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  • 1
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    Hindawi
    Publication Date: 2018-03-05
    Description: This paper presented the issues of true representation and a reliable measure for analyzing the DNA base calling is provided. The method implemented dealt with the data set quality in analyzing DNA sequencing, it is investigating solution of the problem of using Neurofuzzy techniques for predicting the confidence value for each base in DNA base calling regarding collecting the data for each base in DNA, and the simulation model of designing the ANFIS contains three subsystems and main system; obtain the three features from the subsystems and in the main system and use the three features to predict the confidence value for each base. This is achieving effective results with high performance in employment.
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    Topics: Biology , Computer Science
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  • 2
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    Hindawi
    Publication Date: 2018-03-05
    Description: Introduction. Parkinson’s disease (PD) is a common neurodegenerative disorder. Mutations in PINK1 are the second most common agents causing autosomal recessive, early onset PD. We aimed to identify the pathogenic SNPs in PARK2 and PINK1 using in silico prediction software and their effect on the structure, function, and regulation of the proteins. Materials and Methods. We carried out in silico prediction of structural effect of each SNP using different bioinformatics tools to predict substitution influence on protein structure and function. Result. Twenty-one SNPs in PARK2 gene were found to affect transcription factor binding activity. 185 SNPs were found to affect splicing. Ten SNPs were found to affect the miRNA binding site. Two SNPs rs55961220 and rs56092260 affected the structure, function, and stability of Parkin protein. In PINK1 gene only one SNP (rs7349186) was found to affect the structure, function, and stability of the PINK1 protein. Ten SNPs were found to affect the microRNA binding site. Conclusion. Better understanding of Parkinson’s disease caused by mutations in PARK2 and PINK1 genes was achieved using in silico prediction. Further studies should be conducted with a special consideration of the ethnic diversity of the different populations.
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  • 3
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    Hindawi
    Publication Date: 2018-03-05
    Description: Bioinformatic analysis was used to predict antigenic B-cell and T-cell epitopes within the S1 glycoprotein of M41 and CR88 IBV strains. A conserved linear B-cell epitope peptide, , was identified in M41 IBV strains while three such epitopes types namely, , , and , were predicted in CR88 IBV strains. Analysis of MHCI binding peptides in M41 IBV strains revealed the presence of 15 antigenic peptides out of which 12 were highly conserved in 96–100% of the total M41 strains analysed. Interestingly three of these peptides, GGPITYKVM208, WFNSLSVSI356, and YLADAGLAI472, relatively had high antigenicity index (〉1.0). On the other hand, 11 MHCI binding epitope peptides were identified in CR88 IBV strains. Of these, five peptides were found to be highly conserved with a range between 90% and 97%. However, WFNSLSVSL358, SYNISAASV88, and YNISAASVA89 peptides comparably showed high antigenicity scores (〉1.0). Combination of antigenic B-cells and T-cells peptides that are conserved across many strains as approach to evoke humoral and CTL immune response will potentially lead to a broad-based vaccine that could reduce the challenges in using live attenuated vaccine technology in the control of IBV infection in poultry.
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  • 4
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    Hindawi
    Publication Date: 2018-03-05
    Description: Color variation provides the opportunity to investigate the genetic basis of evolution and selection. Reptiles are less studied than mammals. Comparative genomics approaches allow for knowledge gained in one species to be leveraged for use in another species. We describe a comparative vertebrate analysis of conserved regulatory modules in pythons aimed at assessing bioinformatics evidence that transcription factors important in mammalian pigmentation phenotypes may also be important in python pigmentation phenotypes. We identified 23 python orthologs of mammalian genes associated with variation in coat color phenotypes for which we assessed the extent of pairwise protein sequence identity between pythons and mouse, dog, horse, cow, chicken, anole lizard, and garter snake. We next identified a set of melanocyte/pigment associated transcription factors (CREB, FOXD3, LEF-1, MITF, POU3F2, and USF-1) that exhibit relatively conserved sequence similarity within their DNA binding regions across species based on orthologous alignments across multiple species. Finally, we identified 27 evolutionarily conserved clusters of transcription factor binding sites within ~200-nucleotide intervals of the 1500-nucleotide upstream regions of AIM1, DCT, MC1R, MITF, MLANA, OA1, PMEL, RAB27A, and TYR from Python bivittatus. Our results provide insight into pigment phenotypes in pythons.
