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  • 1
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    Elsevier
    Publication Date: 2018-01-01
    Description: Publication date: February 2018 Source: Data in Brief, Volume 16 Author(s): Maroua Nouri, Nathalie Gorretta, Pierre Vaysse, Michel Giraud, Christian Germain, Barna Keresztes, Jean-Michel Roger This dataset presents two series of hyperspectral images of healthy and infected apple tree leaves acquired daily, from two days after inoculation until an advanced stage of infection (11 days after inoculation). The hyperspectral images were calibrated by reflection correction and registered to match the geometry of one reference image. On the last experiment day, scab positions are provided.
    Print ISSN: 2352-3409
    Topics: Biology
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  • 2
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    Elsevier
    Publication Date: 2018-01-01
    Description: Publication date: February 2018 Source: Data in Brief, Volume 16 Author(s): Antonida V. Makhotenko, Ekaterina A. Snigir, Natalia O. Kalinina, Valentin V. Makarov, Michael E. Taliansky Nanoparticles (NPs) have a number of unique properties associated with their ultrasmall size and exhibit many advantages compared with existing plant biotechnology platforms for delivery of proteins, RNA and DNA of various sizes into the plant cells (Arruda et al., 2015; Silva et al., 2010; Martin-Ortigosa et al., 2014; Mitter et al., 2017) [1–4] . The data presented in this article demonstrate a delivery of biomolecules into Nicotiana benthamiana plant leaves using various types of NPs including gold, iron oxide and chitosan NPs and methods of biolistic bombardment and infiltration. The data demonstrate physical characteristics of NPs coated with fluorescently labeled protein and small RNA (size and zeta-potential) and visualization of nanocomplexes delivery into cells of N. benthamiana leaves by fluorescence microscopy.
    Print ISSN: 2352-3409
    Topics: Biology
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  • 3
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    Elsevier
    Publication Date: 2018-01-01
    Description: Publication date: Available online 30 December 2017 Source: Journal of Rock Mechanics and Geotechnical Engineering Author(s): Jair A. Baldovino, Eclesielter B. Moreira, Wagner Teixeira, Ronaldo L.S. Izzo, Juliana L. Rose The soil of the Guabirotuba geological formation (Paraná Basin, Brazil) has physico-mechanical properties which are not suitable for its utilization in pavement construction, in protection of hillsides and slopes, or as shallow foundation support. Treatment of this soil by lime addition would improve its usability. The present context intends to determine the ratio between the splitting tensile strength ( q t ) and the unconfined compressive strength ( q u ) of clayey soil in the metropolitan region of Curitiba City, which has been treated with different lime contents and curing times. The control parameters evaluated include lime content ( L ), curing time ( t ), moisture content ( w ), and ratio of porosity to volumetric lime content ( η / L v ). It was observed that the q t / q u ratio is between 0.17 and 0.2 in relation to the curing time, and an exponential relation exists between them. Meanwhile, the unconfined compressive strength of lime-treated soil was found to be approximately four times the initial value.
    Print ISSN: 1674-7755
    Topics: Architecture, Civil Engineering, Surveying , Geosciences
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  • 4
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    Elsevier
    Publication Date: 2018-01-01
    Description: Publication date: February 2018 Source: Data in Brief, Volume 16 Author(s): Takao Someya, Katsura Sano, Kotaro Hara, Yoshimasa Sagane, Toshihiro Watanabe, R.G.S. Wijesekara This data article provides gene expression profiles, determined by using real-time PCR, of fibroblasts and keratinocytes treated with 0.01% and 0.001% extracts of neem plant (Azadirachta indica), local name “Kohomba” in Sri Lanka, harvested in Sri Lanka. For fibroblasts, the dataset includes expression profiles for genes encoding hyaluronan synthase 1 (HAS1), hyaluronan synthase 2 (HAS2), hyaluronidase-1 (HYAL1), hyaluronidase-2 (HYAL2), versican, aggrecan, CD44, collagen, type I, alpha 1 (COL1A1), collagen, type III, alpha 1 (COL3A1), collagen, type VII, alpha 1 (COL7A1), matrix metalloproteinase 1 (MMP1), acid ceramidase, basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF), fibroblast growth factor-7 (FGF7), vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), interleukin-1 alpha (IL-1α), cyclooxygenase-2 (cox2), transforming growth factor beta (TGF-β), and aquaporin 3 (AQP3). For keratinocytes, the expression profiles are for genes encoding HAS1, HAS2, HYAL1, HYAL2, versican, CD44, IL-1α, cox2, TGF-β, AQP3, Laminin5, collagen, type XVII, alpha 1 (COL17A1), integrin alpha-6 (ITGA6), ceramide synthase 3 (CERS3), elongation of very long chain fatty acids protein 1 (ELOVL1), elongation of very long chain fatty acids protein 4 (ELOVL4), filaggrin (FLG), transglutaminase 1 (TGM1), and keratin 1 (KRT1). The expression profiles are provided as bar graphs.
    Print ISSN: 2352-3409
    Topics: Biology
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  • 5
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    Elsevier
    Publication Date: 2018-01-01
    Description: Publication date: Available online 30 December 2017 Source: Journal of Rock Mechanics and Geotechnical Engineering Author(s): Luis Fernando Contreras, Edwin T. Brown, Marc Ruest One of the main difficulties in the geotechnical design process lies in dealing with uncertainty. Uncertainty is associated with natural variation of properties, and the imprecision and unpredictability caused by insufficient information on parameters or models. Probabilistic methods are normally used to quantify uncertainty. However, the frequentist approach commonly used for this purpose has some drawbacks. First, it lacks a formal framework for incorporating knowledge not represented by data. Second, it has limitations in providing a proper measure of the confidence of parameters inferred from data. The Bayesian approach offers a better framework for treating uncertainty in geotechnical design. The advantages of the Bayesian approach for uncertainty quantification are highlighted in this paper with the Bayesian regression analysis of laboratory test data to infer the intact rock strength parameters σ ci and m i used in the Hoek-Brown strength criterion. Two case examples are used to illustrate different aspects of the Bayesian methodology and to contrast the approach with a frequentist approach represented by the nonlinear least squares (NLLS) method. The paper discusses the use of a Student’s t -distribution versus a normal distribution to handle outliers, the consideration of absolute versus relative residuals, and the comparison of quality of fitting results based on standard errors and Bayes factors. Uncertainty quantification with confidence and prediction intervals of the frequentist approach is compared with that based on scatter plots and bands of fitted envelopes of the Bayesian approach. Finally, the Bayesian method is extended to consider two improvements of the fitting analysis. The first is the case in which the Hoek-Brown parameter, a , is treated as a variable to improve the fitting in the triaxial region. The second is the incorporation of the uncertainty in the estimation of the direct tensile strength from Brazilian test results within the overall evaluation of the intact rock strength.
    Print ISSN: 1674-7755
    Topics: Architecture, Civil Engineering, Surveying , Geosciences
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  • 6
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    Elsevier
    Publication Date: 2018-01-01
    Description: Publication date: Available online 30 December 2017 Source: Long Range Planning Author(s): Robert Randolph, Zhonghui “Hugo” Wang, Esra Memili Family involvement in corporate governance through ownership, management, and board membership presents a unique dilemma for understanding the strategic impetus and costs of entrenchment decisions. The presence of shared family ties and the family-centered goals of firm principals call to question the applicability of extant agency arguments regarding the nature and antecedents of managerial entrenchment. Exploring this, we develop and test a model of family firm-specific determinants (i.e., family ownership and family's involvement in management and governance) of entrenchment in publicly traded firms by drawing upon principal-principal agency theory. Findings of the empirical analysis of family owned S&P 500 firms suggest family firms are motivated to entrench managers when doing so supports the pursuit of family-centric goals. However, the extent to which entrenchment supports such goals varies at different levels of family ownership.
    Print ISSN: 0024-6301
    Electronic ISSN: 1873-1872
    Topics: Economics
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  • 7
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    Elsevier
    Publication Date: 2018-01-01
    Description: Publication date: April 2018 Source: World Development, Volume 104 Author(s): Marco J. Haenssgen The gains from digital technology diffusion are deemed essential for international development, but they are also distributed unevenly. Does the uneven distribution mean that not everyone benefits from new technologies to the same extent, or do some people experience an absolute disadvantage during this process? I explore this question through the case study of curative healthcare access in the context of rapid mobile phone uptake in rural India, contributing thus to an important yet surprisingly under-researched aspect of the social implications of (mobile) technology diffusion. Inspired by a previous analysis of cross-sectional data from rural India, I hypothesise that health systems increasingly adapt to mobile phone users where phones have diffused widely. This adaptation will leave poor non-adopters worse off than before and increases healthcare inequities. I use a panel of 12,003 rural households with an illness in 2005 and 2012 from the Indian Human Development Survey to test this hypothesis. Based on village-cluster robust fixed-effects linear probability models, I find that (a) mobile phone diffusion is significantly and negatively linked to various forms of rural healthcare access, suggesting that health systems increasingly adapt to phone use and discriminate against non-users; that (b) poor rural households without mobile phones experience more adverse effects compared to more affluent households, which indicates a struggle and competition for healthcare access among marginalised groups; and that (c) no effects emerge for access to public doctors, which implies that some healthcare providers are less responsive to mobile phone use than others. Overall, my findings indicate that the rural Indian healthcare system gradually adapts to increasing mobile phone use at the expense of non-users. I conclude that rapid mobile phone diffusion creates an opportunity to improve people’s access to healthcare in rural India, but it also creates new forms of marginalisation among poor rural households.
    Print ISSN: 0305-750X
    Topics: Geography , Political Science , Sociology
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  • 8
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    Elsevier
    Publication Date: 2018-01-03
    Description: Publication date: Available online 2 January 2018 Source: Fuzzy Sets and Systems Author(s): Bo Wen Fang, Bao Qing Hu This paper introduces granular fuzzy rough sets in the view of fuzzy implicators and fuzzy coimplicators, and discusses the constructive and axiomatic approach to fuzzy granules based on fuzzy implicators and coimplicators. Moreover, we study the connection between fuzzy granules and fuzzy relations and discuss the relationship between existing granular fuzzy rough set models and that proposed in this paper. Considering the absolute error limit, we introduce the concept of the granular variable precision fuzzy rough sets based on fuzzy implicators and coimplicators. Then we present four propositions to ensure that the approximation operators can be efficiently calculated.
    Print ISSN: 0165-0114
    Electronic ISSN: 1872-6801
    Topics: Mathematics
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  • 9
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    Elsevier
    Publication Date: 2018-01-03
    Description: Publication date: Available online 2 January 2018 Source: International Journal of Production Economics Author(s): Wei Li, Jing Chen, Gongqian Liang, Bintong Chen We examine customer returns and pricing strategies in a manufacturer's Stackelberg supply chain using game-theoretic models. In the supply chain, the manufacturer sells a high-quality product through an independent retailer, and considers whether or not to open a direct channel to sell a similar but lower-quality product. We discuss how the retailer and the manufacturer with a direct channel should choose their customer returns and pricing strategies. We show that when the retailer implements a personalized pricing strategy (PPS), the addition of the direct channel benefits the manufacturer but always makes the retailer worse off, and this differs from the case when the retailer adopts a uniform pricing strategy. We find that if its net salvage value of the product is positive, the retailer should offer a Money-Back Guarantee (MBG) and implement PPS. In the direct channel, however, the manufacturer may offer an MBG even if the net salvage value is negative, and may implement PPS only if customer satisfaction in the direct channel is low. Under certain conditions, a win-win may result from both the retailer's adoption of MBG and PPS and the manufacturer's adoption of MBG in its direct channel, while the adoption of PPS by the manufacturer in its direct channel may lead to lose-lose for the retailer and the manufacturer. The implications of customer returns and pricing strategies, as well as the impact of these two strategies on prices, demands, and profits, are discussed.
    Print ISSN: 0925-5273
    Electronic ISSN: 1873-7579
    Topics: Technology , Economics
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  • 10
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    Elsevier
    Publication Date: 2018-01-03
    Description: Publication date: March 2018 Source: Journal of Air Transport Management, Volume 67 Author(s): Ali Dadpay Airlines air traffic delays cause discomfort to passengers and cost airlines dearly, thus there is no wonder that a growing number of authors from different disciplines have studied air traffic delays and their patterns. This paper departs from existing literature by assuming air traffic delay to be a duration variable whose true distribution is unknown. It suggests a general model that includes several other models as subfamilies and utilizes an information contents based approach to find the most appropriate model to study air traffic delays. The results for two different airlines, American Airlines and United Airlines, reveal that airlines of comparable size and market influence air traffic delays could follow different patterns.
    Print ISSN: 0969-6997
    Electronic ISSN: 1873-2089
    Topics: Architecture, Civil Engineering, Surveying , Economics
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  • 11
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    Elsevier
    Publication Date: 2018-01-03
    Description: Publication date: Available online 2 January 2018 Source: Marine Policy Author(s): Amy Freitag, Bruce Vogt, Troy Hartley Given the stories of Oyster Wars, competition for resources, and the large number of people involved in managing the oysters of the Chesapeake Bay, one might expect a fractured social network. Some management mandates require multiple stakeholder groups at the table, but these very rarely also mandate collaboration between the different types of oyster work going on: wild harvest, aquaculture, sanctuaries, and restoration. 140 people were surveyed via snowball sampling to document the social network of the Chesapeake oyster community. The survey questions used to construct the links between people in the network focused on the transfer of valued advice. Results show that the oyster community is well-connected across jurisdictional divides, type of oyster worked with, opinions of management, and across most career sectors. This shows that, despite persistent stereotypes to the contrary, members of the oyster community reach out for advice to a diverse cohort of colleagues.
