Calif. : Annual Reviews
    Annual Review of Psychology 57 (2006), S. 87-115 
    ISSN: 0066-4308
    Source: Annual Reviews Electronic Back Volume Collection 1932-2001ff
    Topics: Psychology
    Notes: The functions of rewards are based primarily on their effects on behavior and are less directly governed by the physics and chemistry of input events as in sensory systems. Therefore, the investigation of neural mechanisms underlying reward functions requires behavioral theories that can conceptualize the different effects of rewards on behavior. The scientific investigation of behavioral processes by animal learning theory and economic utility theory has produced a theoretical framework that can help to elucidate the neural correlates for reward functions in learning, goal-directed approach behavior, and decision making under uncertainty. Individual neurons can be studied in the reward systems of the brain, including dopamine neurons, orbitofrontal cortex, and striatum. The neural activity can be related to basic theoretical terms of reward and uncertainty, such as contiguity, contingency, prediction error, magnitude, probability, expected value, and variance.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
    Location Call Number Limitation Availability
    BibTip Others were also interested in ...
  • 22
    Electronic Resource
    Palo Alto, Calif. : Annual Reviews
    Annual Review of Psychology 57 (2006), S. 117-137 
    ISSN: 0066-4308
    Source: Annual Reviews Electronic Back Volume Collection 1932-2001ff
    Topics: Psychology
    Notes: The study of the genetics of complex behaviors has evolved dramatically from the days of the nature versus nurture debates that dominated much of the past century. Here we discuss advances in our understanding of the genetics of affective and anxiety disorders. In particular, we highlight our growing understanding of specific gene-environment interactions that occur during critical periods in development, setting the stage for later behavioral phenotypes. We review the recent literature in the field, focusing on recent advances in our understanding of the role of the serotonin system in establishing normal anxiety levels during development. We emphasize the importance of understanding the effect of genetic variation at the level of functional circuits and provide examples from the literature of how such an approach has been exploited to study novel genetic endpoints, including genetically based variation in response to medication, a potentially valuable phenotype that has not received much attention to date.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
    Location Call Number Limitation Availability
    BibTip Others were also interested in ...
  • 23
    Electronic Resource
    Palo Alto, Calif. : Annual Reviews
    Annual Review of Psychology 57 (2006), S. 139-166 
    ISSN: 0066-4308
    Source: Annual Reviews Electronic Back Volume Collection 1932-2001ff
    Topics: Psychology
    Notes: Although the functions of sleep remain largely unknown, one of the most exciting hypotheses is that sleep contributes importantly to processes of memory and brain plasticity. Over the past decade, a large body of work, spanning most of the neurosciences, has provided a substantive body of evidence supporting this role of sleep in what is becoming known as sleep-dependent memory processing. We review these findings, focusing specifically on the role of sleep in (a) memory encoding, (b) memory consolidation, (c) brain plasticity, and (d) memory reconsolidation; we finish with a summary of the field and its potential future directions.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
    Location Call Number Limitation Availability
    BibTip Others were also interested in ...
  • 24
    Electronic Resource
    Palo Alto, Calif. : Annual Reviews
    Annual Review of Psychology 57 (2006), S. 167-197 
    ISSN: 0066-4308
    Source: Annual Reviews Electronic Back Volume Collection 1932-2001ff
    Topics: Psychology
    Notes: Neuroecology is the study of adaptive variation in cognition and the brain. The origin of neuroecology dates from the 1980s, when researchers in behavioral ecology began to apply the methods of comparative evolutionary biology to cognitive processes and the underlying neural mechanisms of cognition. The comparative approach, however, is much older. It was a mainstay of ethology, it has been part of the study of neuroanatomy since the seventeenth century, and it was used by Darwin to marshal evidence for the theory of natural selection. Neuroecology examines the relations between ecological selection pressures and species or sex differences in cognition and the brain. The goal of neuroecology is to understand how natural selection acts on cognition and its neural mechanisms. This chapter describes the general approach of neuroecology, phylogenetic comparative methods used in the field, and new findings on the cognitive mechanisms and brain structures involved in mating systems, social organization, communication, and foraging. The contribution of neuroecology to psychology and the neurosciences is the information it provides on the selective pressures that have influenced the evolution of cognition and brain structure.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
    Location Call Number Limitation Availability
    BibTip Others were also interested in ...
  • 25
    Electronic Resource
    Palo Alto, Calif. : Annual Reviews
    Annual Review of Psychology 57 (2006), S. 199-226 
    ISSN: 0066-4308
    Source: Annual Reviews Electronic Back Volume Collection 1932-2001ff
    Topics: Psychology
    Notes: What makes a face attractive and why do we have the preferences we do? Emergence of preferences early in development and cross-cultural agreement on attractiveness challenge a long-held view that our preferences reflect arbitrary standards of beauty set by cultures. Averageness, symmetry, and sexual dimorphism are good candidates for biologically based standards of beauty. A critical review and meta-analyses indicate that all three are attractive in both male and female faces and across cultures. Theorists have proposed that face preferences may be adaptations for mate choice because attractive traits signal important aspects of mate quality, such as health. Others have argued that they may simply be by-products of the way brains process information. Although often presented as alternatives, I argue that both kinds of selection pressures may have shaped our perceptions of facial beauty.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
    Location Call Number Limitation Availability
    BibTip Others were also interested in ...
  • 26
    Electronic Resource
    Palo Alto, Calif. : Annual Reviews
    Annual Review of Psychology 57 (2006), S. 227-254 
    ISSN: 0066-4308
    Source: Annual Reviews Electronic Back Volume Collection 1932-2001ff
    Topics: Psychology
    Notes: The study of explanation, while related to intuitive theories, concepts, and mental models, offers important new perspectives on high-level thought. Explanations sort themselves into several distinct types corresponding to patterns of causation, content domains, and explanatory stances, all of which have cognitive consequences. Although explanations are necessarily incompleteĐ??often dramatically so in laypeopleĐ??those gaps are difficult to discern. Despite such gaps and the failure to recognize them fully, people do have skeletal explanatory senses, often implicit, of the causal structure of the world. They further leverage those skeletal understandings by knowing how to access additional explanatory knowledge in other minds and by being particularly adept at using situational support to build explanations on the fly in real time. Across development and cultures, there are differences in preferred explanatory schemes, but rarely are any kinds of schemes completely unavailable to a group.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
    Location Call Number Limitation Availability
    BibTip Others were also interested in ...
  • 27
    Electronic Resource
    Palo Alto, Calif. : Annual Reviews
    Annual Review of Psychology 57 (2006), S. 255-284 
    ISSN: 0066-4308
    Source: Annual Reviews Electronic Back Volume Collection 1932-2001ff
    Topics: Psychology
    Notes: In this chapter we review theoretical and empirical advances in research on adolescent development in interpersonal and societal contexts. First, we identify several trends in current research, including the current emphasis on ecological models and the focus on diversity in and relational models of adolescent development. Next, we discuss recent research on interpersonal relationships, with an eye toward identifying major research themes and findings. Research on adolescents' relationships with parents, siblings, other relatives, peers, and romantic partners, and adolescents' involvement in community and society is reviewed. Future directions in research on adolescent development are discussed.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
    Location Call Number Limitation Availability
    BibTip Others were also interested in ...
  • 28
    Electronic Resource
    Palo Alto, Calif. : Annual Reviews
    Annual Review of Psychology 57 (2006), S. 285-315 
    ISSN: 0066-4308
    Source: Annual Reviews Electronic Back Volume Collection 1932-2001ff
    Topics: Psychology
    Notes: Recent studies suggest that cognitive and behavioral interventions have enduring effects that reduce risk for subsequent symptom return following treatment termination. These enduring effects have been most clearly demonstrated with respect to depression and the anxiety disorders. It remains unclear whether these effects are a consequence of the amelioration of the causal processes that generate risk or the introduction of compensatory strategies that offset them and whether these effects reflect the mobilization of cognitive or other mechanisms. No such enduring effects have been observed for the psychoactive medications, which appear to be largely palliative in nature. Other psychosocial interventions remain largely untested, although claims that they produce lasting change have long been made. Whether such enduring effects extend to other disorders remains to be seen, but the capacity to reduce risk following treatment termination is one of the major benefits provided by the cognitive and behavioral interventions with respect to the treatment of depression and the anxiety disorders.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
    Location Call Number Limitation Availability
    BibTip Others were also interested in ...