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  • 5
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    Hindawi
    Publication Date: 2018-03-05
    Description: B-cell epitopes on the envelope (E) and premembrane (prM) proteins of dengue virus (DENV) were predicted using bioinformatics tools, BepiPred, Ellipro, and SVMTriP. Predicted epitopes, 32 and 17 for E and prM proteins, respectively, were then characterized for their level of conservations. The epitopes, EP4/E (48–55), epitope number 4 of E protein at amino acids 48–55, EP9/E (165–182), EP11/E (218–233), EP20/E (322–349), EP21/E (326–353), EP23/E (356–365), and EP25/E (380–386), showed a high intraserotype conservancy with very low pan-serotype conservancy, demonstrating a potential target as serotype specific diagnostic markers. EP3 (30–41) located in domain-I and EP26/E (393–409), EP27/E (416–435), EP28/E (417–430) located in the stem region of E protein, and EP8/prM (93–112) from the prM protein have a pan-serotype conservancy higher than 70%. These epitopes indicate a potential use as universal vaccine candidates, subjected to verification of their potential in viral neutralization. EP2/E (16–21), EP5/E (62–123), EP6/E (63–89), EP19/E (310–329), and EP24/E (371–402), which have more than 50% pan-serotype conservancies, were found on E protein regions that are important in host cell attachment. Previous studies further show evidence for some of these epitopes to generate cross-reactive neutralizing antibodies, indicating their importance in antiviral strategies for DENV. This study suggests that bioinformatic approaches are attractive first line of screening for identification of linear B-cell epitopes.
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  • 6
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    Hindawi
    Publication Date: 2018-03-05
    Print ISSN: 1687-7357
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    Topics: Physics
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  • 7
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    Hindawi
    Publication Date: 2018-03-05
    Description: We study the modified Friedmann equation in the Friedmann-Robertson-Walker universe with quantum effect. Our modified results mainly stem from the new entropy-area relation and the novel idea of Padmanabhan, who considers the cosmic space to be emerging as the cosmic time progresses, so that the expansion rate of the universe is determined by the difference of degrees of freedom between the holographic surface and the bulk inside. We also discuss the possibility of having bounce cosmological solution from the modified Friedmann equation in spatially flat geometry.
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  • 8
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    Hindawi
    Publication Date: 2018-03-05
    Description: The exact solutions of the -dimensional Dirac equation on the torus and the new extension and generalization of the trigonometric Pöschl-Teller potential families in terms of the torus parameters are obtained. Supersymmetric quantum mechanics techniques are used to get the extended potentials when the inner and outer radii of the torus are both equal and inequal. In addition, using the aspects of the Lie algebraic approaches, the algebra is also applied to the system where we have arrived at the spectrum solutions of the extended potentials using the Casimir operator that matches with the results of the exact solutions.
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  • 9
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    Hindawi
    Publication Date: 2018-03-05
    Description: Recently, a complex network based method of visibility graph has been applied to confirm the scale-freeness and presence of fractal properties in the process of multiplicity fluctuation. Analysis of data obtained from experiments on hadron-nucleus and nucleus-nucleus interactions results in values of Power of Scale-Freeness of Visibility Graph (PSVG) parameter extracted from the visibility graphs. Here, the relativistic nucleus-nucleus interaction data have been analysed to detect azimuthal anisotropy by extending the visibility graph method and extracting the average clustering coefficient, one of the important topological parameters, from the graph. Azimuthal-distributions corresponding to different pseudorapidity regions around the central pseudorapidity value are analysed utilising the parameter. Here we attempt to correlate the conventional physical significance of this coefficient with respect to complex network systems, with some basic notions of particle production phenomenology, like clustering and correlation. Earlier methods for detecting anisotropy in azimuthal distribution were mostly based on the analysis of statistical fluctuation. In this work, we have attempted to find deterministic information on the anisotropy in azimuthal distribution by means of precise determination of topological parameter from a complex network perspective.
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  • 10
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    Hindawi
    Publication Date: 2018-03-05
    Description: In heavy ion collisions, charged particles come from two parts: the hot and dense matter and the leading particles. In this paper, the hot and dense matter is assumed to expand according to the hydrodynamic model including phase transition and decouples into particles via the prescription of Cooper-Frye. The leading particles are as usual supposed to have Gaussian rapidity distributions with the number equaling that of participants. The investigations of this paper show that, unlike low energy situations, the leading particles are essential in describing the pseudorapidity distributions of charged particles produced in high energy heavy ion collisions. This might be due to the different transparencies of nuclei at different energies.