    Print ISSN: 0308-597X
    Electronic ISSN: 1872-9460
    Topics: Energy, Environment Protection, Nuclear Power Engineering , Agriculture, Forestry, Horticulture, Fishery, Domestic Science, Nutrition , Political Science , Law
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  • 12
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    Elsevier
    Publication Date: 2018-01-03
    Description: Publication date: April 2018 Source: World Development, Volume 104 Author(s): Suguru Mizunoya, Sophie Mitra, Izumi Yamasaki Out of school children are a critical issue in education and development. Very little is known as to whether a disability is associated with a higher risk of being out of school for children in developing countries. This paper presents and analyzes the gap in enrolment in both primary and secondary education between children with and without disabilities using for the first time an internationally tested and comparable measure of functional difficulties (e.g. seeing, hearing, and walking). Using nationally representative datasets from 15 developing countries, this paper finds a consistent and statistically significant disability gap in both primary and secondary school attendance. The paper econometrically examines potential explanations for this disability gap using several specifications. A household fixed effect model shows that disability reduces the probability of school attendance by a median 30.9 percentage points, and that neither individual characteristics nor their socio-economic and unobserved household characteristics explain the disability gap. While general poverty reduction policies through for instance social transfers to the poor may improve school attendance in general, they seem unlikely to close the disability gap in schooling. The disability gap for primary–age children follows an inverted U-shape relationship with GNI per capita. This suggests that, as GNI per capita rises and more resources become available for improving access to education in middle-income countries, children without disabilities increasingly attend school, whereas the situation of children with disabilities may improve more slowly. Despite the adoption of an inclusive education agenda globally, this paper shows that more research and policy attention is needed to make schooling disability-inclusive in developing countries. More attention is also necessary regarding the functional difficulties experienced by children, as some may be preventable and the schooling inequalities associated with them may thus be avoidable.
    Print ISSN: 0305-750X
    Topics: Geography , Political Science , Sociology
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  • 13
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    Elsevier
    Publication Date: 2018-01-04
    Description: Publication date: 2 January 2018 Source: Cell Reports, Volume 22, Issue 1 Author(s): Jennifer R. Hamilton, Gayathri Vijayakumar, Peter Palese Influenza A virus (IAV) has shown promise as an oncolytic agent. To improve IAV as an oncolytic virus, we sought to design a transgenic virus expressing an immune checkpoint-inhibiting antibody during the viral life cycle. To test whether it was possible to express an antibody during infection, an influenza virus was constructed encoding the heavy chain of an antibody on the PB1 segment and the light chain of an antibody on the PA segment. This antibody-expressing IAV grows to high titers, and the antibodies secreted from infected cells exhibit comparable functionality with hybridoma-produced antibodies. To enhance the anti-cancer activity of IAV, an influenza virus was engineered to express a single-chain antibody antagonizing the immune checkpoint CTLA4 (IAV-CTLA4). In mice implanted with the aggressive B16-F10 melanoma, intratumoral injection with IAV-CTLA4 delayed the growth of treated tumors, mediated an abscopal effect, and increased overall survival. Graphical abstract Teaser Influenza virus has potential as an anti-cancer agent. Hamilton et al. engineer antibody-expressing influenza viruses and demonstrate that encoding a single-chain antibody blocking the immune checkpoint CTLA4 enhances the anti-cancer activity of influenza virus. These data suggest a strategy for improving the oncolytic nature of Orthomyxoviruses.
    Electronic ISSN: 2211-1247
    Topics: Biology
    Published by Elsevier on behalf of Cell Press.
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  • 14
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    Elsevier
    Publication Date: 2018-01-04
    Description: Publication date: 2 January 2018 Source: Cell Reports, Volume 22, Issue 1 Author(s): Kinga Winczura, Manfred Schmid, Claudia Iasillo, Kelly R. Molloy, Lea Mørch Harder, Jens S. Andersen, John LaCava, Torben Heick Jensen Nuclear RNA metabolism is influenced by protein complexes connecting to both RNA-productive and -destructive pathways. The ZC3H18 protein binds the cap-binding complex (CBC), universally present on capped RNAs, while also associating with the nuclear exosome targeting (NEXT) complex, linking to RNA decay. To dissect ZC3H18 function, we conducted interaction screening and mutagenesis of the protein, which revealed a phosphorylation-dependent isoform. Surprisingly, the modified region of ZC3H18 associates with core histone proteins. Further examination of ZC3H18 function, by genome-wide analyses, demonstrated its impact on transcription of a subset of protein-coding genes. This activity requires the CBC-interacting domain of the protein, with some genes being also dependent on the NEXT- and/or histone-interacting domains. Our data shed light on the domain requirements of a protein positioned centrally in nuclear RNA metabolism, and they suggest that post-translational modification may modulate its function. Graphical abstract Teaser The ZC3H18 protein is involved in RNA decay mediated by the CBC-NEXT complex. Winczura et al. identify a phosphorylation-dependent interaction of ZC3H18 with histones, and they find separate CBCA-, NEXT-, and histone-binding domains. They suggest a role for ZC3H18 in mRNA biogenesis, which for some genes is independent of its role in RNA decay.
    Electronic ISSN: 2211-1247
    Topics: Biology
    Published by Elsevier on behalf of Cell Press.
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  • 15
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    Elsevier
    Publication Date: 2018-01-04
    Description: Publication date: 2 January 2018 Source: Cell Reports, Volume 22, Issue 1 Author(s): Joseph B. Rayman, Kevin A. Karl, Eric R. Kandel Stress granules are non-membranous structures that transiently form in the cytoplasm during cellular stress, where they promote translational repression of non-essential RNAs and modulate cell signaling by sequestering key signal transduction proteins. These and other functions of stress granules facilitate an adaptive cellular response to environmental adversity. A key component of stress granules is the prion-related RNA-binding protein, T cell intracellular antigen-1 (TIA-1). Here, we report that recombinant TIA-1 undergoes rapid multimerization and phase separation in the presence of divalent zinc, which can be reversed by the zinc chelator, TPEN. Similarly, the formation and maintenance of TIA-1-positive stress granules in arsenite-treated cells are inhibited by TPEN. In addition, Zn 2+ is released in cells treated with arsenite, before stress granule formation. These findings suggest that Zn 2+ is a physiological ligand of TIA-1, acting as a stress-inducible second messenger to promote multimerization of TIA-1 and subsequent localization into stress granules. Graphical abstract Teaser Rayman et al. show that Zn 2+ is a stress-inducible second messenger that triggers self-multimerization and phase separation of TIA-1 and regulates dynamic recruitment of TIA-1 into stress granules. This mechanism is part of an adaptive cellular response to environmental adversity.
    Electronic ISSN: 2211-1247
    Topics: Biology
    Published by Elsevier on behalf of Cell Press.
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  • 16
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    Elsevier
    Publication Date: 2018-01-04
    Description: Publication date: 2 January 2018 Source: Cell Reports, Volume 22, Issue 1 Author(s): Michael G. White, Matthew Panicker, Chaoqi Mu, Ashley M. Carter, Bradley M. Roberts, Poorna A. Dharmasri, Brian N. Mathur Cognitive abilities, such as volitional attention, operate under top-down, executive frontal cortical control of hierarchically lower structures. The circuit mechanisms underlying this process are unresolved. The claustrum possesses interconnectivity with many cortical areas and, thus, is hypothesized to orchestrate the cortical mantle for top-down control. Whether the claustrum receives top-down input and how this input may be processed by the claustrum have yet to be formally tested, however. We reveal that a rich anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) input to the claustrum encodes a preparatory top-down information signal on a five-choice response assay that is necessary for optimal task performance. We further show that ACC input monosynaptically targets claustrum inhibitory interneurons and spiny glutamatergic projection neurons, the latter of which amplify ACC input in a manner that is powerfully constrained by claustrum inhibitory microcircuitry. These results demonstrate ACC input to the claustrum is critical for top-down control guiding action. Graphical abstract Teaser White et al. show that anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) input to the claustrum encodes a top-down preparatory signal on a 5-choice response assay that is critical for task performance. Claustrum microcircuitry amplifies top-down ACC input in a frequency-dependent manner for eventual propagation to the cortex for cognitive control of action.
    Electronic ISSN: 2211-1247
    Topics: Biology
    Published by Elsevier on behalf of Cell Press.
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  • 17
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    Elsevier
    Publication Date: 2018-01-04
    Description: Publication date: 2 January 2018 Source: Cell Reports, Volume 22, Issue 1 Author(s): Yu Ree Choi, Seon-Heui Cha, Seo-Jun Kang, Jae-Bong Kim, Ilo Jou, Sang Myun Park Recent evidence of prion-like propagation of α-synuclein (α-syn) into neighboring neurons set up a paradigm to elucidate the mechanism of progression of Parkinson’s disease (PD) and to develop therapeutic strategies. Here, we show that FcγRIIB expressed in neurons functions as a receptor for α-syn fibrils and mediates cell-to-cell transmission of α-syn. SHP-1 and 2 are activated downstream by α-syn fibrils through FcγRIIB and play an important role in cell-to-cell transmission of α-syn. Also, taking advantage of a co-culture system, we show that cell-to-cell transmission of α-syn induces intracellular Lewy body-like inclusion body formation and that the FcγRIIB/SHP-1/2 signaling pathway is involved in it. Therefore, the FcγRIIB-SHP-1/-2 signaling pathway may be a therapeutic target for the progression of PD. The in vitro system is an efficient tool for further high-throughput screening that can be used for developing a therapeutic intervention in PD. Graphical abstract Teaser Prion-like propagation of α-synuclein (α-syn) may contribute to the progression of Parkinson’s disease. Choi et al. demonstrate that FcγRIIB functions as a receptor for α-syn fibrils and that the FcγRIIB-SHP-1/2 signaling pathway mediates cell-to-cell transmission of α-syn. Blocking this signaling pathway attenuates transmission, suppressing Lewy body-like inclusion body formation.
    Electronic ISSN: 2211-1247
    Topics: Biology
    Published by Elsevier on behalf of Cell Press.
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  • 18
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    Elsevier
    Publication Date: 2018-01-04
    Description: Publication date: 2 January 2018 Source: Cell Reports, Volume 22, Issue 1 Author(s): Felix Weber, Bernd Bohrmann, Jens Niewoehner, Jens A.A. Fischer, Petra Rueger, Georg Tiefenthaler, Joerg Moelleken, Alexander Bujotzek, Kevin Brady, Thomas Singer, Martin Ebeling, Antonio Iglesias, Per-Ola Freskård Receptors show promise for the transport of monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) across the blood-brain barrier. However, safety liabilities associated with peripheral receptor binding and Fc effector function have been reported. We present the Brain Shuttle-mAb (BS-mAb) technology, and we investigate the role of Fc effector function in vitro and in an Fcγ receptor (FcγR)-humanized mouse model. Strong first infusion reactions (FIRs) were observed for a conventional mAb against transferrin receptor (TfR) with a wild-type immunoglobulin G1 (IgG1) Fc. Fc effector-dead constructs completely eliminated all FIRs. Remarkably, no FIR was observed for the BS-mAb construct with a native IgG1 Fc function. Using various BS-mAb constructs, we show that TfR binding through the C-terminal BS module attenuates Fc-FcγR interactions, primarily because of steric hindrance. Nevertheless, BS-mAbs maintain effector function activity when binding their brain target. Thus, mAbs with full effector function can be transported in a stealth mode in the periphery while fully active when engaged with their brain target. Graphical abstract Teaser Weber et al. show that a Brain Shuttle antibody against amyloid-β prevents plaque formation mediated by the effector function. Their study reveals that the effector function is hidden in the periphery, due to the unique binding mode of the Brain Shuttle, but becomes fully active in the brain.
    Electronic ISSN: 2211-1247
    Topics: Biology
    Published by Elsevier on behalf of Cell Press.
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  • 19
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    Elsevier
    Publication Date: 2018-01-04
    Description: Publication date: 2 January 2018 Source: Cell Reports, Volume 22, Issue 1 Author(s): Jiyoon Lee, Robert Bӧscke, Pei-Ciao Tang, Byron H. Hartman, Stefan Heller, Karl R. Koehler The mammalian hair follicle arises during embryonic development from coordinated interactions between the epidermis and dermis. It is currently unclear how to recapitulate hair follicle induction in pluripotent stem cell cultures for use in basic research studies or in vitro drug testing. To date, generation of hair follicles in vitro has only been possible using primary cells isolated from embryonic skin, cultured alone or in a co-culture with stem cell-derived cells, combined with in vivo transplantation. Here, we describe the derivation of skin organoids, constituting epidermal and dermal layers, from a homogeneous population of mouse pluripotent stem cells in a 3D culture. We show that skin organoids spontaneously produce de novo hair follicles in a process that mimics normal embryonic hair folliculogenesis. This in vitro model of skin development will be useful for studying mechanisms of hair follicle induction, evaluating hair growth or inhibitory drugs, and modeling skin diseases. Graphical abstract Teaser Lee at el. describe a defined in vitro 3D culture system that generates skin organoids from mouse pluripotent stem cells. The skin organoids contain self-organized skin layers and skin appendages, including hair follicles, sebaceous glands, and adipocytes.
    Electronic ISSN: 2211-1247
    Topics: Biology
    Published by Elsevier on behalf of Cell Press.