  • 29
    Electronic Resource
    Palo Alto, Calif. : Annual Reviews
    Annual Review of Psychology 57 (2006), S. 345-374 
    ISSN: 0066-4308
    Source: Annual Reviews Electronic Back Volume Collection 1932-2001ff
    Topics: Psychology
    Notes: Study of attitudes and persuasion remains a defining characteristic of contemporary social psychology. This review outlines recent advances, with emphasis on the relevance of today's work for perennial issues. We reiterate the distinction between attitude formation and change, and show its relevance for persuasion. Single- and dual-process models are discussed, as are current views on dissonance theory. Majority and minority influence are scrutinized, with special emphasis on integrative theoretical innovations. Attitude strength is considered, and its relevance to ambivalence and resistance documented. Affect, mood, and emotion effects are reviewed, especially as they pertain to fear arousal and (un)certainty. Finally, we discuss attitude-behavior consistency, perhaps the reason for our interest in attitudes in the first place, with emphasis on self-interest and the theory of planned behavior. Our review reflects the dynamism and the reach of the area, and suggests a sure and sometimes rapid accumulation of knowledge and understanding.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
    Location Call Number Limitation Availability
    BibTip Others were also interested in ...
  • 30
    Electronic Resource
    Palo Alto, Calif. : Annual Reviews
    Annual Review of Psychology 57 (2006), S. 317-344 
    ISSN: 0066-4308
    Source: Annual Reviews Electronic Back Volume Collection 1932-2001ff
    Topics: Psychology
    Notes: Couple therapy research affirms that various approaches to couple treatment produce statistically and clinically significant improvement for a substantial proportion of couples in reducing overall relationship distress. Recent studies have extended these findings in indicating the effectiveness of couple-based interventions for a broad range of coexisting emotional, behavioral, or physical health problems in one or both partners. In contrast to these encouraging results, research also indicates that a sizeable percentage of couples fail to achieve significant gains from couple therapy or show significant deterioration afterward. Research on processes of change and predictors of treatment outcome in couple therapy provides preliminary evidence regarding factors potentially contributing to variable treatment response. The chapter concludes with 12 recommendations regarding future directions in couple therapy research and clinical training.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
    Location Call Number Limitation Availability
    BibTip Others were also interested in ...
  • 31
    Electronic Resource
    Palo Alto, Calif. : Annual Reviews
    Annual Review of Psychology 57 (2006), S. 375-400 
    ISSN: 0066-4308
    Source: Annual Reviews Electronic Back Volume Collection 1932-2001ff
    Topics: Psychology
    Notes: Legitimacy is a psychological property of an authority, institution, or social arrangement that leads those connected to it to believe that it is appropriate, proper, and just. Because of legitimacy, people feel that they ought to defer to decisions and rules, following them voluntarily out of obligation rather than out of fear of punishment or anticipation of reward. Being legitimate is important to the success of authorities, institutions, and institutional arrangements since it is difficult to exert influence over others based solely upon the possession and use of power. Being able to gain voluntary acquiescence from most people, most of the time, due to their sense of obligation increases effectiveness during periods of scarcity, crisis, and conflict. The concept of legitimacy has a long history within social thought and social psychology, and it has emerged as increasingly important within recent research on the dynamics of political, legal, and social systems.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
    Location Call Number Limitation Availability
    BibTip Others were also interested in ...
  • 32
    Electronic Resource
    Palo Alto, Calif. : Annual Reviews
    Annual Review of Psychology 57 (2006), S. 401-421 
    ISSN: 0066-4308
    Source: Annual Reviews Electronic Back Volume Collection 1932-2001ff
    Topics: Psychology
    Notes: Personality has consequences. Measures of personality have contemporaneous and predictive relations to a variety of important outcomes. Using the Big Five factors as heuristics for organizing the research literature, numerous consequential relations are identified. Personality dispositions are associated with happiness, physical and psychological health, spirituality, and identity at an individual level; associated with the quality of relationships with peers, family, and romantic others at an interpersonal level; and associated with occupational choice, satisfaction, and performance, as well as community involvement, criminal activity, and political ideology at a social institutional level.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
    Location Call Number Limitation Availability
    BibTip Others were also interested in ...
  • 33
    Electronic Resource
    Palo Alto, Calif. : Annual Reviews
    Annual Review of Psychology 57 (2006), S. 423-451 
    ISSN: 0066-4308
    Source: Annual Reviews Electronic Back Volume Collection 1932-2001ff
    Topics: Psychology
    Notes: Characteristics of the physical environment that influence child development are discussed. Topics include behavioral toxicology, noise, crowding, housing and neighborhood quality, natural settings, schools, and day care settings. Socioemotional, cognitive, motivation, and psychophysiological outcomes in children and youths are reviewed. Necessary methodological and conceptual advances are introduced as well.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
    Location Call Number Limitation Availability
    BibTip Others were also interested in ...
  • 34
    Electronic Resource
    Palo Alto, Calif. : Annual Reviews
    Annual Review of Psychology 57 (2006), S. 453-485 
    ISSN: 0066-4308
    Source: Annual Reviews Electronic Back Volume Collection 1932-2001ff
    Topics: Psychology
    Notes: This chapter reviews research on consumer psychology with emphasis on the topics of categorization, inferences, affect, and persuasion. The chapter reviews theory-based empirical research during the period 1994Đ??2004. Research on categorization includes empirical research on brand categories, goals as organizing frameworks and motivational bases for judgments, and self-based processing. Research on inferences includes numerous types of inferences that are cognitively and/or experienced based. Research on affect includes the effects of mood on processing and cognitive and noncognitive bases for attitudes and intentions. Research on persuasion focuses heavily on the moderating role of elaboration and dual-process models, and includes research on attitude strength responses, advertising responses, and negative versus positive evaluative dimensions.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
    Location Call Number Limitation Availability
    BibTip Others were also interested in ...
  • 35
    Electronic Resource
    Palo Alto, Calif. : Annual Reviews
    Annual Review of Psychology 57 (2006), S. 487-503 
    ISSN: 0066-4308
    Source: Annual Reviews Electronic Back Volume Collection 1932-2001ff
    Topics: Psychology
    Notes: Over the past 25 years, achievement goal theory has emerged as one of the most prominent theories of achievement motivation. This chapter uses an achievement goal framework to examine the influence of classroom and school environments on students' academic motivation and achievement. Considerable evidence suggests that elementary and secondary students show the most positive motivation and learning patterns when their school settings emphasize mastery, understanding, and improving skills and knowledge. Whereas school environments that are focused on demonstrating high ability and competing for grades can increase the academic performance of some students, research suggests that many young people experience diminished motivation under these conditions. The implications of achievement goal theory for examining the impact of school reform are discussed.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
    Location Call Number Limitation Availability
    BibTip Others were also interested in ...
  • 36
    Electronic Resource
    Palo Alto, Calif. : Annual Reviews
    Annual Review of Psychology 57 (2006), S. 505-528 
    ISSN: 0066-4308
    Source: Annual Reviews Electronic Back Volume Collection 1932-2001ff
    Topics: Psychology
    Notes: This article argues that ideal longitudinal research is characterized by the seamless integration of three elements: (a) a well-articulated theoretical model of change observed using (b) a temporal design that affords a clear and detailed view of the process, with the resulting data analyzed by means of (c) a statistical model that is an operationalization of the theoretical model. Two general varieties of theoretical models are considered: models in which the time-related change of primary interest is continuous, and those in which it is characterized by movement between discrete states. In addition, two general types of temporal designs are considered: the longitudinal panel design and the intensive longitudinal design. For each general category of theoretical models, some of the analytic possibilities available for longitudinal panel designs and for intensive longitudinal designs are discussed. The article concludes with brief discussions of two issues particularly relevant to longitudinal researchĐ??missing data and measurementĐ??and a few words about exploratory research.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
    Location Call Number Limitation Availability
    BibTip Others were also interested in ...