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  • 11
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    Hindawi
    Publication Date: 2018-03-05
    Description: We present, without any assumption, a class of electric and magnetic flat horizon -dimension solutions for a specific class of , all of which behave asymptotically as Anti-de-Sitter spacetime. The most interesting property of these solutions is that the higher dimensions black holes, , always have constant electric and magnetic charges in contrast to what is known in the literature. For , we show that the magnetic field participates in the metric on equal foot as the electric field participates. Another interesting result is the fact that the Cauchy horizon is not identical with the event horizon. We use Komar formula to calculate the conserved quantities. We study the singularities and calculate the Hawking temperature and entropy and show that the first law of thermodynamics is always satisfied.
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  • 12
    facet.materialart.
    Hindawi
    Publication Date: 2018-03-05
    Description: A detailed study of energy dependence of , and total kaon to pion multiplicity ratio has been carried out in proton-proton (pp) collisions at , 17.3, 62.4, 200, and 900 GeV and also at  TeV and 7 TeV in the framework of UrQMD and DPMJET III model. Dependence of and on energy shows different behavior for UrQMD and DPMJET III model. The presence of the horn-like structure in the variation of and with energy for the experimental data is supported by the DPMJET III model. Experimentally it has been observed that as energy increases, the total kaon to pion multiplicity ratio increases systematically for pp collisions at lower energies and becomes independent of energy in LHC energy regime. Our analysis on total kaon to pion multiplicity ratio with UrQMD data is well supported by the experimental results obtained by different collaborations in different times. In case of DPMJET III data, the saturation of ratio at LHC region has not been observed.
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  • 13
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    Hindawi
    Publication Date: 2018-03-05
    Description: The N-dimensional radial Schrödinger equation has been solved using the analytical exact iteration method (AEIM), in which the Cornell potential is generalized to finite temperature and chemical potential. The energy eigenvalues have been calculated in the N-dimensional space for any state. The present results have been applied for studying quarkonium properties such as charmonium and bottomonium masses at finite temperature and quark chemical potential. The binding energies and the mass spectra of heavy quarkonia are studied in the N-dimensional space. The dissociation temperatures for different states of heavy quarkonia are calculated in the three-dimensional space. The influence of dimensionality number (N) has been discussed on the dissociation temperatures. In addition, the energy eigenvalues are only valid for nonzero temperature at any value of quark chemical potential. A comparison is studied with other recent works. We conclude that the AEIM succeeds in predicting the heavy quarkonium at finite temperature and quark chemical potential in comparison with recent works.
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  • 14
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    Hindawi
    Publication Date: 2018-03-05
    Description: LHC run-II has a great potential to search for new resonances in the diphoton channel. Latest 13 TeV data already put stringent limits on the cross sections in the diphoton channel assuming the resonance is produced through the gluon-gluon fusion. Many beyond the Standard Model (SM) theories predict TeV-scale scalars, which copiously decay to diphotons. Apart from the gluon-gluon fusion production, these scalars can also be dominantly produced in other ways too at the LHC, namely, through the quark-quark fusion or the gauge boson fusions like the photon-photon, photon-,, or fusions. In this paper we use an effective field theory approach where a heavy scalar can be produced in various ways and recast the latest ATLAS diphoton resonance search to put model-independent limits on its mass and effective couplings to the SM particles. If a new scalar is discovered at the LHC, it would be very important to identify its production mechanism in order to probe the nature of the underlying theory. We show that combining various kinematic variables in a multivariate analysis can be very powerful to distinguish different production mechanisms from one another.
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  • 15
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    Hindawi
    Publication Date: 2018-03-05
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  • 16
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    Hindawi
    Publication Date: 2018-03-05
    Description: A correspondence between the theory of high- superconductivity and antiferromagnetism, put forward by Zhang and collaborators, and a theory of gravity arising from symmetry breaking of a gauge field is presented. A physical correspondence between the order parameters of the unified SC/AF theory and the generators of the gravitational gauge connection is conjectured. A preliminary identification of regions of geometry, in solutions of Einstein’s equations describing charged-rotating black holes embedded in de Sitter space-time, with SC and AF phases is carried out.