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  • 20
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    Elsevier
    Publication Date: 2018-01-04
    Description: Publication date: 2 January 2018 Source: Cell Reports, Volume 22, Issue 1 Author(s): Katsufumi Dejima, Sayaka Hori, Satoru Iwata, Yuji Suehiro, Sawako Yoshina, Tomoko Motohashi, Shohei Mitani Balancer chromosomes are critical tools for genetic research. In C. elegans , reciprocal translocations that lead to aneuploidy have been widely used to maintain lethal and sterile mutations in stable stocks. Here, we generated a set of aneuploidy-free and structurally defined crossover suppressors that contain two overlapping inversions using the CRISPR/Cas9 system. The toolkit includes 13 crossover suppressors and covers approximately 63% of all C. elegans coding genes. Together with the classical intrachromosomal crossover suppressors, the system now covers 89% of the coding genes. We also labeled the created balancers with fluorescent and phenotypic markers. We show that the crossover suppressors are better for embryonic analysis compared with translocational balancers. Additionally, we demonstrate an efficient method to generate lethal alleles by targeting essential genes on a chromosome balanced with a crossover suppressor. The toolkit will allow more efficient experiments in which lethal and sterile mutants can be analyzed. Graphical abstract Teaser Balancer chromosomes are critical tools for genetic research. Using the CRISPR/Cas9 system, Dejima et al. established a collection of balancer chromosomes in C. elegans . The toolkit will be useful not only for maintenance of lethal/sterile mutants but also for several other applications through customization to suit a particular use.
    Electronic ISSN: 2211-1247
    Topics: Biology
    Published by Elsevier on behalf of Cell Press.
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  • 21
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    Elsevier
    Publication Date: 2018-01-04
    Description: Publication date: 2 January 2018 Source: Cell Reports, Volume 22, Issue 1 Author(s): Ze-Lin Wang, Bin Li, Yu-Xia Luo, Qiao Lin, Shu-Rong Liu, Xiao-Qin Zhang, Hui Zhou, Jian-Hua Yang, Liang-Hu Qu RNA-binding proteins (RBPs) regulate the expression of thousands of transcripts, and some are reported to be involved in human tumorigenesis. However, little is known about the dysregulation of RBPs at the genomic level in human cancers. Here, we conducted comprehensive analyses for expression, somatic copy number alteration (SCNA), and mutation profiles of 1,542 RBPs in ∼7,000 clinical specimens across 15 cancer types. We identified markedly dysregulated RBPs and found that downregulation was a predominant pattern in cancer. Combined with recurrent SCNA data, we identified 76 RBPs as potential drivers. We also discovered a set of 139 RBPs that were significantly mutated in cancers. We confirmed the oncogenic property of six RBPs in colorectal and liver cancer cell lines by using in vitro functional experiments. Our study highlights the potential roles of RBPs in carcinogenesis and lays the groundwork to better understand the functions and mechanisms of RBPs in cancer. Graphical abstract Teaser Wang et al. characterize transcriptional and genomic alterations in the landscape of RNA-binding proteins (RBPs) in ∼7,000 clinical samples across 15 human cancer types and experimentally validate the effects of several cancer-related RBPs on cell viability.
    Electronic ISSN: 2211-1247
    Topics: Biology
    Published by Elsevier on behalf of Cell Press.
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  • 22
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    Elsevier
    Publication Date: 2018-01-04
    Description: Publication date: Available online 2 January 2018 Source: Computational Statistics & Data Analysis Author(s): Clara Grazian, Christian P. Robert While Jeffreys priors usually are well-defined for the parameters of mixtures of distributions, they are not available in closed form. Furthermore, they often are improper priors. Hence, they have never been used to draw inference on the mixture parameters. The implementation and the properties of Jeffreys priors in several mixture settings are studied. It is shown that the associated posterior distributions most often are improper. Nevertheless, the Jeffreys prior for the mixture weights conditionally on the parameters of the mixture components will be shown to have the property of conservativeness with respect to the number of components, in case of overfitted mixture and it can be therefore used as a default priors in this context.
    Print ISSN: 0167-9473
    Electronic ISSN: 1872-7352
    Topics: Mathematics
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  • 23
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    Elsevier
    Publication Date: 2018-01-04
    Description: Publication date: Available online 3 January 2018 Source: Dendrochronologia Author(s): Minhui He, Achim Bräuning, Jussi Grießinger, Philipp Hochreuther, Jakob Wernicke Knowledge of drought variability and their possible mechanisms during the past hundred years is still limited in the mountainous region of south-central Tibetan Plateau (TP). In this study, a long-term tree-ring width chronology dating back to AD 1190 was combined using 328 increment cores from the Nagqu region. Based on the relationships between this tree-ring width chronology and climate data, we reconstructed May–June self-calibrated Palmer Drought Severity Index (scPDSI) for the past 821 years (AD 1190–2010). Additional comparisons with other available precipitation or drought reconstructions were conducted. We further investigated the influence of the South Asian summer monsoon (SASM) on the drought variability in our study region. Results indicated that our tree-ring width chronology contained stable drought signal in the early summer season (May–June). During the past 821 years, the longest dry and wet periods lasted for 116 and 90 years, respectively, based on a 21-year Fast Fourier transform filter. Specifically, longer than ten years’ dry periods prevailed during AD 1211–1245, 1280–1358, 1421–1471, 1500–1571, 1580–1598, 1650–1691, 1782–1807 and 1867–1982; while wet intervals occurred in AD 1190–1210, 1246–1279, 1359–1420, 1472–1499, 1599–1649, 1692–1781, 1808–1866 and 1983–2010. Generally consistent dry and wet intervals across the southern TP were found by comparisons with other available datasets during their common periods. Interestingly, we detected an unstable influence of the SASM on the May–June drought variability in our study region, at least for the past three and a half centuries. This study therefore gives a new perspective of drought variability as well as their relationships with the SASM over a long-term period on the south-central TP.
    Print ISSN: 1125-7865
    Electronic ISSN: 1612-0051
    Topics: Archaeology , Agriculture, Forestry, Horticulture, Fishery, Domestic Science, Nutrition
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  • 24
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    Elsevier
    Publication Date: 2018-01-04
    Description: Publication date: Available online 3 January 2018 Source: Energy Economics Author(s): Silvia Forin, Alexander Radebach, Jan Christoph Steckel, Hauke Ward Sectoral production technologies differ largely across countries, so do sectoral energy intensities. Hence, shifts in production locations within global sectors, possibly caused by environmental regulations, are likely to have an impact on aggregated energy usage and emissions. Applying a Logarithmic Mean Divisia Index decomposition we decompose changes of sectoral energy use from 2001 to 2011 into three effects: (sectoral) value added, energy efficiency and delocalization, which in this paper is conceived as a structural effect within sectors, between regions. Our results show that although economic activity and technological progress dominate global energy use developments, for most sectors a delocalization towards less efficient production places is ongoing. It contributes to annual increases in energy use in the range of 1–6%. Especially, manufacturing sectors, which are among the most energy consuming sectors, reveal significant increases in energy usage due to delocalization since 2004. This development is accompanied by declining energy intensity improvement rates, indicating that delocalization induces second order effects.
    Print ISSN: 0140-9883
    Electronic ISSN: 1873-6181
    Topics: Energy, Environment Protection, Nuclear Power Engineering , Economics
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  • 25
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    Elsevier
    In: Heliyon
    Publication Date: 2018-01-04
    Description: Publication date: January 2018 Source: Heliyon, Volume 4, Issue 1 Author(s): Matilda Mali, Daniela Malcangio, Maria Michela Dell’ Anna, Leonardo Damiani, Piero Mastrorilli The environmental quality of Torre a Mare port (Italy) was assessed evaluating on one side, the chemical concentration of nine metals and metalloids within bottom sediments and on the other one, by exploring the impact of hydrodynamic conditions in contaminant’s transport within the most polluted basins. The investigated port was selected as case study because it resulted much more polluted than it was expected based on the touristic port activities and related stressors loading on it. In order to determine the origin and fate of contaminants in the port basin, 2D numerical simulations were carried out by MIKE21 software. The hydrodynamic module (HD) based on a rectangular grid was initially used to characterize the flow field into two domains that cover the inner and offshore harbor area. Then, advection–dispersion (AD) and water quality (WQ) modules were coupled in order to simulate the simultaneous processes of transport and dispersion of hypothetical pollutant sources. The dissolved/suspended sediment particulates (DSS) were selected as contaminant tracers. The comparative analysis between simulation responses and the real metal contaminant distribution showed high agreement, suggesting that contaminants mainly come from outside port and tend to accumulate in the inner basin. In fact, hydrodynamic circulations cause inflowing streams toward the harbor entrance and the particular port morphology hampers the exit of fine sediments from the inner basin, enhancing thus the accumulation of sediment-associated contaminants within the port area. The study confirms that the quality of touristic port areas strongly depends on both pollution sources located within and outside the port domain and it is controlled mainly by the hydrodynamic-driven processes.
    Electronic ISSN: 2405-8440
    Topics: Natural Sciences in General
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  • 26
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    Publication Date: 2018-01-04
    Description: Publication date: March 2018 Source: International Journal of Production Economics, Volume 197 Author(s): Susana López-Bayón, Manuel González-Díaz, Vanesa Solís-Rodríguez, Marta Fernández-Barcala Although the supply chain (SC) management literature has extensively analyzed how features of SC relationships affect quality performance, it barely considers the role played by SC governance in managing and promoting quality performance. This study examines how quality performance is affected by two SC governance decisions in agri-food chains: (i) the adoption of a geographical indication (GI), and (ii) the creation of co-operative (co-op) ownership structures. Focusing on the wine industry, the study first examines how GIs encourage quality by improving vertical adaptation and leveraging resources ( e.g ., knowledge) of all SC members. Second, it analyzes how co-ops' collective action and horizon investment problems may hinder the delivery of high-quality products. The paper also examines how the effectiveness of GIs in promoting quality is contingent on the ownership structure of agri-food chains. Data from 327 wine producers and quality scores for 1951 bottled wines are used to test the hypotheses. The results reveal that on average, the quality of wineries is positively associated with the adoption of the most stringent GIs. Second, although co-ops are negatively correlated with final quality compared to investor-owned firms (IOFs), this disadvantage is moderated when co-ops are certified under the most stringent GIs. However, these GIs are not related to wine quality within IOFs, suggesting that quality certifications are more effective when used within suitable governance structures.
    Print ISSN: 0925-5273
    Electronic ISSN: 1873-7579
    Topics: Technology , Economics
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  • 27
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    Elsevier
    Publication Date: 2018-01-04
    Description: Publication date: March 2018 Source: Journal of Air Transport Management, Volume 67 Author(s): Antonio J. Torija, Rod H. Self With the environmental externalities of civil aviation under unprecedented scrutiny, and with the projected significant increase in air traffic demand over the next few decades, fleet-level studies are required to assess the potential benefit of novel aircraft technologies and operational procedures for minimizing environmental impact of aviation. Using a statistical classification process, the UK commercial aircraft fleet is reduced to four representative-in-class aircraft on the basis of aircraft physical characteristics, and aircraft noise and engine exhaust emissions. These four representative aircraft, that appropriately capture the noise and emissions characteristics for each category within the UK commercial fleet, are also selected to be used as baseline cases for the high-level assessment of the environmental benefit of novel aircraft technologies. For the particular case of aviation noise, the modelling tools are highly sensitive to the number of aircraft types in the flight schedule. A reduction of about 80% in computational time with relatively minor decrease in accuracy (between −4% and +5%) is observed when the whole aircraft fleet is replaced with the four representative-in-class aircraft for computing noise contours. Therefore, the statistical classification and selection of representative-in-class aircraft presented in this paper is a valid approach for the rapid and accurate computation of a large number of exploratory cases to assess aviation noise reduction strategies.
    Print ISSN: 0969-6997
    Electronic ISSN: 1873-2089
    Topics: Architecture, Civil Engineering, Surveying , Economics
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  • 28
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    Publication Date: 2018-01-04
    Description: Publication date: Available online 2 January 2018 Source: Journal of Pure and Applied Algebra Author(s): Anuj Jakhar, Sudesh K. Khanduja, Neeraj Sangwan It is well known that if K 1 , K 2 are algebraic number fields with coprime discriminants, then the composite ring A K 1 A K 2 is integrally closed and K 1 , K 2 are linearly disjoint over the field of rationals, A K i being the ring of algebraic integers of K i . In an attempt to prove the converse of the above result, in this paper we prove that if K 1 , K 2 are finite separable extensions of a valued field ( K , v ) of arbitrary rank which are linearly disjoint over K = K 1 ∩ K 2 and if the integral closure S i of the valuation ring R v of v in K i is a free R v -module for i = 1 , 2 with S 1 S 2 integrally closed, then the discriminant of either S 1 / R v or of S 2 / R v is the unit ideal. We quickly deduce from this result that for algebraic number fields K 1 , K 2 linearly disjoint over K = K 1 ∩ K 2 for which A K 1 A K 2 is integrally closed, the relative discriminants of K 1 / K and K 2 / K must be coprime.