  • 37
    Electronic Resource
    Palo Alto, Calif. : Annual Reviews
    Annual Review of Psychology 57 (2006), S. 529-555 
    ISSN: 0066-4308
    Source: Annual Reviews Electronic Back Volume Collection 1932-2001ff
    Topics: Psychology
    Notes: This chapter reviews studies published in American Psychological Association (APA) journals from 2003Đ??2004 and additional studies (received in response to listserv requests) that used the Internet to collect data (N=121 total studies). Specific examples of three kinds of Web-based research are reviewed: (a) translational (established methods and research questions are adapted to the Web), (b) phenomenological (behavior on the Web is the focus of study), and (c) novel (methodologically innovations unique to Web-based research). Among other findings, our review indicated that 21% of APA journals published at least one article that reported on Web-based research, most Web-based psychological research uses experimental methods, a surprising number use college student samples, and deception in Web-based research is not uncommon. Strengths and weaknesses of Web-based psychological research in general, and our sample of studies in particular, are reviewed with special attention to possible concerns about sampling and the use of deception.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
    Location Call Number Limitation Availability
    BibTip Others were also interested in ...
  • 38
    Electronic Resource
    Palo Alto, Calif. : Annual Reviews
    Annual Review of Psychology 57 (2006), S. 557-583 
    ISSN: 0066-4308
    Source: Annual Reviews Electronic Back Volume Collection 1932-2001ff
    Topics: Psychology
    Notes: Family violence occurs in many forms; the most prominent are domestic violence, child abuse, and elder abuse. Family violence affects many persons at some point in their life and constitutes the majority of violent acts in our society. Although there has been considerable study of the patterns, risk factors, and interventions for each form of family violence, great controversy still exists within each area. There is growing recognition of an overlap in the patterns, causes, and effective interventions across types of family violence. There is also an increasing awareness of the value of greater integration of theory and research across areas into a family violence approach through an ecological perspective. This review focuses on current knowledge related to these problems and suggests integrative steps to advance knowledge.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
    Location Call Number Limitation Availability
    BibTip Others were also interested in ...
  • 39
    Electronic Resource
    Palo Alto, Calif. : Annual Reviews
    Annual Review of Psychology 57 (2006), S. 585-611 
    ISSN: 0066-4308
    Source: Annual Reviews Electronic Back Volume Collection 1932-2001ff
    Topics: Psychology
    Notes: Affirmative action is a controversial and often poorly understood policy. It is also a policy that has been widely studied by social scientists. In this review, we outline how affirmative action operates in employment and education settings and consider the major points of controversy. In addition, we detail the contributions of psychologists and other social scientists in helping to demonstrate why affirmative action is needed; how it can have unintended negative consequences; and how affirmative action programs can be most successful. We also review how psychologists have examined variations in people's attitudes toward affirmative action, in part as a means for testing different theories of social behavior.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
    Location Call Number Limitation Availability
    BibTip Others were also interested in ...
  • 40
    Electronic Resource
    Palo Alto, Calif. : Annual Reviews
    Annual Review of Pharmacology 46 (2006), S. 451-480 
    ISSN: 0362-1642
    Source: Annual Reviews Electronic Back Volume Collection 1932-2001ff
    Topics: Medicine , Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Notes: Retinoic acid (RA) is involved in vertebrate morphogenesis, growth, cellular differentiation, and tissue homeostasis. The use of in vitro systems initially led to the identification of nuclear receptor RXR/RAR heterodimers as possible transducers of the RA signal. To unveil the physiological functions of RARs and RXRs, genetic and pharmacological studies have been performed in the mouse. Together, their results demonstrate that (a) RXR/RAR heterodimers in which RXR is either transcriptionally active or silent are involved in the transduction of the RA signal during prenatal development, (b) specific RXRʼ̛/RAR heterodimers are required at many distinct stages during early embryogenesis and organogenesis, (c) the physiological role of RA and its receptors cannot be extrapolated from teratogenesis studies using retinoids in excess. Additional cell typeĐ??restricted and temporally controlled somatic mutagenesis is required to determine the functions of RARs and RXRs during postnatal life.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
    Location Call Number Limitation Availability
    BibTip Others were also interested in ...
  • 41
    Electronic Resource
    Palo Alto, Calif. : Annual Reviews
    Annual Review of Pharmacology 46 (2006), S. 481-519 
    ISSN: 0362-1642
    Source: Annual Reviews Electronic Back Volume Collection 1932-2001ff
    Topics: Medicine , Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Notes: The multitude of chemically highly different agonists for 7TM receptors apparently do not share a common binding mode or active site but nevertheless act through induction of a common molecular activation mechanism. A global toggle switch model is proposed for this activation mechanism to reconcile the accumulated biophysical data supporting an outward rigid-body movement of the intracellular segments, as well as the recent data derived from activating metal ion sites and tethered ligands, which suggests an opposite, inward movement of the extracellular segments of the transmembrane helices. According to this model, a vertical see-saw movement of TM-VIĐ??and to some degree TM-VIIĐ??around a pivot corresponding to the highly conserved prolines will occur during receptor activation, which may involve the outer segment of TM-V in an as yet unclear fashion. Small-molecule agonists can stabilize such a proposed active conformation, where the extracellular segments of TM-VI and -VII are bent inward toward TM-III, by acting as molecular glue deep in the main ligand-binding pocket between the helices, whereas larger agonists, peptides, and proteins can stabilize a similar active conformation by acting as Velcro at the extracellular ends of the helices and the connecting loops.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
    Location Call Number Limitation Availability
    BibTip Others were also interested in ...
  • 42
    Electronic Resource
    Palo Alto, Calif. : Annual Reviews
    ISSN: 1553-4006
    Source: Annual Reviews Electronic Back Volume Collection 1932-2001ff
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Helicobacter pylori is the main cause of peptic ulceration, distal gastric adenocarcinoma, and gastric lymphoma. Only 15% of those colonized develop disease, and pathogenesis depends upon strain virulence, host genetic susceptibility, and environmental cofactors. Virulence factors include the cag pathogenicity island, which induces proinflammatory, pro-proliferative epithelial cell signaling; the cytotoxin VacA, which causes epithelial damage; and an adhesin, BabA. Host genetic polymorphisms that lead to high-level pro-inflammatory cytokine release in response to infection increase cancer risk. Pathogenesis is dependent upon inflammation, a Th-1 acquired immune response and hormonal changes including hypergastrinaemia. Antral-predominant inflammation leads to increased acid production from the uninflamed corpus and predisposes to duodenal ulceration; corpus-predominant gastritis leads to hypochlorhydria and predisposes to gastric ulceration and adenocarcinoma. Falling prevalence of H. pylori in developed countries has led to a falling incidence of associated diseases. However, whether there are disadvantages of an H. pylori-free stomach, for example increased risk of esosphageal adenocarcinoma, remains unclear.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
    Location Call Number Limitation Availability
    BibTip Others were also interested in ...