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  • 17
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    Hindawi
    Publication Date: 2018-03-05
    Description: We consider a cosmological setup with inflaton in the presence of a redshift dependent Lorentz-violating time-like background to address the inflationary regime and other phases of the Universe. We also show that the regime of dark energy at large distances (low redshifts) is essentially dominated by the presence of the Lorentz-violating background.
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  • 18
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    Hindawi
    Publication Date: 2018-03-05
    Description: The energy-momentum of a new four-dimensional, charged, spherically symmetric, and nonsingular black hole solution constructed in the context of general relativity coupled to a theory of nonlinear electrodynamics is investigated, whereby the nonlinear mass function is inspired by the probability density function of the continuous logistic distribution. The energy and momentum distributions are calculated by use of the Einstein, Landau-Lifshitz, Weinberg, and Møller energy-momentum complexes. In all these prescriptions, it is found that the energy distribution depends on the mass and the charge of the black hole, an additional parameter coming from the gravitational background considered, and the radial coordinate . Further, the Landau-Lifshitz and Weinberg prescriptions yield the same result for the energy, while, in all the aforesaid prescriptions, all the momenta vanish. We also focus on the study of the limiting behavior of the energy for different values of the radial coordinate, the parameter , and the charge . Finally, it is pointed out that, for and , all the energy-momentum complexes yield the same expression for the energy distribution as in the case of the Schwarzschild black hole solution.
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  • 19
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    Hindawi
    Publication Date: 2018-03-05
    Description: We first briefly revisit the original Hamilton-Jacobi method and show that the Hamilton-Jacobi equation for the action of tunneling of a fermionic particle from a charged black hole can be written in the same form of that for a scalar particle. On the other hand, various theories of quantum gravity suggest the existence of a minimal length scale, incorporating of which into quantum mechanics implies a modification of the uncertainty principle. In the scenario incorporating the generalized uncertainty principle (GUP) into a quantum field theory (QFT) in a covariant way, we derive the deformed model-independent KG/Dirac and Hamilton-Jacobi equations using the methods of effective field theory. For this Lorentz invariant GUP modified QFT, we find that the effect of GUP on the Hamilton-Jacobi equations is simply to “renormalize” the mass of the emitted particles, from to . Therefore, in this scenario, the Hawking temperature of a black hole does not receive any corrections from the GUP effect.
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  • 20
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    Hindawi
    Publication Date: 2018-03-05
    Description: We study a gauge-singlet vector-like fermion hidden sector dark matter model, in which the communication between the dark matter and the visible standard model sector is via the Higgs-portal scalar-Higgs mixing and also via a hidden sector scalar with loop-level couplings to two gluons and also to two hypercharge gauge bosons induced by a vector-like quark. We find that the Higgs-portal possibility is stringently constrained to be small by the recent LHC di-Higgs search limits, and the loop induced couplings are important to include. In the model parameter space, we present the dark matter relic density, the dark-matter-nucleon direct detection scattering cross section, the LHC diphoton rate from gluon-gluon fusion, and the theoretical upper bounds on the fermion-scalar couplings from perturbative unitarity.
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  • 21
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    Hindawi
    Publication Date: 2018-03-05
    Description: This paper is devoted to investigating the recently introduced theory of gravity, where is the Gauss-Bonnet term and is the trace of the energy-momentum tensor. For this purpose, anisotropic background is chosen and a power law gravity model is used to find the exact solutions of field equations. In particular, a general solution is obtained which is further used to reconstruct some important solutions in cosmological contexts. The physical quantities like energy density, pressure, and equation of state parameter are calculated. A Starobinsky-like model is proposed which is used to analyze the behavior of universe for different values of equation of state parameter. It is concluded that presence of term in the bivariate function may give many cosmologically important solutions of the field equations.
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  • 22
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    Hindawi
    Publication Date: 2018-03-05
    Description: Applying generalized maximum principle and weak maximum principle, we obtain several uniqueness results for spacelike hypersurfaces immersed in a weighted generalized Robertson-Walker (GRW) space-time under suitable geometric assumptions. Furthermore, we also study the special case when the ambient space is static and provide some results by using Bochner’s formula.
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  • 23
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    Hindawi
    Publication Date: 2018-03-05
    Description: New exact solutions to the KdV2 equation (also known as the extended KdV equation) are constructed. The KdV2 equation is a second-order approximation of the set of Boussinesq’s equations for shallow water waves which in first-order approximation yields KdV. The exact solutions in the form of periodic functions found in the paper complement other forms of exact solutions to KdV2 obtained earlier, that is, the solitonic ones and periodic ones given by single or Jacobi elliptic functions.