    Print ISSN: 0022-4049
    Electronic ISSN: 1873-1376
    Topics: Mathematics
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  • 29
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    Elsevier
    Publication Date: 2018-01-04
    Description: Publication date: Available online 2 January 2018 Source: Journal of Rock Mechanics and Geotechnical Engineering Author(s): Ahmet Özbek, Murat Gül, Ergun Karacan, Övünç Alca This paper aims to study the effect of anisotropy on strengths of several metamorphic rocks of southern (Çine) submassif of Menderes metamorphic massif in southwest Turkey. Four different metamorphic rocks including foliated phyllite, schist, gneiss and marble (calcschist) were selected and examined. Discontinuity surveys were made along lines for each rock and evaluated with DIPS program. L-type Schmidt hammer was applied in the directions parallel and perpendicular to foliation during the field study. Several hand samples and rock blocks were collected during the field study for measurements of dry and saturated densities, dry and saturated unit weights and porosity, and for petrographic analysis and strength determination in laboratory. L- and N-type Schmidt hammers were applied in the directions perpendicular (anisotropy angle of 0°) and parallel (anisotropy angle of 90°) to the foliation on selected blocks of phyllite, schist, gneiss and marble (calcschist). The phyllite and schist have higher porosity and lower density values than the other rocks. However, coarse crystalline gneiss and marble (calcschist) have higher rebound values and strengths, and they are classified as strong–very strong rocks. Generally, the rebound values in the direction perpendicular to the foliation are slightly higher than that in the direction parallel to foliation. Rebound values of N-type Schmidt hammer are higher than the L-type values except for phyllite. Sometimes, the rebound values of laboratory and field applications gave different results. This may result from variable local conditions such as minerals differentiation, discontinuities, water content, weathering degree and thickness of foliated structure.
    Print ISSN: 1674-7755
    Topics: Architecture, Civil Engineering, Surveying , Geosciences
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  • 30
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    Publication Date: 2018-01-04
    Description: Publication date: Available online 3 January 2018 Source: Marine Policy Author(s): Frazen Tolentino-Zondervan, Paul Berentsen, Simon R. Bush, Alfons Oude Lansink This paper assesses the effect of Marine Stewardship Council certification on the allocation of fishing effort by Filipino purse seine fishers operating in the waters of the Parties to the Nauru Agreement. Targeting skipjack tuna, these purse seiners allocate effort under a vessel day scheme to either MSC certified free school fishing or non-MSC certified fishing on fish aggregating devices (FADs). Based on historical catch and price data, the optimal set of fishing activities are determined in terms of the mean and variance of fishers’ gross margin at given levels of risk aversion. The results show that MSC certification stimulates fishers to reduce their allocation of effort on non-MSC compliant FADs, and consequently convert this effort to MSC compliant free school purse seining. In general, the MSC also increases the yearly gross margin of fishers as compared to the situation without MSC certification. The MSC therefore appears to be effective to a certain extent in promoting a transition to more sustainable fishing practices. However, the results also indicate that the risk profile of fishers is a key but underexplored dimension of assessing the potential impact of MSC certification on effort allocation.
    Print ISSN: 0308-597X
    Electronic ISSN: 1872-9460
    Topics: Energy, Environment Protection, Nuclear Power Engineering , Agriculture, Forestry, Horticulture, Fishery, Domestic Science, Nutrition , Political Science , Law
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  • 31
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    Publication Date: 2018-01-04
    Description: Publication date: Available online 3 January 2018 Source: Transportation Research Part C: Emerging Technologies Author(s): Soheila Aalami, Lina Kattan Resource allocation in transit-based emergency evacuation is studied in this paper. The goal is to find a method for allocation of resources to communities in an evacuation process which is (1) fair, (2) reasonably efficient, and (3) able to dynamically adapt to the changes to the emergency situation. Four variations of the resource allocation problem, namely maximum rate, minimum clearance time, maximum social welfare, and proportional fair resource allocation, are modeled and compared. It is shown that the optimal answer to each problem can be found efficiently. Additionally, a distributed and dynamic algorithm based on the Lagrangian dual approach, called PFD 2 A, is developed to find the proportional fair allocation of resources and update the evacuation process in real time whenever new information becomes available. Numerical results for a sample scenario are presented.
    Print ISSN: 0968-090X
    Electronic ISSN: 1879-2359
    Topics: Architecture, Civil Engineering, Surveying
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  • 32
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    Publication Date: 2018-01-04
    Description: Publication date: Available online 2 January 2018 Source: Transportation Research Part E: Logistics and Transportation Review Author(s): Hideki Oka, Yasukatsu Hagino, Takeshi Kenmochi, Ryota Tani, Ryuta Nishi, Kotaro Endo, Daisuke Fukuda This study aims at predicting travel pattern changes of freight trucks in the Tokyo Metropolitan Area by taking full advantage of the latest large-scale urban freight survey. We found that travel patterns changed significantly depending on the type of trucks. A route choice model with the concept of the maximum route-overlapping ratio was developed and the calibrated model was found to be appropriate for our analysis. Finally, we analyzed various policy scenarios and found that the full operation of the three ring roads would contribute to smoother traffic whereas the extension of weight-designated road might have a relatively small impact.
    Print ISSN: 1366-5545
    Electronic ISSN: 1878-5794
    Topics: Architecture, Civil Engineering, Surveying , Economics
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  • 33
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    Publication Date: 2018-01-05
    Description: Publication date: May 2018 Source: Ecological Economics, Volume 147 Author(s): Surender Kumar, Shivananda Shetty This article examines the motivations for firms in India to participate in voluntary environmental programs (VEPs) using a unique data set of cement, power and steel industry for the year 2012. It examines the effects of regulatory, societal, market and internal factors in influencing voluntary environmental behavior. To this objective we estimate both, ordinal (Ordered Probit) and cardinal (Poisson) models. We find that the firm size, its location, export orientation, and intangible valuation have a positive and significant relationship with the number of VEPs undertaken by the firm. The MNC status of the firm has no impact while the debt equity ratio and average age of the firm has negative impact on the adoption of VEPs.
    Print ISSN: 0921-8009
    Electronic ISSN: 1873-6106
    Topics: Energy, Environment Protection, Nuclear Power Engineering , Economics
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  • 34
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    Publication Date: 2018-01-05
    Description: Publication date: Available online 4 January 2018 Source: Energy Economics Author(s): Björn Felten, Jessica Raasch, Christoph Weber Demand side management has been proposed as one cornerstone for a future sustainable energy system. Local pricing may contribute to enable a smart behaviour of grid users by providing appropriate incentives. In this paper, we apply a local pricing algorithm on distribution grid level. We analyse its effects for a typical German rural low voltage grid with high penetration of photovoltaics and heat pumps. With households using electric heat pumps, a potentially flexible consumer type is implemented in detail. Such setup is used to assess two issues: Firstly, the exploited potential in terms of avoided curtailment and, secondly, redistributive effects of such local pricing mechanism under use of different stylized policy choices. Results show that – even with given local incentives – the consumption adjustment towards an efficient grid usage can frequently not be realized since complementarity of photovoltaics and space heating demand is limited and technical constraints do not allow to overcome this gap. Furthermore, we show that – despite limited merits in terms of system costs – the redistributive effects of local pricing mechanisms are very significant.
    Print ISSN: 0140-9883
    Electronic ISSN: 1873-6181
    Topics: Energy, Environment Protection, Nuclear Power Engineering , Economics
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  • 35
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    Publication Date: 2018-01-05
    Description: Publication date: 1 March 2018 Source: Fuzzy Sets and Systems, Volume 334 Author(s): Hang Zhan, Ya-Ming Wang, Hua-Wen Liu The aim of this paper is mainly to solve the functional equations given by the modularity condition. Several years ago, the modularity equations for t-norms, t-conorms, uninorms and t-operators, which are commutative and associative, have been studied. Our investigations are motivated by modularity condition for generalizations of these operators by removing associativity or commutativity. In this work, the following main conclusions are proved: (1) a continuous t-norm with respect to a continuous semicopula is modular if and only if they are equal. The case for a semicopula with respect to a strict t-norm is also the same. A semicopula with respect to a co-semicopula is modular if and only if the semicopula is min and the co-semicopula is max. The modularity condition does not hold for a co-semicopula with respect to a semicopula. (2) Necessary and sufficient conditions are given for a semi-t-operator with respect to a semi-uninorm, a pseudo-uninorm with respect to a semi-t-operator to satisfy the modularity condition equation. New solutions to the modularity condition equations of the Case (1) are characterized.
    Print ISSN: 0165-0114
    Electronic ISSN: 1872-6801
    Topics: Mathematics
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  • 36
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    Publication Date: 2018-01-05
    Description: Publication date: 1 March 2018 Source: Fuzzy Sets and Systems, Volume 334 Author(s): Dragan Jočić, Ivana Štajner-Papuga The issue of conditional distributivity, or how it is also called, restricted distributivity, which is a form of relaxed distributivity on the restricted domain, is crucial for many different areas such as utility theory and integration theory. The focus of this paper is on this specific form of distributivity for a continuous semi-t-operator with respect to a continuous t-conorm and for a continuous semi-t-operator with respect to a uninorm of the form U min or U max with continuous underlying t-norm and t-conorm.
    Print ISSN: 0165-0114
    Electronic ISSN: 1872-6801
    Topics: Mathematics
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  • 37
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    Publication Date: 2018-01-05
    Description: Publication date: January 2018 Source: Journal of Transport Geography, Volume 66 Author(s): Nishant Singh, Vinod Vasudevan School trips have distinct characteristics compared with trips for other purposes (e.g., work and recreation). School trips have been extensively studied in North American and western European countries. However, these have not been studied in developing countries, except for a few studies in China and Iran. Therefore, the basic understanding of the school travel in South Asian cities remains unclear. Thus, this study explored the travel decisions of schoolchildren in the Indian context by using primary data collected from Kanpur, a city in India. A multinomial logit framework was used to model the choice decisions of making trips to schools. The results indicated that the absence of a public transit system and the lack of good-quality school bus services resulted in the dependence of schoolchildren on other motorized modes, such as family vehicles and paratransit. Furthermore, lack of infrastructure support negatively influenced the use of active modes of transport.
    Print ISSN: 0966-6923
    Electronic ISSN: 1873-1236
    Topics: Architecture, Civil Engineering, Surveying
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  • 38
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    Publication Date: 2018-01-05
    Description: Publication date: Available online 4 January 2018 Source: Marine Policy Author(s): Brock J. Bergseth, Matthew Roscher Compliance is critical for effective conservation, and non-compliance regularly negates the desired outcomes of the world's marine protected areas. To increase compliance, practitioners must understand why resource users are breaking the rules, why these behaviours continue to occur, and how to effectively confront non-compliance. This study interviewed 682 recreational fishers of the Great Barrier Reef Marine Park (GBRMP) to examine the social components of compliance management. These components included fisher's perceptions of non-compliance, or poaching (defined here as fishing in no-take zones), as well as the beliefs, attitudes, normative influences, consumptive orientation and perceived behavioural controls that may influence fisher's decisions to poach. Encouragingly, most fishers had high perceptions of the legitimacy of management agencies and thought poaching was socially and personally unacceptable. However, these findings suggest that four (mis)perceptions or mechanisms are likely operative and at least partially responsible for continued non-compliance by fishers. These included pluralistic ignorance, false consensus, social learning, and a perceived lack of deterrence. Numerous tools can be used to address and correct these perceptions, including social norms and influence approaches, strengthened coercive deterrence measures, fear-arousing communications, and social outreach. If properly implemented, these tools and approaches should not only increase compliance but also reduce support (whether active or passive) for a culture of non-compliance.
    Print ISSN: 0308-597X
    Electronic ISSN: 1872-9460
    Topics: Energy, Environment Protection, Nuclear Power Engineering , Agriculture, Forestry, Horticulture, Fishery, Domestic Science, Nutrition , Political Science , Law
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  • 39
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    Publication Date: 2018-01-05
    Description: Publication date: January 2018 Source: Global Environmental Change, Volume 48 Author(s): Janet K. Swim, Theresa K. Vescio, Julia L. Dahl, Stephanie J. Zawadzki Extending theory and research on gender roles and masculinity, this work predicts and finds that common ways of talking about climate change are gendered. Climate change policy arguments that focus on science and business are attributed to men more than to women. By contrast, policy arguments that focus on ethics and environmental justice are attributed to women more than men (Study 1). Men show gender matching tendencies, being more likely to select (Study 2) and positively evaluate (Study 3) arguments related to science and business than ethics and environmental justice. Men also tend to attribute negative feminine traits to other men who use ethics and environmental justice arguments, which mediates the relation between type of argument and men’s evaluation of the argument (Study 3). The gendered nature of public discourse about climate change and the need to represent ethical and environmental justice topics in this discourse are discussed.