  • 43
    Electronic Resource
    Palo Alto, Calif. : Annual Reviews
    ISSN: 1553-4006
    Source: Annual Reviews Electronic Back Volume Collection 1932-2001ff
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Loss of Ca2+ homeostasis, often in the form of cytoplasmic increases, leads to cell injury. Depending upon cell type and the intensity of Ca2+ toxicity, the ensuing pathology can be reversible or irreversible. Although multiple destructive processes are activated by Ca2+, lethal outcomes are determined largely by Ca2+-induced mitochondrial permeability transition. This form of damage is primarily dependent upon mitochondrial Ca2+ accumulation, which is regulated by the mitochondrial membrane potential. Retention of the mitochondrial membrane potential during Ca2+ increases favors mitochondrial Ca2+ uptake and overload, resulting in mitochondrial permeability transition and cell death. In contrast, dissipation of mitochondrial membrane potential reduces mitochondrial Ca2+ uptake, retards mitochondrial permeability transition, and delays death, even in cells with large Ca2+ increases. The rates of mitochondrial membrane potential dissipation and mitochondrial Ca2+ uptake may determine cellular sensitivity to Ca2+ toxicity under pathological conditions, including ischemic injury.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
    Location Call Number Limitation Availability
    BibTip Others were also interested in ...
  • 44
    Electronic Resource
    Palo Alto, Calif. : Annual Reviews
    ISSN: 1553-4006
    Source: Annual Reviews Electronic Back Volume Collection 1932-2001ff
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Atherosclerosis, the cause of myocardial infarction, stroke, and ischemic gangrene, is an inflammatory disease. The atherosclerotic process is initiated when cholesterol-containing low-density lipoproteins accumulate in the intima and activate the endothelium. Leukocyte adhesion molecules and chemokines promote recruitment of monocytes and T cells. Monocytes differentiate into macrophages and upregulate pattern recognition receptors, including scavenger receptors and toll-like receptors. Scavenger receptors mediate lipoprotein internalization, which leads to foam-cell formation. Toll-like receptors transmit activating signals that lead to the release of cytokines, proteases, and vasoactive molecules. T cells in lesions recognize local antigens and mount T helper-1 responses with secretion of pro-inflammatory cytokines that contribute to local inflammation and growth of the plaque. Intensified inflammatory activation may lead to local proteolysis, plaque rupture, and thrombus formation, which causes ischemia and infarction. Inflammatory markers are already used to monitor the disease process and anti-inflammatory therapy may be useful to control disease activity.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
    Location Call Number Limitation Availability
    BibTip Others were also interested in ...
  • 45
    Electronic Resource
    Palo Alto, Calif. : Annual Reviews
    ISSN: 1553-4006
    Source: Annual Reviews Electronic Back Volume Collection 1932-2001ff
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Sarcomas form a highly diverse group of rare tumors that are derived from connective tissue. More than 100 different malignant and benign soft tissue neoplasms can be recognized by histologic examination. Few diagnostic markers exist, and the cell of origin for many soft tissue tumors is unknown. The accurate diagnosis of many of these tumors therefore remains a challenge. The study of sarcomas has yielded many insights that can be applied to other neoplasms such as carcinoma. For example, the success of the treatment of gastrointestinal stromal tumor with Imatinib has led to an increased effort to find targeted therapies for other malignancies. Here we describe the known molecular changes in a number of sarcomas and focus on novel scientific approaches that can be expected to lead to improved diagnosis, prognostication, and therapy of sarcoma.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
    Location Call Number Limitation Availability
    BibTip Others were also interested in ...
  • 46
    Electronic Resource
    Palo Alto, Calif. : Annual Reviews
    ISSN: 1553-4006
    Source: Annual Reviews Electronic Back Volume Collection 1932-2001ff
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: In the past 25 years, a majority of cancer studies have focused on examining functional consequences of activating and/or inactivating mutations in critical genes implicated in cell cycle control. These studies have taught us a great deal about the functions of oncogenes and tumor suppressor genes and the signaling pathways regulating cell proliferation and/or cell death. However, such studies have largely ignored the fact that cancers are heterogeneous cellular entities whose growth is dependent upon reciprocal interactions between genetically altered "initiated" cells and the dynamic microenvironment in which they live. This review highlights the aspects of cancer development that, like organogenesis during embryonic development and tissue repair in adult mammals, are regulated by interactions between epithelial cells, activated stromal cells, and soluble and insoluble components of the extracellular matrix.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
    Location Call Number Limitation Availability
    BibTip Others were also interested in ...
  • 47
    Electronic Resource
    Palo Alto, Calif. : Annual Reviews
    ISSN: 1553-4006
    Source: Annual Reviews Electronic Back Volume Collection 1932-2001ff
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Among the many viruses that are known to infect the human liver, hepatitis B virus (HBV) and hepatitis C virus (HCV) are unique because of their prodigious capacity to cause persistent infection, cirrhosis, and liver cancer. HBV and HCV are noncytopathic viruses and, thus, immunologically mediated events play an important role in the pathogenesis and outcome of these infections. The adaptive immune response mediates virtually all of the liver disease associated with viral hepatitis. However, it is becoming increasingly clear that antigen-nonspecific inflammatory cells exacerbate cytotoxic T lymphocyte (CTL)-induced immunopathology and that platelets enhance the accumulation of CTLs in the liver. Chronic hepatitis is characterized by an inefficient T cell response unable to completely clear HBV or HCV from the liver, which consequently sustains continuous cycles of low-level cell destruction. Over long periods of time, recurrent immune-mediated liver damage contributes to the development of cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
    Location Call Number Limitation Availability
    BibTip Others were also interested in ...
  • 48
    Electronic Resource
    Palo Alto, Calif. : Annual Reviews
    ISSN: 1553-4006
    Source: Annual Reviews Electronic Back Volume Collection 1932-2001ff
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Developmental heart disorders are the most common of all human birth defects and occur in nearly one percent of the population. Survivors of congenital heart malformations are an increasing population, and it is becoming clear that genetic mutations that cause developmental anomalies may result in cardiac dysfunction later in life. This review highlights the progress in understanding the underlying molecular basis for cardiac formation and how disruption of the intricate steps of cardiogenesis can lead to congenital heart defects. The lessons learned from examining the early steps of heart formation are essential for informing the prevention of malformations and their long-term consequences, as well as for approaches to guide stem cells into cardiac lineages.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
    Location Call Number Limitation Availability
    BibTip Others were also interested in ...
  • 49
    Electronic Resource
    Palo Alto, Calif. : Annual Reviews
    ISSN: 1553-4006
    Source: Annual Reviews Electronic Back Volume Collection 1932-2001ff
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Modern techniques of cell and molecular biology have rapidly uncovered the mechanisms underlying inflammatory injury of the lung. This expanding knowledge (which includes an understanding of complement, cell surface receptors, cytokines and chemokines, transcription factors, oxidants, proteinases, and endogenous inhibitors, as well as the role of leukocyte adhesion-promoting molecules) has provided new insights into the inflammatory system in general, as well as in the context of lung injury. In this review, we summarize recent progress in understanding the regulation of lung inflammation by using immunoglobulin G (IgG) immune complexĐ??induced lung injury as a model. These studies have provided information on the role of various inflammatory mediators and their sequence of engagement. Insights into potential interventional approaches for the suppression of inflammatory processes in humans have emerged from those studies.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
    Location Call Number Limitation Availability
    BibTip Others were also interested in ...
  • 50
    Electronic Resource
    Palo Alto, Calif. : Annual Reviews
    ISSN: 1553-4006
    Source: Annual Reviews Electronic Back Volume Collection 1932-2001ff
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Nonimmune glomerulopathies are an area of significant research. This review discusses the development of focal segmental glomerulosclerosis, with particular attention to the role of the podocyte in the initiation of glomerulosclerosis and the contribution to glomerulosclerosis from capillary hypertension and soluble factors such as transforming growth factor beta, platelet-derived growth factor, vascular endothelial growth factor, and angiotensin. The effects of these factors on endothelial and mesangial cells are also discussed. In addition, we review our current understanding of the slit diaphragm (a specialized cell junction found in the kidney), slit diaphragmĐ??associated proteins (including nephrin, podocin, ʼ̛-actinin-4, CD2-associated protein, and transient receptor potential channel 6), and the role of these proteins in glomerular disease. We also discuss the most recent research on the pathogenesis of collapsing glomerulosclerosis, human immunodeficiency virus associated nephropathy, Denys-Drash, diabetic nephropathy, Alport syndrome, and other diseases related to the interaction between the podocyte and the glomerular basement membrane.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
    Location Call Number Limitation Availability
    BibTip Others were also interested in ...