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  • 24
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    Hindawi
    Publication Date: 2018-03-05
    Description: We use both vector-parameter and quaternion techniques to provide a thorough description of several classes of rotations, starting with coaxial angular velocity of varying magnitude. Then, we fix the magnitude and let precess at constant rate about the -axis, which yields a particular solution to the free Euler dynamical equations in the case of axially symmetric inertial ellipsoid. The latter appears also in the description of spin precessions in NMR and quantum computing. As we show below, this problem has analytic solutions for a much larger class of motions determined by a simple condition relating the (variable) precession rate and the projection of onto the axis of symmetry, which are both time-dependent in the generic case. Relevant physical examples are also provided.
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  • 25
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    Hindawi
    Publication Date: 2018-03-05
    Description: The asymptotic and threshold behaviour of the eigenvalues of a perturbed difference operator inside a spectral gap is investigated. In particular, applications of the Titchmarsh-Weyl -function theory as well as the Birman-Schwinger principle is performed to investigate the existence and behaviour of the eigenvalues of the operator inside the spectral gap of in the limits and
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  • 26
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    Hindawi
    Publication Date: 2018-03-05
    Description: It is well-known that using topological derivative is an effective noniterative technique for imaging of crack-like electromagnetic inhomogeneity with small thickness when small number of incident directions are applied. However, there is no theoretical investigation about the configuration of the range of incident directions. In this paper, we carefully explore the mathematical structure of topological derivative imaging functional by establishing a relationship with an infinite series of Bessel functions of integer order of the first kind. Based on this, we identify the condition of the range of incident directions and it is highly depending on the shape of unknown defect. Results of numerical simulations with noisy data support our identification.
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  • 27
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    Hindawi
    Publication Date: 2018-03-05
    Description: Generalized matrix exponential solutions to the AKNS equation are obtained by the inverse scattering transformation (IST). The resulting solutions involve six matrices, which satisfy the coupled Sylvester equations. Several kinds of explicit solutions including soliton, complexiton, and Matveev solutions are deduced from the generalized matrix exponential solutions by choosing different kinds of the six involved matrices. Generalized matrix exponential solutions to a general integrable equation of the AKNS hierarchy are also derived. It is shown that the general equation and its matrix exponential solutions share the same linear structure.
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  • 28
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    Hindawi
    Publication Date: 2018-03-05
    Description: We apply our model of quantum gravity to a Kerr-AdS space-time of dimension , , where all rotational parameters are equal, resulting in a wave equation in a quantum space-time which has a sequence of solutions that can be expressed as a product of stationary and temporal eigenfunctions. The stationary eigenfunctions can be interpreted as radiation and the temporal ones as gravitational waves. The event horizon corresponds in the quantum model to a Cauchy hypersurface that can be crossed by causal curves in both directions such that the information paradox does not occur. We also prove that the Kerr-AdS space-time can be maximally extended by replacing in a generalized Boyer-Lindquist coordinate system the variable by such that the extended space-time has a timelike curvature singularity in .
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  • 29
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    Hindawi
    Publication Date: 2018-03-05
    Description: The homotheties of spherically symmetric space-time admitting ,, and as maximal isometry groups are already known, whereas, for the space-time admitting as isometry groups, the solution in the form of differential constraints on metric coefficients requires further classification. For a class of spherically symmetric space-time admitting as maximal isometry groups without imposing any restriction on the stress-energy tensor, the metrics along with their corresponding homotheties are found. In one case, the metric is found along with its homothety vector that satisfies an additional constraint and is illustrated with the help of an example of a metric. In another case, the metric and the corresponding homothety vector are found for a subclass of spherically symmetric space-time for which the differential constraint is reduced to separable form. Stress-energy tensor and related quantities of the metrics found are given in the relevant section.
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  • 30
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    Hindawi
    Publication Date: 2018-03-05
    Description: A system with an absolute nonlinearity is studied in this work. It is noted that the system is chaotic and has an adjustable amplitude variable, which is suitable for practical uses. Circuit design of such a system has been realized without any multiplier and experimental measurements have been reported. In addition, an adaptive control has been applied to get the synchronization of the system.