    Print ISSN: 0959-3780
    Electronic ISSN: 1872-9495
    Topics: Biology , Energy, Environment Protection, Nuclear Power Engineering
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  • 40
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    Publication Date: 2018-01-05
    Description: Publication date: Available online 3 January 2018 Source: Journal of Pure and Applied Algebra Author(s): W.K. Nicholson
    Print ISSN: 0022-4049
    Electronic ISSN: 1873-1376
    Topics: Mathematics
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  • 41
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    Publication Date: 2018-01-05
    Description: Publication date: February 2018 Source: Journal of Hydrology: Regional Studies, Volume 15 Author(s): Thanh Duc Dang, Thomas A. Cochrane, Mauricio E. Arias, Van Pham Dang Tri Study region The Mekong floodplains and delta are among the most agriculturally productive and biologically diverse waterscapes of the world, but sea level rise, land subsidence, and the proposed upstream development of over 126 hydropower dams and extensive delta-based water infrastructure have raised concern due to potential impacts on the hydrology of the region. Study focus This study aims to quantify the effects of water infrastructure development, land subsidence and sea level rise on hydrological regimes of the Mekong floodplains and delta through the development and application of a hydrodynamic model. New hydrological insights for the region Depending on hydrological characteristics of each region (river-dominated, transitional or tidal), the influence of each potential driver may vary. The operation of proposed hydropower dams would change river-dominated upper floodplain’s water levels by 26 to 70% and −0.8 to −5.9% in the dry and wet season respectively, but the impact diminishes throughout the floodplains. In the wet season, the upper Vietnamese Delta changes from a transitional stage to a river-dominated stage, and localized water infrastructure development in the upper delta has the greatest effect on water levels in the region. Land subsidence combined with sea level rise could have the greatest future influence on flooding in the delta if current rates are extrapolated. Sustainable water management strategies are thus necessary to mitigate changes in the floodplains and delta and increase resilience to sea level rise and land subsidence. Graphical abstract
    Print ISSN: 2214-5818
    Topics: Architecture, Civil Engineering, Surveying , Geography , Geosciences
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  • 42
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    Elsevier
    Publication Date: 2018-01-05
    Description: Publication date: Available online 4 January 2018 Source: Journal of Transport Geography Author(s): César Ducruet, Sylvain Cuyala, Ali El Hosni
    Print ISSN: 0966-6923
    Electronic ISSN: 1873-1236
    Topics: Architecture, Civil Engineering, Surveying
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  • 43
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    Publication Date: 2018-01-05
    Description: Publication date: January 2018 Source: Journal of Transport Geography, Volume 66 Author(s): Alexandre Borges Santos, Renato Luiz Sproesser, Mário Otávio Batalha Firms in the transportation industry are continuously evolving in order to build competitive advantages. Understanding who the competitors are and how they behave is a basic prerequisite for firms to adopt the right strategic positioning. Strategy and performance, therefore, are considered to be inseparable. In this manuscript, we exploit these two central areas in the field of business management from the perspective of grain terminal operators. A framework of analysis based on robust operations and strategic management literature is built to identify the strategic pattern of 24 intermodal grain terminals spread throughout the five Brazilian regions. The operational efficiency of the terminals is assessed through Data Envelopment Analysis. Subsequently, strategic groups are identified with the support of Cluster Analysis. Results suggest the existence of two major strategic groups: diversified small-scale terminals and focused large-scale terminals. The study is concluded by arguing that diversified small-scale terminals tend to offer a wider range of secondary services as an alternative to counterbalance their small transshipment scale, therefore, are likely to adopt a differentiation strategy; large-scale terminals, on the other hand, tend to focus mainly on the transshipment process, thus, are likely to adopt a cost leadership strategy. Theoretical and managerial implications resultant from the findings are presented and discussed.
    Print ISSN: 0966-6923
    Electronic ISSN: 1873-1236
    Topics: Architecture, Civil Engineering, Surveying
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    Elsevier
    In: Lancet
    Publication Date: 2018-01-05
    Description: Publication date: Available online 3 January 2018 Source: The Lancet Author(s): Anna J Dare, Bisola Onajin-Obembe, Emmanuel M Makasa
    Print ISSN: 0140-6736
    Electronic ISSN: 1474-547X
    Topics: Medicine
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  • 45
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    Elsevier
    Publication Date: 2018-01-05
    Description: Publication date: Available online 4 January 2018 Source: Marine Policy Author(s): Vinicius J. Giglio, Maria L.F. Ternes, Osmar J. Luiz, Cleverson Zapelini, Matheus O. Freitas Despite marine fish being an important food resource for coastal communities, the amount of fish caught by small-scale fisheries is unsustainable at many locations. Fish consumers have a critical role in species conservation because they can choose responsibly and avoid consuming overexploited or endangered species. In this study, local human consumption patterns and local knowledge about groupers and sharks caught by small-scale local fisheries were investigated in a Brazilian coral reef complex. Fish consumers were interviewed in a fish market setting regarding their monthly fish consumption, knowledge of endangered species, and strategies they do to consume fish responsibly. Of the 126 local fish consumers, 94% and 76% reported to buying sharks and groupers, respectively, on a monthly basis. The main strategies they used to consume fish responsibly were 1) getting fishmonger's advice and 2) buying fish on reliable fish markets. Our findings are important to understanding fish consumption preferences, which can contribute to the implementation of educational initiatives aiming to raise consumers’ awareness regarding responsible consumption.
    Print ISSN: 0308-597X
    Electronic ISSN: 1872-9460
    Topics: Energy, Environment Protection, Nuclear Power Engineering , Agriculture, Forestry, Horticulture, Fishery, Domestic Science, Nutrition , Political Science , Law
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  • 46
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    Elsevier
    Publication Date: 2018-01-05
    Description: Publication date: Available online 4 January 2018 Source: Marine Policy Author(s): R. Creed, B. Baily, J. Potts, M. Bray, R. Austin It is widely recognized that there is a need for engagement between stakeholders to establish locally accepted strategies for sustainable coastal management solutions around the world. Adaptive management approaches have emerged as one of the preferred mechanisms in coastal zone management. Central to the application of adaptive management is the effective engagement of stakeholders to encourage participatory decision-making. There are relatively few studies which have analysed the effectiveness and dynamics of stakeholder groups to establish sustainable adaptive management in practice, and identify what opportunities and challenges can arise from such collaborative approaches. This research critically evaluates stakeholder engagement in the adoption of adaptive management at East Head, England. The study has identified significant issues and opportunities that have arisen throughout the decision-making process. It has found that a major challenge has been to achieve acceptance of the mechanism of adaptive management, particularly in relation to aspects of uncertainty. However, it is of critical note that the advisory group in question has become a valuable vehicle in bringing together key stakeholders throughout all stages of the adoption of the adaptive management approach. It is suggested that this approach, has gradually reduced conflict through building knowledge, gaining trust and ultimately achieving acceptance. A widely applicable management model and recommendations for best practice are presented as derived from the views of the advisory group itself. This model has the potential to develop a more dynamic, holistic and sustainable approach to coastal governance both in the UK and at other locations further afield.
    Print ISSN: 0308-597X
    Electronic ISSN: 1872-9460
    Topics: Energy, Environment Protection, Nuclear Power Engineering , Agriculture, Forestry, Horticulture, Fishery, Domestic Science, Nutrition , Political Science , Law
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  • 47
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    Elsevier
    Publication Date: 2018-01-05
    Description: Publication date: Available online 4 January 2018 Source: Marine Policy Author(s): Thane A. Militz, Jeff Kinch, David S. Schoeman, Paul C. Southgate The Papua New Guinea (PNG) marine aquarium fishery was partly managed by total allowable catch (TAC) limits, implemented since the fishery's inception in 2008. Species-specific TACs, based on stock assessments conducted prior to the commencement of fishing, were established for all fish and invertebrate species presumed to be fished by the fishery. By analysing the selectivity of the PNG fishery in 2012, a large portion (74.9%) of the managed fish diversity ( n = 267 species) was found to be “weakly” to “strongly” avoided relative to their availability. More than half (53.2%; n = 142) of the fish species with TACs were never fished in 2012. Of those species with TACs that were actually fished, 76.8% ( n = 96) of fish and all invertebrate catches never exceeded 1% of their TACs. Catches of only seven fish species exceeded 10% of their TACs. Catch records also identified 124 fish species that were fished in the absence of species-specific TACs. Unbiased recursive partitioning was used to examine ecological attributes of these species to help identify flaws in the methods used for initial TAC assignment. Refining the role species-specific TACs play in the management of this fishery is necessary to optimise managerial resources. The lessons learned from this approach to marine aquarium fishery management are likely to be of interest and value to PNG, other developing island nations, and marine aquarium fisheries globally.
    Print ISSN: 0308-597X
    Electronic ISSN: 1872-9460
    Topics: Energy, Environment Protection, Nuclear Power Engineering , Agriculture, Forestry, Horticulture, Fishery, Domestic Science, Nutrition , Political Science , Law
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  • 48
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    Elsevier
    Publication Date: 2018-01-05
    Description: Publication date: Available online 3 January 2018 Source: Mechanisms of Development Author(s): Eugenia M. del Pino The study of oogenesis and early development of frogs belonging to the family Hemiphractidae provide important comparison to the aquatic development of other frogs, such as Xenopus laevis , because reproduction on land characterizes the Hemiphractidae. In this review, the multinucleated oogenesis of the marsupial frog Flectonotus pygmaeus (Hemiphractidae) is analyzed and interpreted. In addition, the adaptations associated with the incubation of embryos in the pouch of the female marsupial frog Gastrotheca riobambae (Hemiphractidae) and the embryonic development of this frog are summarized. Moreover, G. riobambae gastrulation is compared with the gastrulation modes of Engystomops randi and Engystomops coloradorum (Leptodactylidae); Ceratophrys stolzmanni (Ceratophryidae); Hyalinobatrachium fleischmanni and Espadarana callistomma (Centrolenidae); Ameerega bilinguis , Dendrobates auratus , Epipedobates anthonyi , Epipedobates machalilla , Epipedobates tricolor , and Hyloxalus vertebralis (Dendrobatidae) ; Eleutherodactylus coqui (Terrarana: Eleutherodactylidae), and X. laevis (Pipidae). The comparison indicated two modes of frog gastrulation. In X. laevis and in frogs with aquatic reproduction, convergent extension begins during gastrulation. In contrast, convergent extension occurs in the post-gastrula of frogs with terrestrial reproduction. These two modes of gastrulation resemble the transitions toward meroblastic cleavage found in ray-finned fishes (Actinopterygii). In spite of this difference, the genes that guide early development seem to be highly conserved in frogs. I conclude that the shift of convergent extension to the post-gastrula accompanied the diversification of frog egg size and terrestrial reproductive modes.
    Print ISSN: 0925-4773
    Electronic ISSN: 1872-6356
    Topics: Biology
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  • 49
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    Publication Date: 2018-01-05
    Description: Publication date: May 2018 Source: Protein Expression and Purification, Volume 145 Author(s): Asmita D. Pawar, Deepshikha Verma, Venu Sankeshi, Rajeev Raman, Yogendra Sharma The reliability and accuracy of conformational or functional studies of any novel multidomain protein rely on the quality of protein. The bottleneck in structural studies with the complete Big_2 domain containing proteins like LigA, LigB or Mp IBP is usually their large molecular size owing to their multidomain (>10–12 domains) architectures. Interestingly, a soil bacterium Paenarthrobacter aurescens TC1, harbours a gene that encodes a protein comprising of four predicted Big_2 domains. We report here the expression and purification of this novel, multiple Big_2 domains containing protein, Arig of P . aurescens TC1. During overexpression, recombinant Arig formed inclusion bodies and hence was purified by on-column refolding. The refolded Arig revealed a β-sheet conformation and a well-resolved near-UV CD spectra but did not exhibit a well-dispersed 2D [ 1 H- 15 N]-HSQC NMR spectrum, as expected for a well-folded β-sheet native conformation. We, therefore, further optimized Arig overexpression in the soluble fraction by including osmolytes. CD spectroscopic and 2D [ 1 H- 15 N]-HSQC analyses consolidate that Arig purified alternatively has a well-folded native conformation. While we describe different strategies for purification of Arig, we also present the spectral properties of this novel all-β-sheet protein.
    Print ISSN: 1046-5928
    Electronic ISSN: 1096-0279
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
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  • 50
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    Elsevier
    Publication Date: 2018-01-05
    Description: Publication date: Available online 3 January 2018 Source: Protein Expression and Purification Author(s): Prachi Pathak, Ashu Kumar, Prabhu Prasad Sarangi, Sameer Bhagyawant, Duraipandian Thavaselvam Brucellosis is a zoonotic disease caused by various species of the genus Brucella . The control of disease mainly depends on its accurate and early diagnosis. Culture methods employed for diagnosis are time consuming and require well equipped biosafety level 3 laboratories and hence serological tests are favored alternative for brucellosis diagnosis. At present serological diagnosis is based on LPS (lipopolysaccharide) which is less specific as the LPS antigen of Brucella species shows cross reactivity with other gram-negative bacteria. There is a need to develop serological diagnostic assay based on purified recombinant antigen of Brucella. T4SS (Type IV Secretion System) is an important virulent factor of Brucella and required for infection suggesting their expression in vivo and can be targeted as serological marker for infection . To test this concept, the present study is designed to clone, express and purify virB10 gene of Brucella T4SS under denaturing conditions and to evaluate its use as serological marker of Brucella infection. The immunoreactivity of this recombinant antigen was checked with antisera collected after experimental infection in Balb/C mice with B. melitensis 16M, BR31 (human clinical isolate) and Y. enterocolitica O:9 . The recombinant protein was also tested against a panel of 46 bovine sera samples collected from Leh, India. Antibody response against VirB10 was detected in experimental and natural host suggesting that it can be explored as potential target for serodiagnosis of Brucella infection.
    Print ISSN: 1046-5928
    Electronic ISSN: 1096-0279
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
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  • 51
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    Elsevier
    Publication Date: 2018-01-05
    Description: Publication date: 1 March 2018 Source: Topology and its Applications, Volume 236 Author(s): Yan Wu, Jingming Zhu In this paper, we are concerned with the study of metric spaces with complexity of the smallest infinite ordinal number. We give equivalent formulations of the definition of metric spaces with complexity of the smallest infinite ordinal number and prove that the exact complexity of the finite product Z ≀ Z × Z ≀ Z × ⋯ × Z ≀ Z of wreath products is ω , where ω is the smallest infinite ordinal number. Consequently, we obtain that the complexity of ( Z ≀ Z ) ≀ Z is ω + 1 .