  • 51
    Electronic Resource
    Palo Alto, Calif. : Annual Reviews
    ISSN: 1553-4006
    Source: Annual Reviews Electronic Back Volume Collection 1932-2001ff
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Malignant gliomas, the most common type of primary brain tumor, are a spectrum of tumors of varying differentiation and malignancy grades. These tumors may arise from neural stem cells and appear to contain tumor stem cells. Early genetic events differ between astrocytic and oligodendroglial tumors, but all tumors have an initially invasive phenotype, which complicates therapy. Progression-associated genetic alterations are common to different tumor types, targeting growth-promoting and cell cycle control pathways and resulting in focal hypoxia, necrosis, and angiogenesis. Knowledge of malignant glioma genetics has already impacted clinical management of these tumors, and researchers hope that further knowledge of the molecular pathology of malignant gliomas will result in novel therapies.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
    Location Call Number Limitation Availability
    BibTip Others were also interested in ...
  • 52
    Electronic Resource
    Palo Alto, Calif. : Annual Reviews
    ISSN: 1553-4006
    Source: Annual Reviews Electronic Back Volume Collection 1932-2001ff
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: The association between Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) and a large number of benign and malignant diseases is unique among DNA viruses. Within infected tissues, proteins that are expressed during the normal lytic and latent viral life cycle lead to cellular alterations that contribute to these EBV-associated diseases. Although the early events of EBV infection are poorly understood, increasing knowledge of the viral processes that govern viral latency has shed light upon the potential mechanisms by which EBV infection can lead to cellular transformation. Our current understanding of the role of EBV in the development of Burkitt lymphoma, Hodgkin lymphoma, nasopharyngeal carcinoma, and other EBV-associated diseases is discussed.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
    Location Call Number Limitation Availability
    BibTip Others were also interested in ...
  • 53
    Electronic Resource
    Palo Alto, Calif. : Annual Reviews
    ISSN: 1553-4006
    Source: Annual Reviews Electronic Back Volume Collection 1932-2001ff
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Prostate cancer displays considerable clinical, morphological, and biological heterogeneity. Classical genetic techniques have provided only limited information about the pathogenesis of prostate cancer progression. Nevertheless, several candidate genes and pathways have been implicated in prostate cancer development. High-throughput techniques have exponentially expanded the number of candidate genes, including some whose role in prostate cancer pathogenesis has been studied. However, the techniques used to study the prostate cancer genome, transcriptome, and proteome generate massive amounts of data that have yet to be integrated and explored. To move beyond candidate gene identification and develop a comprehensive understanding of cancer pathogenesis, integrative approaches need to analyze this data on a global level. This review addresses candidate genes involved in prostate cancer pathogenesis in a biological and clinical context and demonstrates how integrated analysis of high-throughput data augments our understanding of prostate cancer.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
    Location Call Number Limitation Availability
    BibTip Others were also interested in ...
  • 54
    Electronic Resource
    Palo Alto, Calif. : Annual Reviews
    ISSN: 1553-4006
    Source: Annual Reviews Electronic Back Volume Collection 1932-2001ff
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Neurodegenerative diseases as diverse as Alzheimer's, Parkinson's, and Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease share a common pathogenetic mechanism involving aggregation and deposition of misfolded proteins, which leads to progressive central nervous system disease. Although the type of aggregated protein and the regional and cellular distribution of deposition vary from disease to disease, these disorders may all be linked by similar pathways of protein aggregation with fibril formation and amyloid deposition. This perspective on pathogenesis suggests that a wide variety of neurodegenerative diseases can be grouped mechanistically as brain amyloidoses, an outlook that yields novel insights into potential therapeutic approaches that may be applicable across the broad spectrum of neurodegenerative disease.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
    Location Call Number Limitation Availability
    BibTip Others were also interested in ...
  • 55
    Electronic Resource
    Palo Alto, Calif. : Annual Reviews
    ISSN: 1553-4006
    Source: Annual Reviews Electronic Back Volume Collection 1932-2001ff
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: The endothelial cells lining vascular and lymphatic vessels are targets of several infectious agents, including viruses and bacteria, that lead to dramatic changes in their functions. Understanding the pathophysiological mechanisms that cause the clinical manifestations of those infections has been advanced through the use of animal models and in vitro systems; however, there are also abundant studies that explore the consequences of endothelial infection in vitro without supporting evidence that endothelial cells are actual in vivo targets of infection in human diseases. This article defines criteria for considering an infection as truly endothelium-targeted and reviews the literature that offers insights into the pathogenesis of human endothelial-target infections.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
    Location Call Number Limitation Availability
    BibTip Others were also interested in ...
  • 56
    Electronic Resource
    Palo Alto, Calif. : Annual Reviews
    ISSN: 1553-4006
    Source: Annual Reviews Electronic Back Volume Collection 1932-2001ff
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: I am honored to write the prefatory chapter for the inaugural volume of the Annual Review of Pathology: Mechanisms of Disease. This publishing venture signals that pathology takes its rightful place alongside the other biomedical sciences. I thought it may be of interest to some to delineate how a circuitous path led me into a career in experimental pathology and to give some of the flavor of a past era in experimental approaches. Thus, my title.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
    Location Call Number Limitation Availability
    BibTip Others were also interested in ...
  • 57
    Electronic Resource
    Palo Alto, Calif. : Annual Reviews
    ISSN: 1553-4006
    Source: Annual Reviews Electronic Back Volume Collection 1932-2001ff
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Parasitic diseases represent major global health problems of immense proportion. Schistosomiasis, malaria, leishmaniasis, Chagas disease, and African sleeping sickness affect hundreds of millions of people worldwide, cause millions of deaths annually, and present an immense social and economic burden. Recent advances in genomic analysis of several of the major global parasites have revealed key factors involved in the pathogenesis of parasite diseases. Among the major virulence factors identified are parasite-derived proteases. This review focuses on the direct role of proteases in disease pathogenesis. Well-characterized examples of the roles proteases play in pathogenesis include their involvement in invasion of the host by parasite migration through tissue barriers, degradation of hemoglobin and other blood proteins, immune evasion, and activation of inflammation.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
    Location Call Number Limitation Availability
    BibTip Others were also interested in ...
  • 58
    Electronic Resource
    Palo Alto, Calif. : Annual Reviews
    ISSN: 1553-4006
    Source: Annual Reviews Electronic Back Volume Collection 1932-2001ff
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Kaposi's sarcoma (KS) has long been suspected of having an infectious etiology on the basis of its unusual epidemiology, histopathology, and natural history. Nearly a decade ago, a novel herpesviral genome was discovered in KS biopsies, and since that time strong epidemiologic evidence has accumulated correlating infection with this KS-associated herpesvirus (KSHV, also known as human herpesvirus 8) with the development of the disease. Here we review the evidence linking KSHV infection to KS risk and discuss current notions of how KSHV gene expression promotes the development of this remarkable neoplasm. These studies show that both latent and lytic viral replicative cycles contribute significantlyĐ??but differentlyĐ??to KS development. The studies also highlight mechanistic differences between oncogenesis caused by KSHV and that caused by its distant relative Epstein-Barr virus.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
    Location Call Number Limitation Availability
    BibTip Others were also interested in ...