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  • 31
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    Hindawi
    Publication Date: 2018-03-05
    Description: A boundary value problem for a stationary nonlinear dispersive equation of order on an interval was considered. The existence, uniqueness, and continuous dependence of a regular solution have been established.
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  • 32
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    Hindawi
    Publication Date: 2018-03-05
    Description: The low-dimensional periodic Klein-Gordon lattices are studied for integrability. We prove that the periodic lattice with two particles and certain nonlinear potential is nonintegrable. However, in the cases of up to six particles, we prove that their Birkhoff-Gustavson normal forms are integrable, which allows us to apply KAM theory in most cases.
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  • 33
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    Hindawi
    Publication Date: 2018-03-05
    Description: Some sufficient conditions, which are valid for stability check of fractional-order nonlinear systems, are given in this paper. Based on these results, the synchronization of two fractional-order chaotic systems is investigated. A novel fractional-order sliding surface, which is composed of a synchronization error and its fractional-order integral, is introduced. The asymptotical stability of the synchronization error dynamical system can be guaranteed by the proposed fractional-order sliding mode controller. Finally, two numerical examples are given to show the feasibility of the proposed methods.
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  • 34
    facet.materialart.
    Hindawi
    Publication Date: 2018-03-05
    Description: The transverse dynamic spin susceptibility is a correlation function that yields exact information about spin excitations in systems with a collinear magnetic ground state, including collective spin-wave modes. In an ab initio context, it may be calculated within many-body perturbation theory or time-dependent density-functional theory, but the quantitative accuracy is currently limited by the available functionals for exchange and correlation in dynamically evolving systems. To circumvent this limitation, the spin susceptibility is here alternatively formulated as the solution of an initial-value problem. In this way, the challenge of accurately describing exchange and correlation in many-electron systems is shifted to the stationary initial state, which is much better understood. The proposed scheme further requires the choice of an auxiliary basis set, which determines the speed of convergence but always allows systematic convergence in practical implementations.
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    Electronic ISSN: 1687-9139
    Topics: Mathematics , Physics
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  • 35
    facet.materialart.
    Hindawi
    Publication Date: 2018-03-05
    Description: The transition density function plays an important role in understanding and explaining the dynamics of the stochastic process. In this paper, we incorporate an ergodic process displaying fast moving fluctuation into constant volatility models to express volatility clustering over time. We obtain an analytic approximation of the transition density function under our stochastic process model. Using perturbation theory based on Lie–Trotter operator splitting method, we compute the leading-order term and the first-order correction term and then present the left and right skew scenarios through numerical study.
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    Topics: Mathematics , Physics
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  • 36
    facet.materialart.
    Hindawi
    Publication Date: 2018-03-05
    Print ISSN: 1687-9120
    Electronic ISSN: 1687-9139
    Topics: Mathematics , Physics
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  • 37
    facet.materialart.
    Hindawi
    Publication Date: 2018-03-05
    Description: In this work, we fabricated system In(O,OH)S/i-ZnO/n+-ZnO to be used as potential optical window in thin films solar cells. i-ZnO/n+-ZnO thin films were synthesized by reactive evaporation (RE) method and In(O,OH)S thin films were synthesized by chemical bath deposition (CBD) method; all thin films were deposited on soda lime glass substrates. Thin films were characterized through X-ray diffraction (XRD), atomic force microscopy (AFM), and spectral transmittance measurements. Structural results indicated that both thin films were polycrystalline; furthermore, morphological results indicated that both thin films coated uniformly soda lime glass substrate; besides, optical characterization indicated that system had more than 80% of visible radiation transmittance.
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    Electronic ISSN: 1687-7993
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Physics
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  • 38
    facet.materialart.
    Hindawi
    Publication Date: 2018-03-05
    Description: Lawsonia inermis also known as henna was studied as a corrosion inhibitor for aluminum alloy in seawater. The inhibitor has been characterized by optical study via Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR). The FTIR proves the existence of hydroxyl and carbonyl functional groups in Lawsonia inermis. Aluminum alloy 5083 immersed in seawater in the absence and presence of Lawsonia inermis was tested using electrochemistry method, namely, electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) and potentiodynamic polarization (PP). EIS and PP measurements suggest that the addition of Lawsonia inermis has caused the adsorption of inhibitor on the aluminum surface. The adsorption behavior of the inhibitor follow Langmuir adsorption model where the value of free energy of adsorption, , is less than 40 kJ/mol indicates that it is a physical adsorption. Finally, it was inferred that Lawsonia inermis has a real potential to act as a corrosion inhibitor for aluminum alloy in seawater.