    Print ISSN: 0166-8641
    Electronic ISSN: 1879-3207
    Topics: Mathematics
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  • 52
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    Elsevier
    Publication Date: 2018-01-05
    Description: Publication date: February 2018 Source: Transportation Research Part B: Methodological, Volume 108 Author(s): Chuan-Yao Li, Hai-Jun Huang The flow congestion model provides a realistic form of depicting congestion by considering the spatial dynamic characteristics of traffic flow. For reducing the complication of analysis, previous studies adopted the α − β − γ preference of travel time, arrival early and late penalties. This handling method destroys the continuity of user equilibrium (UE) inflow rate as pointed out by Li and Huang (2017). In this paper, we investigate the single-entry traffic corridor with continuous scheduling preference (CSP) and develop a customized method to find the computational solution of UE flow pattern. Analytical and numerical results show that the introduction of CSP lets inflow rate of early arrivals first increase then decrease. This extends the knowledge given by classical bottleneck model and flow congestion model with α − β − γ preference. Another finding is that, even though the introduction of CSP can smooth inflow rate at departure time of the punctual commuter and make the UE flow pattern more stable, a series of shock waves still exist.
    Print ISSN: 0191-2615
    Electronic ISSN: 1879-2367
    Topics: Architecture, Civil Engineering, Surveying , Economics
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  • 53
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    Elsevier
    Publication Date: 2018-01-05
    Description: Publication date: February 2018 Source: Transportation Research Part B: Methodological, Volume 108 Author(s): A. Arun Prakash This study addresses the problem of determining the path with the least expected travel time on stochastic and time-dependent networks. The Bellman’s optimality principle is not applicable to this problem —because of its non-linear objective function— making it difficult to solve. In this light, we propose a pruning-based algorithm that progressively determines subpaths from the source and eliminates those that are non-optimal. The algorithm uses a novel bi-level, bounds-based pruning criterion to determine whether subpath can belong to the optimal path. We show that the pruning criterion is valid and that the algorithm terminates with an exact solution. Computational experiments demonstrate that the algorithm can successfully solve the problem even on large real-world networks and that its practical computational complexity is polynomial. Finally, we show that the pruning algorithm outperforms the existing non-dominance based procedure by a factor proportional to the network size on medium-sized networks and more so on large-sized networks. This work has the potential to aid in a wider application of stochastic time-dependent networks for modeling and analysis.
    Print ISSN: 0191-2615
    Electronic ISSN: 1879-2367
    Topics: Architecture, Civil Engineering, Surveying , Economics
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  • 54
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    Elsevier
    Publication Date: 2018-01-05
    Description: Publication date: February 2018 Source: Transportation Research Part B: Methodological, Volume 108 Author(s): James C. Chu This study solves the simultaneous planning problem of network design and timetabling for urban bus systems. An innovative mixed-integer programming (MIP) model is formulated and a parallel branch-and-price-and-cut (BPC) algorithm is proposed to solve the problem. The key idea of the model formulation and the solution algorithm is to represent a bus timetable with a route and a dispatch pattern. An aggregation and greedy algorithm is developed to efficiently solve the pricing subproblem. The cuts of disaggregate coupling inequalities are dynamically added to strengthen the lower bound. A computational study is conducted to evaluate the performance of the proposed methodology. The comparison with alternative solution approaches indicates that the parallel BPC algorithm is superior to solving the MIP formulations with the off-the-shelf MIP solver. Different values of model parameters are also tested, and various statistics of operators and passengers are reported for the cases.
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    Electronic ISSN: 1879-2367
    Topics: Architecture, Civil Engineering, Surveying , Economics
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  • 55
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    Elsevier
    Publication Date: 2018-01-06
    Description: Publication date: May 2018 Source: Applied Mathematics Letters, Volume 79 Author(s): Jitsuro Sugie, Kazuki Ishibashi The purpose of this paper is to provide an oscillation theorem that can be applied to half-linear differential equations with time-varying coefficients. A parametric curve by the coefficients is focused in order to obtain our theorem. This parametric curve is a generalization of the curve given by the characteristic equation of the second-order linear differential equation with constant coefficients. The obtained theorem is proved by transforming the half-linear differential equation to a standard polar coordinates system and using phase plane analysis carefully.
    Print ISSN: 0893-9659
    Electronic ISSN: 1873-5452
    Topics: Mathematics
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  • 56
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    Elsevier
    Publication Date: 2018-01-06
    Description: Publication date: May 2018 Source: Applied Mathematics Letters, Volume 79 Author(s): Jian-Guo Liu, Yu Tian, Jian-Guo Hu The ( G ′ ∕ G ) -expansion approach is an efficient and well-developed approach to solve nonlinear partial differential equations. In this paper, the (3+1)-dimensional Boiti–Leon–Manna–Pempinelli equation is investigated by using this approach, which describes the (2+1)-dimensional interaction of the Riemann wave propagated along the y -axis with a long wave propagated along the x -axis and can be considered as a model for the incompressible fluid. With the aid of symbolic computation, a family of exact solutions are obtained in forms of the hyperbolic functions and the trigonometric functions. When the parameters are selected special values, non-traveling wave solutions are also presented, and these gained solutions have abundant structures. The figures corresponding to these solutions are illustrated to show the particular localized excitations and the interactions between two solitary waves.
    Print ISSN: 0893-9659
    Electronic ISSN: 1873-5452
    Topics: Mathematics
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  • 57
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    Elsevier
    Publication Date: 2018-01-05
    Description: Publication date: February 2018 Source: Transportation Research Part B: Methodological, Volume 108 Author(s): Daniel Hörcher, Daniel J. Graham This paper investigates multi-period public transport supply, i.e. networks in which capacity cannot be differentiated between links and time periods facing independent but nonidentical demand conditions. This setting is particularly relevant in public transport, as earlier findings on multi-period road supply cannot be applied when the user cost function, defined as the sum of waiting time and crowding costs, is nonhomogeneous. The presence of temporal, spatial and directional demand imbalances is unavoidable in a public transport network. It is not obvious, however, how the magnitude of demand imbalances may affect its economic and financial performance. We show in a simple back-haul setting with elastic demand, controlling for total willingness to pay in the network, that asymmetries in market size reduce the attainable social surplus of a service, while variety in maximum willingness to pay leads to higher aggregate social surplus and lower subsidy under efficient pricing. The analysis of multi-period supply sheds light on the relationship between urban structure, daily activity patterns, and public transport performance.
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    Electronic ISSN: 1879-2367
    Topics: Architecture, Civil Engineering, Surveying , Economics
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  • 58
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    Elsevier
    Publication Date: 2018-01-05
    Description: Publication date: February 2018 Source: Transportation Research Part B: Methodological, Volume 108 Author(s): Jie Xiao, Joern Pachl, Boliang Lin, Jiaxi Wang After the railroad blocking plan is generated, the block-to-train assignment problem determines which train services to be offered, how many trains of each service to be dispatched (service frequency) and which blocks to be carried by which train services. An integer programming optimization model is defined to solve the block-to-train assignment problem. The model aims to maximize the total cost savings of the whole railroad network compared to the single-block train service plan, where each block is allocated to a direct train service. The objective function includes the service design cost savings, the train operation cost savings, the car-hour consumption savings in the accumulation process, the car-hour consumption savings in the attachment and detachment operations and the waiting car-hour consumption savings. Furthermore, the model is improved to a path-based formulation, which has far fewer decision variables and is easier to solve for real-world problems. A heuristic approach based on the genetic algorithm and tabu search is developed to solve the path-based formulation. The model and approach are tested first in a small network to compare with the optimal solution obtained through the enumeration method and the solution obtained from commercial optimization software. Then the model and approach are applied to a real larger railroad sub-network in China.
    Print ISSN: 0191-2615
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  • 59
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    Elsevier
    Publication Date: 2018-01-05
    Description: Publication date: February 2018 Source: Transportation Research Part B: Methodological, Volume 108 Author(s): Mahdieh Allahviranloo, Kay Axhausen The choice of ‘dining out with friends’ or ‘wrapping up unfinished tasks at work’ depends on the utility/satisfaction gained from performing each activity while being constrained by time and physical resources. In fact, such parameters as ‘type’, ‘time of day’, ‘duration’, ‘location’, ‘companionship’, and etc. are defining factors in quantifying the utility of activities - a challenging problem which has been the focus of research for many years. This paper proposes a methodology to estimate the parameters of utility distributions for joint and solo activities, along with the penalty values associated with the deviation of activity start time and duration from their modal values. The study utilizes travel survey data collected in Frauenfeld, Switzerland, over the period of six weeks in 2003. The proposed model is a bi-level optimization model, where the upper level maximizes the accuracy of the activity scheduling on the aggregate level and is measured using the outputs of lower level optimization models. Each lower level model is a variation of pickup and delivery problem and schedules activities for each individual in the population using the parameters of utility distribution and penalty values generated by the Genetic Algorithm. The results indicate that travelers are trying to be more consistent with their arrival time to work, school and pickup/drop off activities: the associated penalty values for deviation from the modal value for arrival time to work and school activities are high. Additionally, significant differences in the parameters of the estimated utility distribution for joint and solo activities are observed, reflecting the fact that utility gained from joint and solo activities are different and needs more in-depth investigation. The proposed methodology has the potential to be applied to any multiday travel survey data, which due to advances made in handheld smart devices and mobile applications are becoming more convenient to collect.
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    Topics: Architecture, Civil Engineering, Surveying , Economics
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  • 60
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    Publication Date: 2018-01-06
    Description: Publication date: May 2018 Source: Applied Mathematics Letters, Volume 79 Author(s): Duanmei Zhou, Guoliang Chen, Gaohang Yu, Jian Zhong We study the commuting solutions of the Yang–Baxter matrix equation A X A = X A X when A is an arbitrary square matrix. By characterizing its commuting solutions based on projection matrices, we show that projections can be determined by using the generalized eigenspaces corresponding to the eigenvalues of A . Therefore, commuting solutions can be constructed explicitly. Our results are more general than those obtained recently by Dong (2017), Ding and Zhang (2014), and Ding and Rhee (2013).
    Print ISSN: 0893-9659
    Electronic ISSN: 1873-5452
    Topics: Mathematics
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  • 61
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    Publication Date: 2018-01-06
    Description: Publication date: May 2018 Source: Ecological Economics, Volume 147 Author(s): Jérôme Ballet, Lucile Marchand, Jérôme Pelenc, Robin Vos The capability approach and the ecosystem services approach have experienced a rapprochement in recent years, evidenced in particular by the publication of several papers in Ecological Economics . Our article advances this rapprochement by embedding the concepts of identity and aspirations. First, we argue that a further set of components should be integrated into the framework: the aspirations set. Second, we argue that a new component within this set i.e. a personal identity conversion factor, must be added to the capability approach so that an integrated analysis framework can be developed. This component derives from the personal identity capability and the aspirations window, both of which are related to cultural ecosystem services. Our analytical framework then highlights all the ambiguity associated with this conversion factor, which can either be a negative or a positive factor in environmental protection.
    Print ISSN: 0921-8009
    Electronic ISSN: 1873-6106
    Topics: Energy, Environment Protection, Nuclear Power Engineering , Economics
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  • 62
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    Publication Date: 2018-01-06
    Description: Publication date: Available online 4 January 2018 Source: The Egyptian Journal of Remote Sensing and Space Science Author(s): Hasi Bagan, Huilong Li, Yonghui Yang, Wataru Takeuchi, Yoshiki Yamagata The quality of a supervised classification map depends on the quality of the ground reference data and the classification method used. However, training samples for agriculture landscapes are often mixed with noise. Therefore, the classification of agriculture regions using remotely sensed data requires the use of classification methods with good generalization capabilities. In this study, the performance of the subspace method in land cover classification of a complex cropping mix area is explored. Landsat-5 thematic mapper (TM) data were used to classify 12 different land cover classes in the study area, located between Tianjin and Tangshan cities in northern China. We compared the classification maps obtained using the subspace method with those obtained using the self-organizing map neural network (SOM) and maximum likelihood classification (MLC) methods. The results of this comparative study confirm that the subspace method performed better than both the SOM and MLC methods. Furthermore, a comparison of the sensitivity of these methods to the reduction in the training sample size shows that the subspace method has a lower sensitivity to variations in the number of training pixels used than the other two methods. Our results demonstrate the ability of the subspace method to distinguish between different crop types over a large area. Moreover, the subspace method is less sensitive to small training sample sizes than the other two methods.
    Print ISSN: 1110-9823
    Topics: Architecture, Civil Engineering, Surveying , Geosciences
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  • 63
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    Publication Date: 2018-01-06
    Description: Publication date: April 2018 Source: Energy Policy, Volume 115 Author(s): Hidenori Nakamura By employing an online social survey in a prefecture that is home to a nuclear power plant and a prefecture that consumes a large amount of energy, this paper investigates the following elements: levels of desire to understand the issues relevant to complex energy and environmental policies, their willingness to talk about such issues in a random sample at the national and prefectural levels, and the relationship between these two elements. Results found that 70–85% of respondents showed a moderate or strong willingness to learn about 14 relevant issues ranging from nuclear waste management to policy transition periods. Moreover, 35% of respondents indicated a moderate or strong willingness to participate in a national- or prefectural-level random sampling citizen dialogue on energy and environmental policy. A stronger desire to learn about the issues is directly associated with a greater willingness to participate in public discussions. The Japanese government produces and disseminates pertinent information reflecting the results of public dialogue, which shows citizens’ increasing willingness to participate in debates at the national level, particularly for those who are more inclined to pay for renewable energy. This survey shows the propensity of Japanese citizens to engage in talks on energy and environmental policy.