  • 59
    Electronic Resource
    Palo Alto, Calif. : Annual Reviews
    ISSN: 1553-4006
    Source: Annual Reviews Electronic Back Volume Collection 1932-2001ff
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Although Gram-negative bacteria have often been implicated in the pathogenesis of severe sepsis and septic shock, how they trigger these often lethal syndromes is uncertain. In particular, the role played by blood-borne bacteria is controversial. This review considers two alternatives. In the first, circulating Gram-negative bacteria induce toxic reactions directly within the vasculature; in the second, the major inflammatory stimulus occurs in local extravascular sites of infection and circulating bacteria contribute little to inducing toxic responses. Evidence for each alternative is found in the literature. Bacteremia and severe sepsis are not so closely linked that the most striking cases can be a model for the rest. Intravascular and extravascular triggers may warrant different approaches to prevention and therapy.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
    Location Call Number Limitation Availability
    BibTip Others were also interested in ...
  • 60
    Electronic Resource
    Palo Alto, Calif. : Annual Reviews
    ISSN: 1553-4006
    Source: Annual Reviews Electronic Back Volume Collection 1932-2001ff
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: From histological and biological perspectives, lung cancer is a complex neoplasm. Although the sequential preneoplastic changes have been defined for centrally arising squamous carcinomas of the lung, they have been poorly documented for the other major forms of lung cancers, including small cell lung carcinoma and adenocarcinomas. There are three main morphologic forms of preneoplastic lesions recognized in the lung: squamous dysplasias, atypical adenomatous hyperplasia, and diffuse idiopathic pulmonary neuroendocrine cell hyperplasia. However, these lesions account for the development of only a subset of lung cancers. Several studies have provided information regarding the molecular characterization of lung preneoplastic changes, especially for squamous cell carcinoma. These molecular changes have been detected in the histologically normal and abnormal respiratory epithelium of smokers. Two different molecular pathways have been detected in lung adenocarcinoma pathogenesis: smoking-associated activation of RAS signaling, and nonsmoking-associated activation of EGFR signaling; the latter is detected in histologically normal respiratory epithelium.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
    Location Call Number Limitation Availability
    BibTip Others were also interested in ...
  • 61
    Electronic Resource
    Palo Alto, Calif. : Annual Reviews
    Annual Review of Fluid Mechanics 38 (2006), S. 193-224 
    ISSN: 0066-4189
    Source: Annual Reviews Electronic Back Volume Collection 1932-2001ff
    Topics: Mechanical Engineering, Materials Science, Production Engineering, Mining and Metallurgy, Traffic Engineering, Precision Mechanics , Physics
    Notes: What mechanisms of flow control do animals use to enhance hydrodynamic performance? Animals are capable of manipulating flow around the body and appendages both passively and actively. Passive mechanisms rely on structural and morphological components of the body (i.e., humpback whale tubercles, riblets). Active flow control mechanisms use appendage or body musculature to directly generate wake flow structures or stiffen fins against external hydrodynamic loads. Fish can actively control fin curvature, displacement, and area. The vortex wake shed by the tail differs between eel-like fishes and fishes with a discrete narrowing of the body in front of the tail, and three-dimensional effects may play a major role in determining wake structure in most fishes.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
    Location Call Number Limitation Availability
    BibTip Others were also interested in ...
  • 62
    Electronic Resource
    Palo Alto, Calif. : Annual Reviews
    Annual Review of Fluid Mechanics 38 (2006), S. 225-249 
    ISSN: 0066-4189
    Source: Annual Reviews Electronic Back Volume Collection 1932-2001ff
    Topics: Mechanical Engineering, Materials Science, Production Engineering, Mining and Metallurgy, Traffic Engineering, Precision Mechanics , Physics
    Notes: The gas-lift technique comprises the injection of gas bubbles in vertical oil wells to increase production. It is based on a reduction of the tubing gravitational pressure gradient. Several fluid-flow phenomena influencing such vertical gas-liquid flows are discussed. These effects include the radial distribution of void fraction and of gas and liquid velocity, flow regime changes, and system stability problems. Associated consequences for gas-lift performance and related optimization approaches are also discussed.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
    Location Call Number Limitation Availability
    BibTip Others were also interested in ...
  • 63
    Electronic Resource
    Palo Alto, Calif. : Annual Reviews
    Annual Review of Medicine 57 (2006), S. 297-311 
    ISSN: 0066-4219
    Source: Annual Reviews Electronic Back Volume Collection 1932-2001ff
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Selective loss of body fat is the hallmark of patients with lipodystrophies. Among genetic lipodystrophies, fat loss is observed either from birth, as in congenital generalized lipodystrophy, or later in life, as in familial partial lipodystrophy. The extent of fat loss also varies among subtypes of lipodystrophies. Patients develop hyperinsulinemia, acanthosis nigricans, hypertriglyceridemia, diabetes mellitus, and hepatic steatosis. Defects in several genes, such as those encoding an enzyme (AGPAT2), a nuclear receptor (PPAR??), a nuclear lamina protein (LMNA) and its processing endoprotease (ZMPSTE24), a kinase (AKT2), and a protein of unknown function (BSCL2), have been found in patients with genetic lipodystrophies. Additional loci remain to be discovered. We discuss features of autosomal recessive and dominant types of lipodystrophies and therapeutic interventions available for these patients.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
    Location Call Number Limitation Availability
    BibTip Others were also interested in ...
  • 64
    Electronic Resource
    Palo Alto, Calif. : Annual Reviews
    Annual Review of Medicine 57 (2006), S. 499-511 
    ISSN: 0066-4219
    Source: Annual Reviews Electronic Back Volume Collection 1932-2001ff
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: The behavioral and neuropsychiatric symptoms of dementia and Alzheimer's disease have become an increasingly important focus of clinical research. These symptoms also pose a tremendous challenge to families and caregivers. The late afternoon/evening exacerbation of behavioral symptoms in dementia has been recognized by clinicians for >60 years. Researchers have utilized a variety of increasingly sophisticated tools to examine the circadian, hormonal, physiological, and epidemiological correlations with sundowning behavior. Although treatment remains largely empirical, an improved understanding of the complex relationships that drive sundowning behavior should lead to more effective therapies in the future.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
    Location Call Number Limitation Availability
    BibTip Others were also interested in ...
  • 65
    Electronic Resource
    Palo Alto, Calif. : Annual Reviews
    Annual Review of Medicine 57 (2006), S. 553-574 
    ISSN: 0066-4219
    Source: Annual Reviews Electronic Back Volume Collection 1932-2001ff
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Although used for more than 4000 years for recreational and medicinal purposes, Cannabis and its best-known pharmacologically active constituents, the cannabinoids, became a protagonist in medical research only recently. This revival of interest is explained by the finding in the 1990s of the mechanism of action of the main psychotropic cannabinoid, ??9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC), which acts through specific membrane receptors, the cannabinoid receptors. The molecular characterization of these receptors allowed the development of synthetic molecules with cannabinoid and noncannabinoid structure and with higher selectivity, metabolic stability, and efficacy than THC, as well as the development of antagonists that have already found pharmaceutical application. The finding of endogenous agonists at these receptors, the endocannabinoids, opened new therapeutic possibilities through the modulation of the activity of cannabinoid receptors by targeting the biochemical mechanisms controlling endocannabinoid tissue levels.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
    Location Call Number Limitation Availability
    BibTip Others were also interested in ...
  • 66
    Electronic Resource
    Palo Alto, Calif. : Annual Reviews
    Annual Review of Medicine 57 (2006), S. 575-590 
    ISSN: 0066-4219
    Source: Annual Reviews Electronic Back Volume Collection 1932-2001ff
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: In the short time since it became effective for health care organizations, a privacy regulation issued under the Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act of 1996 (HIPAA) has had a significant adverse impact on the conduct of clinical research in the United States, without a substantial corresponding increase in privacy protection for research participants. Some of the problems associated with HIPAA have been resolved through revisions since the regulation's initial promulgation in December 2000, and other problems can be addressed by better educating health care providers and researchers about its requirements and available alternatives for compliance; however, considerable structural challenges remain. These constitute substantial barriers to research and resulting medical advances. Additional revisions to HIPAA based on the principles and trade-offs reflected in the Common RuleĐ??which responsibly balances an individual's interest in privacy protection with the public interest in gaining knowledge through biomedical researchĐ??can go a long way to remedying remaining flaws in the system.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
    Location Call Number Limitation Availability
    BibTip Others were also interested in ...
  • 67
    Electronic Resource
    Palo Alto, Calif. : Annual Reviews
    Annual Review of Medicine 57 (2006), S. 155-166 
    ISSN: 0066-4219
    Source: Annual Reviews Electronic Back Volume Collection 1932-2001ff
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Hepatitis B is a global health problem. Patients with chronic hepatitis B (CHB) carry a significant risk to eventually develop cirrhotic liver disease. Recent therapeutic advances against CHB offer excellent potential for long-term suppression of hepatitis B virus (HBV) replication during antiviral therapy, and occasionally a durable remission off medication. Selection of appropriate patients for antiviral therapy depends on identification of HBV replication and an elevated alanine aminotransferase level or histologic liver injury. Pegylated interferon alpha offers potent immunomodulatory and antiviral activity with the potential for durability, but also with adverse effects and significant cost. The nucleoside or nucleotide analogs, lamivudine, adefovir, and entecavir, suppress HBV replication and are extremely well-tolerated, but long-term or even lifelong therapy is required. Most experience has been gained with lamivudine, but viral resistance occurs frequently. Newer analogs appear to be relatively free of this problem. Approaches using a combination of agents have promise, but have yet to be proven superior to individual drugs alone.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
    Location Call Number Limitation Availability
    BibTip Others were also interested in ...
  • 68
    Electronic Resource
    Palo Alto, Calif. : Annual Reviews
    Annual Review of Physiology 68 (2006), S. 461-490 
    ISSN: 0066-4278
    Source: Annual Reviews Electronic Back Volume Collection 1932-2001ff
    Topics: Medicine , Biology
    Notes: The serum/glucocorticoid-induced kinase Sgk1 plays an important role in the regulation of epithelial ion transport. This kinase is very rapidly regulated at the transcriptional level as well as via posttranslational modifications involving phosphorylation by the MAP or PI-3 kinase pathways and/or ubiquitylation. Although Sgk1 is a cell survival kinase, its primary role likely concerns the regulation of epithelial ion transport, as suggested by the phenotype of Sgk1-null mice, which display a defect in Na+ homeostasis owing to disturbed renal tubular Na+ handling. In this review we first discuss the molecular, cellular, and regulatory aspects of Sgk1 and its paralogs. We then discuss its roles in the physiology and pathophysiology of epithelial ion transport.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
    Location Call Number Limitation Availability
    BibTip Others were also interested in ...
  • 69
    Electronic Resource
    Palo Alto, Calif. : Annual Reviews
    Annual Review of Physiology 68 (2006), S. 193-221 
    ISSN: 0066-4278
    Source: Annual Reviews Electronic Back Volume Collection 1932-2001ff
    Topics: Medicine , Biology
    Notes: Superfast muscles of vertebrates power sound production. The fastest, the swimbladder muscle of toadfish, generates mechanical power at frequencies in excess of 200 Hz. To operate at these frequencies, the speed of relaxation has had to increase approximately 50-fold. This increase is accomplished by modifications of three kinetic traits: (a) a fast calcium transient due to extremely high concentration of sarcoplasmic reticulum (SR)-Ca2+ pumps and parvalbumin, (b) fast off-rate of Ca2+ from troponin C due to an alteration in troponin, and (c) fast cross-bridge detachment rate constant (g, 50 times faster than that in rabbit fast-twitch muscle) due to an alteration in myosin. Although these three modifications permit swimbladder muscle to generate mechanical work at high frequencies (where locomotor muscles cannot), it comes with a cost: The high g causes a large reduction in attached force-generating cross-bridges, making the swimbladder incapable of powering low-frequency locomotory movements. Hence the locomotory and sound-producing muscles have mutually exclusive designs.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
    Location Call Number Limitation Availability
    BibTip Others were also interested in ...
  • 70
    Electronic Resource
    Palo Alto, Calif. : Annual Reviews
    Annual Review of Physiology 68 (2006), S. 345-374 
    ISSN: 0066-4278
    Source: Annual Reviews Electronic Back Volume Collection 1932-2001ff
    Topics: Medicine , Biology
    Notes: Phosphorylation of Ser19 on the 20-kDa regulatory light chain of myosin II (MLC20) by Ca2+/calmodulin-dependent myosin light-chain kinase (MLCK) is essential for initiation of smooth muscle contraction. The initial [Ca2+]i transient is rapidly dissipated and MLCK inactivated, whereas MLC20 and muscle contraction are well maintained. Sustained contraction does not reflect Ca2+ sensitization because complete inhibition of MLC phosphatase activity in the absence of Ca2+ induces smooth muscle contraction. This contraction is suppressed by staurosporine, implying participation of a Ca2+-independent MLCK. Thus, sustained contraction, as with agonist-induced contraction at experimentally fixed Ca2+ concentrations, involves (a) G protein activation, (b) regulated inhibition of MLC phosphatase, and (c) MLC20 phosphorylation via a Ca2+-independent MLCK. The pathways that lead to inhibition of MLC phosphatase by Gq/13-coupled receptors are initiated by sequential activation of Gʼ̛q/ʼ̛13, RhoGEF, and RhoA, and involve Rho kinaseĐ??mediated phosphorylation of the regulatory subunit of MLC phosphatase (MYPT1) and/or PKC-mediated phosphorylation of CPI-17, an endogenous inhibitor of MLC phosphatase. Sustained MLC20 phosphorylation is probably induced by the Ca2+-independent MLCK, ZIP kinase. The pathways initiated by Gi-coupled receptors involve sequential activation of G?‚??i, PI 3-kinase, and the Ca2+-independent MLCK, integrin-linked kinase. The last phosphorylates MLC20 directly and inhibits MLC phosphatase by phosphorylating CPI-17. PKA and PKG, which mediate relaxation, act upstream to desensitize the receptors (VPAC2 and NPR-C), inhibit adenylyl and guanylyl cyclase activities, and stimulate cAMP-specific PDE3 and PDE4 and cGMP-specific PDE5 activities. These kinases also act downstream to inhibit (a) initial contraction by inhibiting Ca2+ mobilization and (b) sustained contraction by inhibiting RhoA and targets downstream of RhoA. This increases MLC phosphatase activity and induces MLC20 dephosphorylation and muscle relaxation.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
    Location Call Number Limitation Availability
    BibTip Others were also interested in ...
  • 71
    Electronic Resource
    Palo Alto, Calif. : Annual Reviews
    Annual Review of Physiology 68 (2006), S. 223-251 
    ISSN: 0066-4278
    Source: Annual Reviews Electronic Back Volume Collection 1932-2001ff
    Topics: Medicine , Biology
    Notes: The ability of animals to survive food deprivation is clearly of considerable survival value. Unsurprisingly, therefore, all animals exhibit adaptive biochemical and physiological responses to the lack of food. Many animals inhabit environments in which food availability fluctuates or encounters with appropriate food items are rare and unpredictable; these species offer interesting opportunities to study physiological adaptations to fasting and starvation. When deprived of food, animals employ various behavioral, physiological, and structural responses to reduce metabolism, which prolongs the period in which energy reserves can cover metabolism. Such behavioral responses can include a reduction in spontaneous activity and a lowering in body temperature, although in later stages of food deprivation in which starvation commences, activity may increase as food-searching is activated. In most animals, the gastrointestinal tract undergoes marked atrophy when digestive processes are curtailed; this structural response and others seem particularly pronounced in species that normally feed at intermittent intervals. Such animals, however, must be able to restore digestive functions soon after feeding, and these transitions appear to occur at low metabolic costs.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
    Location Call Number Limitation Availability
    BibTip Others were also interested in ...