    Print ISSN: 0301-4215
    Topics: Energy, Environment Protection, Nuclear Power Engineering , Political Science
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  • 64
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    Publication Date: 2018-01-06
    Description: Publication date: March 2018 Source: Energy Policy, Volume 114 Author(s): Mauro Sarrica, Fulvio Biddau, Sonia Brondi, Paolo Cottone, Bruno M. Mazzara Transition towards low-carbon societies requires multi-scalar and coordinated actions. It implies top-down and bottom-up processes of translation connecting supra-national regulations and targets, with policies and discourses enacted at the national and local level. However, there is a dearth of research analysing the coordination among different scales. The present paper explores how alternative views associated with energy sustainability are translated, supported or resisted, across different scales. Data were collected at a national, regional and local level in Italy. Political debates and newspaper reports, as well as interviews with key local informants, were analysed. The findings indicate elements of coherence as well as tensions and inconsistencies between discourses on energy sustainability taking place at different scales, corresponding to diverse models of governance and policy scenarios. The results suggest the need for a better coordination between centralised and decentralised energy policies; the need to recognise and address bottom-up inputs and concerns into national/regional strategies; and the need for enhancing participation and public engagement in energy governance.
    Print ISSN: 0301-4215
    Topics: Energy, Environment Protection, Nuclear Power Engineering , Political Science
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  • 65
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    Publication Date: 2018-01-06
    Description: Publication date: March 2018 Source: Energy Policy, Volume 114 Author(s): Gwen Arnold, Benjamin Farrer, Robert Holahan We examine how different sources and types of information affect the knowledge of landowners confronting a controversial emergent technology, high-volume hydraulic fracturing (HVHF). HVHF may substantially affect the environmental, health, and economic and social realities faced by communities where drilling occurs. Yet how landowners in these areas learn about HVHF is largely unknown. Understanding landowner knowledge is important because HVHF development depends on voluntary choices of landowners, less knowledgeable landowners may be vulnerable to industry malfeasance, and support for HVHF is linked to familiarity with the industry. Using an original survey of Eastern Ohio landowners affected by HVHF, we find that they most frequently get information about HVHF from the news, oil/gas companies, social connections, and the internet. Information sourcing varies with demographics, socioeconomics, and political partisanship. Although landowners are exposed to many sources of information, most do not help them feel more informed about HVHF. Self-perceived familiarity with HVHF varies positively with the number of sources consulted, internet research, and receipt of information from the oil/gas industry and industry advocacy groups. Landowners often receive unsolicited information about HVHF, but this information rarely helps them feel more informed.
    Print ISSN: 0301-4215
    Topics: Energy, Environment Protection, Nuclear Power Engineering , Political Science
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  • 66
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    Publication Date: 2018-01-06
    Description: Publication date: March 2018 Source: Energy Policy, Volume 114 Author(s): Jim Krane, Kenneth B. Medlock The United States appears less exposed to geopolitical risks affecting its oil supply than at any time since the relatively stable period preceding the widespread oil sector nationalizations of the 1970s. Energy prosperity in the US contrasts with a more fraught period for traditional energy exporting states where geopolitical challenges have been compounded by fiscal stress and rising domestic energy demand. America's relationship with energy-exporting countries will continue to evolve as the US grows more self-sufficient and as more non-OPEC resources become viable, particularly in the Western Hemisphere. Expanded geographic diversification of oil production portends a gradual diminution of the strategic importance of large crude oil exporters. One longer term potential effect of the US shale revolution may be, for example, an unwillingness in Washington to maintain the Carter Doctrine's promise of protection for its interests in the Persian Gulf, although this appears unlikely in the near term. Nevertheless, continued economic growth in developing Asia and the unlocking of new energy resources around the world means the geostrategic relationships that have protected energy supplies over the last 40 years are unlikely to endure over the long run.
    Print ISSN: 0301-4215
    Topics: Energy, Environment Protection, Nuclear Power Engineering , Political Science
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    Publication Date: 2018-01-06
    Description: Publication date: March 2018 Source: Energy Policy, Volume 114 Author(s): Diego García-Gusano, Diego Iribarren, Javier Dufour As in many countries, coal-fired power plants in Spain account for a significant contribution to the electricity mix. Nevertheless, renewable energy options and natural gas are paving the way for coal retirement. Alternatively, it is possible to reduce the emissions (especially SO 2 and NO x ) associated with coal combustion through technology retrofits focused on desulphurisation and denitrification in line with the EU Industrial Emissions Directive. Within a context of low coal and CO 2 prices, lifetime extension of coal-fired plants emerges as an option for power plant owners. This article prospectively evaluates the announced retrofit for 3560 MW of the Spanish coal power capacity under three alternative energy scenarios. In addition to prospective electricity production mixes, the evolution of key life-cycle sustainability indicators (climate change, human health, energy security) is assessed with time horizon 2050 using an enhanced energy systems optimisation model of power generation. When compared to the reference scenario, the results show that coal extension could favour the penetration of renewables in the long term. Notwithstanding, this would come at the expense of undesirable increases in climate change and human health impacts. Consequently, the implementation of the sustainability dimension in energy plans could avoid a “coal conundrum” situation in Spain.
    Print ISSN: 0301-4215
    Topics: Energy, Environment Protection, Nuclear Power Engineering , Political Science
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  • 68
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    In: Heliyon
    Publication Date: 2018-01-06
    Description: Publication date: January 2018 Source: Heliyon, Volume 4, Issue 1 Author(s): Hari Prasad Ratnapuram, S.S. Vutukuru, Rajasri Yadavalli Influence of mixotrophic mode and its transition to various trophic modes under stress conditions was assessed during two stage cultivation of Chlorella pyrenoidosa . Significant lipid productivity was triggered under low light intensity, glucose + bicarbonate supplementation and nitrogen starvation. The association between biomass and lipid productivity, fatty acid composition during mixotrophic transition was critically evaluated. Biomass in growth phase (GP) and stress phase (SP) was 6.14 g/l and 5.14 g/l, respectively, in mixotrophic mode. Higher lipid productivity of 284 g/kg and 154.3 g/kg of neutral lipids was achieved in SP in mixotrophic-mixotrophic (MM) and mixotrophic-heterotrophic (MH) modes, respectively. Stress conditions resulted in high unsaturated fatty acid methyl esters in MH mode. In addition, neutral lipid content was 58% in MH and 52% in MM, that can be attributed to carbon source that is supplemented even in stress phase. Exploring such novel strategies can generate sustainable avenues for biodiesel production.
    Electronic ISSN: 2405-8440
    Topics: Natural Sciences in General
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  • 69
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    In: Lancet
    Publication Date: 2018-01-06
    Description: Publication date: 6–12 January 2018 Source: The Lancet, Volume 391, Issue 10115 Author(s): Layal Chaker, Antonio C Bianco, Jacqueline Jonklaas, Robin P Peeters
    Print ISSN: 0140-6736
    Electronic ISSN: 1474-547X
    Topics: Medicine
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  • 70
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    Publication Date: 2018-01-06
    Description: Publication date: Available online 5 January 2018 Source: Marine Policy Author(s): Francesc Maynou, Maria del Mar Gil, Sergio Vitale, Giovan Battista Giusto, Antigoni Foutsi, Mafalda Rangel, Rita Rainha, Karim Erzini, Jorge M.S. Gonçalves, Luis Bentes, Claudio Viva, Paolo Sartor, Francesco De Carlo, Ilaria Rossetti, Maria Christou, Konstantinos Stergiou, Christos D. Maravelias, Dimitrios Damalas The estimated impact of the EU Landing Obligation was investigated, which bans discards of regulated species, in South European fisheries through stakeholders’ perceptions with the intention to identify implementation shortcomings and practicalities that might lead to obstacles to enforcement. Structured interviews were conducted with 173 fishers in 4 countries practicing 4 generic fisheries (as typified by the dominant fishing gear) asking a total of 26 questions. Results show that fishers estimate that the full implementation of the discards ban will result in longer sorting times. Added to the limited space on board, especially in the more productive trawl and purse seine vessels, this may lead to practical difficulties in relation to compliance. Most of the respondents estimate that there are no realistic possibilities of utilizing the formerly discarded fish in the short term, because of the lack of adequate infrastructure on land Furthermore, the possible utilization types foreseen in the regulation will not help offset the costs of bringing former discards to land. The outcomes of this study have confirmed the implementation difficulties of the landing obligation, especially when the fishing industry cannot expect any medium to long-term benefits.
    Print ISSN: 0308-597X
    Electronic ISSN: 1872-9460
    Topics: Energy, Environment Protection, Nuclear Power Engineering , Agriculture, Forestry, Horticulture, Fishery, Domestic Science, Nutrition , Political Science , Law
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  • 71
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    Publication Date: 2018-01-06
    Description: Publication date: January 2018 Source: Metabolic Engineering, Volume 45 Author(s): Jian Wang, Yaping Yang, Ruihua Zhang, Xiaolin Shen, Zhenya Chen, Jia Wang, Qipeng Yuan, Yajun Yan 2-Methylsuccinic acid (2-MSA) is a C5 branched-chain dicarboxylate that serves as an attractive synthon for the synthesis of polymers with extensive applications in coatings, cosmetic solvents and bioplastics. However, the lack of natural pathways for 2-MSA biosynthesis has limited its application as a promising bio-replacement. Herein, we conceived a non-natural three-step biosynthetic route for 2-MSA, via employing the citramalate pathway in combination with enoate reductase-mediated bioreduction of the pathway intermediate citraconate. First, over-expression of codon-optimized citramalate synthase variant CimA* from Methanococcus jannaschii , endogenous isopropylmalate isomerase EcLeuCD and enoate reductase YqjM from Bacillus subtilis allowed the production of 2-MSA in Escherichia coli for the first time, with a titer of 0.35 g/L in shake flask experiments. Subsequent screening of YqjM-like enoate reductases of different bacterial origins enabled identification and characterization of a new NAD(P)H-dependent enoate reductase KpnER from Klebsiella pneumoniae , which exhibited higher activity towards citraconate than YqjM. Incorporation of KpnER into the 2-MSA biosynthetic pathway led to 2-MSA production improvement to a titer of 0.96 g/L in aerobic condition. Subsequent optimizations including cofactor regeneration, microaerobic cultivation and host strain engineering, boosted 2-MSA titer to 3.61 g/L with a molar yield of 0.36 in shake flask experiments. This work established a promising platform for 2-MSA bioproduction, which enabled the highest titer of 2-MSA production in microbial hosts so far.
    Print ISSN: 1096-7176
    Electronic ISSN: 1096-7184
    Topics: Medicine , Process Engineering, Biotechnology, Nutrition Technology
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  • 72
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    Publication Date: 2018-01-06
    Description: Publication date: February 2018 Source: Molecular Immunology, Volume 94 Author(s): Xiaoxia Zhan, Shengfeng Hu, Yongjian Wu, Miao Li, Ting Liu, Siqi Ming, Minhao Wu, Min Liu, Xi Huang Myeloid-derived suppressor cells (MDSCs) have recently been described to inhibit protective T-cell responses in tuberculosis (TB). T cells play an important role in the immunity to Mycobacterium tuberculosis , and are the major producers of IFN-γ. However, the impact of IFN-γ on MDSCs during TB is still not completely understood. Our study demonstrated a significant correlation between MDSC levels and TB progression, suggesting that MDSCs may serve as a potential marker in diagnosis or treatment of TB. Culture with GM-csf and IL-6 promoted peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) to differentiate into functional CD33 + HLA-DR low MDSC-like cells. Moreover, we report for the first time, that IFN-γ-educated CD33 + HLA-DR low MDSCs have less suppressive potential to diminish T-cell responses, including IFN-γ production. Further investigations revealed that suppressive function of CD33 + HLA-DR low MDSCs was dependent on programmed death-1/programmed death-1 ligand-2 (PD1/PD-L2) pathway and required direct cell–cell contact. IFN-γ dampened the immuno-suppressive activity of CD33 + HLA-DR low MDSCs by inhibiting PD-1/PD-L2 pathway, indicating the existence of a negative-feedback loop between IFN-γ and functional MDSC expansion. In summary, our study revealed a novel mechanism by which IFN-γ decreases the suppressive function of MDSCs, suggesting that antagonizing suppressive functions of MDSCs by IFN-γ could enhance immune responses against TB infection.
    Print ISSN: 0161-5890
    Electronic ISSN: 1872-9142
    Topics: Medicine
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  • 73
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    Publication Date: 2018-01-07
    Description: Publication date: April 2018 Source: Energy Policy, Volume 115 Author(s): M. Safari It is getting increasingly crucial for policymakers to acquire reliable price forecasts for battery electric vehicles (BEVs) to make choices and set priorities. Here, we examine the prospects for the wide deployment of BEVs, following an ex-post analysis of their learning rate and an ex-ante forecast of their price up to 2040. We make a clear distinction between the mainstream of BEVs and a hypothetical group of BEVs that are technically on a par with internal combustion vehicles (ICVs). To do so, we introduce a new index, in which the driving range and max-speed of a vehicle are coupled together, i.e., the Mobility-Diffusion coefficient. We highlight different shares of battery packs (i.e., 19 ± 1%), and the ensemble of electrification components (e.g., battery pack, electric motor, power electronics), i.e., electrification cost (52 ± 2%), in the price of a BEV. Our price projections suggest that there is no prospect of breakeven between BEVs and ICVs before 2040 for both groups of BEVs, because the current learning rates of 9 ± 2% and 15 ± 1% for the price and electrification costs, respectively, of BEVs. Strong and long-term support from policymakers is required to ensure competitiveness of BEVs with ICVs in the near future.