  • 72
    Electronic Resource
    Palo Alto, Calif. : Annual Reviews
    Annual Review of Physiology 68 (2006), S. 431-459 
    ISSN: 0066-4278
    Source: Annual Reviews Electronic Back Volume Collection 1932-2001ff
    Topics: Medicine , Biology
    Notes: The FXYD proteins are a family of seven homologous single transmembrane segment proteins (FXYD1Đ??7), expressed in a tissue-specific fashion. The FXYD proteins modulate the function of Na,K-ATPase, thus adapting kinetic properties of active Na+ and K+ transport to the specific needs of different cells. Six FXYD proteins ( 1Đ??5, 7 ) are known to interact with Na,K-ATPase and affect its kinetic properties in specific ways. Although effects of FXYD proteins on parameters such as K1/2Na+, K1/2K+, KmATP, and Vmax are modest, usually twofold, these effects may have important long-term consequences for homeostasis of cation balance. In this review we summarize basic features of FXYD proteins and present recent evidence for functional effects, structure-function relations and structural interactions with Na,K-ATPase. We then discuss possible physiological roles, based on in vitro observations and newly available knockout mice models. Finally, we also consider evidence that FXYD proteins affect functioning of other ion transport systems.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
    Location Call Number Limitation Availability
    BibTip Others were also interested in ...
  • 73
    Electronic Resource
    Palo Alto, Calif. : Annual Reviews
    Annual Review of Physiology 68 (2006), S. 685-717 
    ISSN: 0066-4278
    Source: Annual Reviews Electronic Back Volume Collection 1932-2001ff
    Topics: Medicine , Biology
    Notes: Ion channels are pore-forming transmembrane proteins that allow ions to permeate biological membranes. Pore structure plays a crucial role in determining the ion permeation and selectivity properties of particular channels. In the past few decades, efforts have been undertaken to identify key elements of the pore regions of different classes of ion channels. In this review, we summarize current knowledge about permeation and selectivity of channel proteins from the transient receptor potential (TRP) superfamily. Whereas all TRP channels are permeable for cations, only two TRP channels are impermeable for Ca2+ (TRPM4, TRPM5), and two others are highly Ca2+ permeable (TRPV5, TRPV6). Despite the great advances in the TRP channel field during the past decade, only a limited number of reports have dealt with functional characterization of pore properties, biophysical aspects of cation permeation, or description of pore structures of TRP channels. This review gives an overview of available experimental and theoretical data and discusses the functional impact of pore-structure modifications on TRP channel properties.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
    Location Call Number Limitation Availability
    BibTip Others were also interested in ...
  • 74
    Electronic Resource
    Palo Alto, Calif. : Annual Reviews
    Annual Review of Physiology 68 (2006), S. 719-736 
    ISSN: 0066-4278
    Source: Annual Reviews Electronic Back Volume Collection 1932-2001ff
    Topics: Medicine , Biology
    Notes: The TRP (transient receptor potential) superfamily of cation channels is present in all eukaryotes, from yeast to mammals. Many TRP channels have been studied in the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans, revealing novel biological functions, regulatory modes, and mechanisms of localization. C. elegans TRPV channels function in olfaction, mechanosensation, osmosensation, and activity-dependent gene regulation. Their activity is regulated by G protein signaling and polyunsaturated fatty acids. C. elegans TRPPs related to human polycystic kidney disease genes are expressed in male-specific neurons. The KLP-6 kinesin directs TRPP channels to cilia, where they may interact with F0/F1 ATPases. A sperm-specific TRPC channel, TRP-3, is required for fertilization. Upon sperm activation, TRP-3 translocates from an intracellular compartment to the plasma membrane to allow store-operated Ca2+ entry. The TRPM channels GON-2 and GTL-2 regulate Mg2+ homeostasis and Mg2+ uptake by intestinal cells; GON-2 is also required for gonad development. The TRPML CUP-5 promotes normal lysosome biogenesis and prevents apoptosis. Dynamic, precise expression of TRP proteins generates a remarkable range of cellular functions.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
    Location Call Number Limitation Availability
    BibTip Others were also interested in ...
  • 75
    Electronic Resource
    Palo Alto, Calif. : Annual Reviews
    Annual Review of Physiology 68 (2006), S. 543-561 
    ISSN: 0066-4278
    Source: Annual Reviews Electronic Back Volume Collection 1932-2001ff
    Topics: Medicine , Biology
    Notes: The physical removal of viruses and bacteria on the mucociliary escalator is an important aspect of the mammalian lung's innate defense mechanism. The volume of airway surface liquid (ASL) present in the respiratory tract is a critical determinant of both mucus hydration and the rate of mucus clearance from the lung. ASL volume is maintained by the predominantly ciliated epithelium via coordinated regulation of (a) absorption, by the epithelial Na+ channel, and (b) secretion, by the Ca2+ -activated Cl channel (CaCC) and CFTR. This review provides an update on our current understanding of how shear stress regulates ASL volume height in normal and cystic fibrosis (CF) airway epithelia through extracellular ATP- and adenosine (ADO)-mediated pathways that modulate ion transport and ASL volume homeostasis. We also discuss (a) how derangement of the ADO-CFTR pathway renders CF airways vulnerable to viral infections that deplete ASL volume and produce mucus stasis, and (b) potential shear stressĐ??dependent therapies for CF.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
    Location Call Number Limitation Availability
    BibTip Others were also interested in ...
  • 76
    Electronic Resource
    Palo Alto, Calif. : Annual Reviews
    Annual Review of Physiology 68 (2006), S. 649-684 
    ISSN: 0066-4278
    Source: Annual Reviews Electronic Back Volume Collection 1932-2001ff
    Topics: Medicine , Biology
    Notes: Transient receptor potential (TRP) channels mediate responses in a large variety of signaling mechanisms. Most studies on mammalian TRP channels rely on heterologous expression, but their relevance to in vivo tissues is not entirely clear. In contrast, Drosophila TRP and TRP-like (TRPL) channels allow direct analyses of in vivo function. In Drosophila photoreceptors, activation of TRP and TRPL is mediated via the phosphoinositide cascade, with both Ca2+ and diacylglycerol (DAG) essential for generating the light response. In tissue culture cells, TRPL channels are constitutively active, and lipid second messengers greatly facilitate this activity. Inhibition of phospholipase C (PLC) completely blocks lipid activation of TRPL, suggesting that lipid activation is mediated via PLC. In vivo studies in mutant Drosophila also reveal an acute requirement for lipid-producing enzyme, which may regulate PLC activity. Thus, PLC and its downstream second messengers, Ca2+ and DAG, constitute critical mediators of TRP/TRPL gating in vivo.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
    Location Call Number Limitation Availability
    BibTip Others were also interested in ...
  • 77
    Electronic Resource
    Palo Alto, Calif. : Annual Reviews
    Annual Review of Physiology 68 (2006), S. 67-95 
    ISSN: 0066-4278
    Source: Annual Reviews Electronic Back Volume Collection 1932-2001ff
    Topics: Medicine , Biology
    Notes: Because of the anatomy, function, and nonregenerative nature of the myocardium, inflammation in this tissue is not well tolerated. Nevertheless, various diseases of the heart are characterized by inflammatory responses involving the effector mechanisms of innate and adaptive (lymphocyte-dependent) immunity. The innate immune response to ischemia-reperfusion injury is, by far, the most common cause of myocardial inflammation. Innate responses may have beneficial influences that preserve myocardial function in the short term but may be maladaptive in chronic states. Adaptive responses in the myocardium occur with infection or loss of tolerance, and lead to myocarditis. Given the narrow margin for benefit of cardiac inflammation, special regulatory mechanisms likely raise the threshold, compared to other tissues, for the induction and persistence of adaptive immune responses. These mechanisms include strong central and peripheral T cell tolerance to heart antigens and induction of anti-inflammatory feedback mechanisms involving cytokines such as interferon-??.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
    Location Call Number Limitation Availability
    BibTip Others were also interested in ...
  • 78
    Electronic Resource