    Print ISSN: 0301-4215
    Topics: Energy, Environment Protection, Nuclear Power Engineering , Political Science
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  • 74
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    Publication Date: 2018-01-07
    Description: Publication date: Available online 6 January 2018 Source: International Journal of Production Economics Author(s): Divesh Ojha, Chandan Acharya, Danielle Cooper This paper examines the impact of top management transformational leadership on supply chain organizational learning and supply chain ambidexterity. We also evaluate the influence of uncertainty, present in the operating environment, on these relationships. Integrating multiple perspectives of organizational behavior relating to learning and leadership, we develop our research model and evaluate it using survey data. Results from our analysis support the notion that supply chain organizational learning orientations fully mediate the relationship between transformational leadership and supply chain ambidexterity. Also, uncertainty in the operating environment positively moderates the relationship between transformational leadership and supply chain learning.
    Print ISSN: 0925-5273
    Electronic ISSN: 1873-7579
    Topics: Technology , Economics
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  • 75
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    Publication Date: 2018-01-07
    Description: Publication date: Available online 6 January 2018 Source: Journal of the Franklin Institute Author(s): Shiqi Zheng, Wenjie Li This paper concentrates on computing the stabilizing region of PD μ controller for fractional order system with general interval uncertainties and an interval delay . The stabilizing region means the complete/approximate set of PD μ controllers that stabilize the given closed-loop control system. General interval uncertainties refer to both coefficients and orders of the fractional system suffer from interval uncertainties. Interval delay indicates that the delay also vary in a specified interval. Firstly, a method is presented to calculate the stabilizing region for general interval fractional system with an interval time-constant delay . Based on a novel mapping function and the concept of critical controller parameters, the stabilizing region can be determined numerically. Secondly, the stabilizing region computation problem for general interval fractional system with an interval time-varyingdelay is considered. By applying a revised small-gain theorem, the stabilizing region can be calculated like the time-constant delay case. Thirdly, two alternative methods are proposed to improve the computational efficiency of stabilizing region calculation. Both methods can reduce the number of polynomials which are used to determine the stabilizing region. Examples are followed to illustrate the proposed results.
    Print ISSN: 0016-0032
    Electronic ISSN: 1879-2693
    Topics: Mathematics , Technology
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  • 76
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    Publication Date: 2018-01-07
    Description: Publication date: February 2018 Source: Data in Brief, Volume 16 Author(s): Michele A. De Santis, Ondrej Kosik, Diana Passmore, Zina Flagella, Peter R. Shewry, Alison Lovegrove The data presented are related to the research article entitled “Comparison of the dietary fibre composition of old and modern durum wheat ( Triticum turgidum spp. durum ) genotypes” (De Santis et al., 2018) [1] . This article provides details of the structures of the major dietary fibre components, arabinoxylan and β-glucan, in semolina and wholemeal flour of old and modern Italian durum wheat genotypes grown in two seasons, determined by enzyme digestion followed by high-performance anion-exchange chromatography (enzyme fingerprinting).
    Print ISSN: 2352-3409
    Topics: Biology
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  • 77
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    Publication Date: 2018-01-07
    Description: Publication date: Available online 6 January 2018 Source: Energy Economics Author(s): Bangzhu Zhu, Shunxin Ye, Ping Wang, Kaijian He, Tao Zhang, Yi-Ming Wei In this study, a novel multiscale nonlinear ensemble leaning paradigm incorporating empirical mode decomposition (EMD) and least square support vector machine (LSSVM) with kernel function prototype is proposed for carbon price forecasting. The EMD algorithm is used to decompose the carbon price into simple intrinsic mode functions (IMFs) and one residue, which are identified as the components of high frequency, low frequency and trend by using the Lempel-Ziv complexity algorithm. The Generalized Autoregressive Conditional Heteroskedasticity (GARCH) model is used to forecast the high frequency IMFs with ARCH effects. The LSSVM model with kernel function prototype is employed to forecast the high frequency IMFs without ARCH effects, the low frequency and trend components. The forecasting values of all the components are aggregated into the ones of original carbon price by the LSSVM with kernel function prototype-based nonlinear ensemble approach. Furthermore, particle swarm optimization is used for model selections of the LSSVM with kernel function prototype. Taking the popular prediction methods as benchmarks, the empirical analysis demonstrates that the proposed model can achieve higher level and directional predictions and higher robustness. The findings show that the proposed model seems an advanced approach for predicting the high nonstationary, nonlinear and irregular carbon price.
    Print ISSN: 0140-9883
    Electronic ISSN: 1873-6181
    Topics: Energy, Environment Protection, Nuclear Power Engineering , Economics
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  • 78
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    Publication Date: 2018-01-07
    Description: Publication date: April 2018 Source: Energy Policy, Volume 115 Author(s): Junbing Huang, Qiang Liu, Xiaochen Cai, Yu Hao, Hongyan Lei Despite the wealth of literature, there is no consensus regarding the effects of the technological factors, including indigenous research and development investment (R&D), foreign direct investment (FDI) and trade, on carbon intensity in China. In this study, using panel data consisting of 30 Chinese provincial-level regions between 2000 and 2014, an extension of the CH-LP framework is first employed to control for the disparity between different proxy variables for FDI and trade in the previous literature. The effects of both indigenous R&D and technology spillovers in the formation of FDI and trade on carbon intensity are investigated in depth by utilizing both linear and nonlinear analyses. The linear empirical results indicate that both indigenous R&D and import's technology spillover play a significant role in decreasing China's carbon intensity. The technology spillovers originating from FDI and export are also beneficial to the reduction of China's carbon intensity. Further estimation results based on the nonlinear analysis indicate that the local technology absorption capacity affecting factors such as human capital, indigenous R&D and the full-time equivalent of R&D personnel are crucial for determining the level of carbon intensity.
    Print ISSN: 0301-4215
    Topics: Energy, Environment Protection, Nuclear Power Engineering , Political Science
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  • 79
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    Publication Date: 2018-01-07
    Description: Publication date: March 2018 Source: Energy Policy, Volume 114 Author(s): Debalina Saha, Rabindra N. Bhattacharya This paper estimates price and income elasticities of electricity demand for four consumer categories, Agriculture, Commerce, Industry and Domestic, for two major utilities (one public and the other private) that supply electricity in West Bengal, India. We use panel data analysis covering 15 years for the four consumer categories. The comparison of the responsiveness in demand due to changes in tariff for the two utilities reveals some interesting differences in the demand pattern of the consumers served by the different utilities when the private sector supplies to the highly urbanized areas and the public sector supplies to the rest of the state. We get an idea about the difference in tariff structure of a public and a private utility as well. Our study suggests that any policy to entirely remove the cross subsidy is not a viable option as there is considerable differences in the elasticity of demand for power among the different category of consumers. Further, for the success of the policy of ‘open access’ which is an important and integral part of the power sector reform some regulatory mechanism is required to control market power in the power sector.
    Print ISSN: 0301-4215
    Topics: Energy, Environment Protection, Nuclear Power Engineering , Political Science
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  • 80
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    Publication Date: 2018-01-07
    Description: Publication date: Available online 6 January 2018 Source: International Journal of Production Economics Author(s): Gopalakrishnan Narayanamurthy, Anand Gurumurthy, Nachiappan Subramanian, Roger Moser We develop a lean readiness framework and an assessment methodology to quantify the readiness of healthcare institutions for implementing lean. We use stakeholder theory and work with a lean implementation team responsible for process improvement in a healthcare group to develop the framework. The framework uses fuzzy based input derived from the stakeholders of the healthcare institution to generate an overall ranking through ideal solution technique. The assessment method derives input from the readiness scores shared by various stakeholders. The ranking suggests future improvement areas to prepare the healthcare institution for a lean implementation project. We provide an alternative perspective of assessing the lean readiness of healthcare institutions before beginning a lean implementation project for both researchers and practitioners. Our research is the first to develop a lean readiness framework for healthcare institutions and demonstrate it using an assessment technique.
    Print ISSN: 0925-5273
    Electronic ISSN: 1873-7579
    Topics: Technology , Economics
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  • 81
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    Publication Date: 2018-01-07
    Description: Publication date: Available online 6 January 2018 Source: Journal of the Franklin Institute Author(s): Wenfeng Hu, Lu Liu, Gang Feng In this paper, we study the robust cooperative output regulation problem of heterogeneous linear multi-agent systems with system uncertainties and directed communication topology. A robust distributed event-triggered control scheme is proposed based on the internal model principle. To avoid continuous monitoring of measurement errors for the event-triggering condition, a novel self-triggered control scheme is further proposed. Moreover, by introducing a fixed timer in the triggering mechanisms, Zeno behavior can be excluded for each agent. An example is finally provided to demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed self-triggered control scheme.
    Print ISSN: 0016-0032
    Electronic ISSN: 1879-2693
    Topics: Mathematics , Technology
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  • 82
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    Publication Date: 2018-01-07
    Description: Publication date: February 2018 Source: Molecular Immunology, Volume 94 Author(s): Taku Naito, Sawako Muroi, Ichiro Taniuchi, Motonari Kondo Tri-methylation of lysine 27 on histone H3 (H3K27me3) is a repressive epigenetic modification catalyzed by polycomb repressive complex 2 (PRC2) that is required for proper cell fate determination as well as cellular function. Numerous studies have been performed to elucidate the role of PRC2 in T-cell differentiation and function; however, its role in the regulation of T-helper (Th) subset differentiation and identity has not been fully explored. Here, we report that Eed, an essential subunit of PRC2, is crucial to maintain the identity of CD4 + T cells under TGFβ-induced regulatory T cell (Treg)-polarizing conditions. Mouse CD4 + T cells lacking Eed exhibited unstable CD4 expression upon TCR stimulation in vitro . Helper lineage instability was further augmented by Treg-polarizing conditions, leading to the immense up-regulation of CD8α as well as other molecules, resembling CD4 + CD8αα + intraepithelial lymphocyte (DP-IEL) differentiation. Genetic studies suggested that the altered balance between transcription factors T-bet, Runx3, and Th-POK underlies the induction of the DP-IEL-like phenotype in Eed -deficient CD4 + cells. Furthermore, comparison to Th1- and Th17-polarizing conditions indicated that cooperation between Smad3 and the T-bet-Runx3 axis facilitated by the loss of H3K27me3 is crucial for phenotype induction. Collectively, our results provide insight into the molecular mechanism that maintains and regulates the proper cellular response upon TGFβ signaling in CD4 + T cells.
    Print ISSN: 0161-5890
    Electronic ISSN: 1872-9142
    Topics: Medicine
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    Publication Date: 2018-01-07
    Description: Publication date: February 2018 Source: Solar Energy, Volume 161 Author(s): M.M. Matheswaran, T.V. Arjunan, D. Somasundaram In this present work an exergy efficiency of the single pass double duct jet plate solar air heater (SPDDJPSAH) is analytically investigated. The analysis is carried out for different mass flow rate m  = 0.002–0.023 kg/s, stream wise pitch ratio X / D h  = 0.435–1.739, span wise pitch ratio Y / D h  = 0.435–0.869 and jet diameter ratio D j /D h  = 0.043–0.109. The overall performance of solar air heaters is effectively evaluated by the exergy analysis by considering both the useful energy gain and subsequent pumping power requirement. Results show that SPDDJPSAH has been enhancing the effective efficiency by 21.2% and exergy efficiency by 22.4% when compared with Single Pass Single Duct Jet Plate Solar Air Heater (SPSDJPSAH). The effects of mass flow rate and jet plate design parameters on the exergy efficiency have been presented. The optimized values of stream wise pitch ratio X / D h  = 1.739, span wise pitch ratio Y / D h  = 0.869 and jet diameter ratio D j / D h  = 0.065 are identified at the mass flow rate of 0.0035 kg/s and yields the maximum exergy efficiency of 4.36%. Design plots are also prepared in order to identify the optimum values of jet plate design parameters to achieve the desired temperature rise. Using the analytical results, the correlations have been developed for predicting the exergy efficiency in terms of Reynolds number and jet plate design variables.
    Print ISSN: 0038-092X
    Topics: Energy, Environment Protection, Nuclear Power Engineering
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    Publication Date: 2018-01-07
    Description: Publication date: February 2018 Source: Solar Energy, Volume 161 Author(s): Shilpi Shital, Sanjay Kumar Swami, Piers Barnes, Viresh Dutta Bifacial dye sensitized solar cells (DSSCs) show potential for use in diffuse and low light environments, but their photoanode light scattering properties have not been optimised. We examine DSSC photoanodes composed of a mixed scattering layer (made by blend of 18NR-T and WER2-O pastes), sandwiched between nanostructured TiO 2 layers (made by 18NR-T paste). WER2-O paste was chossen after accessing scattering properties: scattering coefficient (S), forward scattering ratio (FSR) and forward path length enhancement (FPLE) of the solid TiO 2 particles of different shapes and sizes. Monte Carlo simulations of light harvesting indicate the optimal volume fraction of scattering particles ( f vsca ) in the sandwiched layer to be 5–30%. The proposed photoanode absorbs light effectively and the DSSC with scattering layer made by blend of 60% of 18NR-T and 40% of WER2-O paste showed the power conversion efficiency (PEC) of 8.54% and 5.26%, when illuminated from photoanode (PA) and counter electrode (CE) side, respectively. The effective sorting criteria and optimization routine used in this work can also be used for other devices like perovskite solar cells. Graphical abstract
    Print ISSN: 0038-092X
    Topics: Energy, Environment Protection, Nuclear Power Engineering
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