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  • 39
    facet.materialart.
    Hindawi
    Publication Date: 2018-03-05
    Description: A homologous series of liquid crystal bearing with heterocyclic thiophene Schiff base ester with alkanoyloxy chain (CH3(CH2)nCOO–, where , 6, 8, 10, 12, 14, 16) was successfully synthesized through the modification of some reported methods. The structural information of these compounds was isolated and characterized through some spectroscopic techniques, such as FTIR, 1H, and 13C NMR and elemental analysis. Textural observation was carried out using a polarizing optical microscope (POM) over heating and cooling cycles. It was found that all synthesized compounds (3a–g) exhibited an enantiotropic nematic phase upon the heating and cooling cycle with high thermal stability. Moreover, a characteristic bar transition texture was observed for compounds 3f and 3g which have shown transition of nematic-to-smectic C phase. This has been further confirmed by obtaining relative phase transition temperature using the differential scanning calorimetry (DSC).
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  • 40
    facet.materialart.
    Hindawi
    Publication Date: 2018-03-05
    Description: We apply density functional theory at PBE/6-311G(d) level as well as nonorthogonal tight-binding model to study the Stone-Wales transformation in C36 fullerene embedded inside the (14,0) zigzag carbon nanotube. We optimize geometries of two different isomers with the and the symmetries and the transition state dividing them. The mechanism of Stone-Wales transformation from to symmetry for the encapsulated C36 is calculated to be the same as for the isolated one. It is found that the outer carbon wall significantly stabilizes the isomer. However, carbon nanotube reduces the activation barrier of Stone-Wales rearrangement by 0.4 eV compared with the corresponding value for the isolated C36.
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  • 41
    facet.materialart.
    Hindawi
    Publication Date: 2018-03-05
    Description: This paper shows the experimental results of the flutter speed of thin-flat plates with free leading edge in axial flow as a function of plates’ geometry, fluid densities, and viscosities, as well as natural frequencies of the plates. The experiment was developed based on similitude theory using dimensional analysis and Buckingham Pi Theorem. Dimensional analysis generates four dimensionless numbers. Experiment was conducted by placing the thin-flat plates in a laminar flow wind tunnel in order to obtain the relationship among those dimensionless numbers. The flutter speed was measured by varying the flow velocity until the instability occurred. The dimensional analysis gives a map of the flutter Reynolds number as a function of a new type of dimensionless number that is hereby called flutter fluid structure interaction number, thickness-to-length, and aspect ratios as the correcting factors. This map is a very useful tool for predicting the flutter speed of thin-flat plates in general. This investigation found that the flutter Reynolds number is very high at the region of high flutter fluid structure and thickness-to-length ratios numbers; however, it is very sensitive to the change of those two dimensionless numbers. The sensitivity is higher at lower aspect ratio.
    Print ISSN: 1687-6261
    Electronic ISSN: 1687-627X
    Topics: Physics
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  • 42
    facet.materialart.
    Hindawi
    Publication Date: 2018-03-05
    Description: We present explicit formula for the general Randić connectivity, general sum-connectivity, Hyper-Zagreb and Harmonic Indices, and Harmonic polynomial of some simple connected molecular graphs.
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  • 43
    facet.materialart.
    Hindawi
    Publication Date: 2018-03-05
    Description: Monkey B virus (Macacine alphaherpesvirus 1; BV) occurs naturally in macaques of the genus Macaca, which includes rhesus and long-tailed (cynomolgus) monkeys that are widely used in biomedical research. BV is closely related to the human herpes simplex viruses (HSV), and BV infections in its natural macaque host are quite similar to HSV infections in humans. Zoonotic BV is extremely rare, having been diagnosed in only a handful of North American facilities with the last documented case occurring in 1998. However, BV is notorious for its neurovirulence since zoonotic infections are serious, usually involving the central nervous system, and are frequently fatal. Little is known about factors underlying the extreme neurovirulence of BV in humans. Here we review what is actually known about the molecular biology of BV and viral factors affecting its neurovirulence. Based on what is known about related herpesviruses, areas for future research that may elucidate mechanisms underlying the neurovirulence of this intriguing virus are also reviewed.
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    Electronic ISSN: 1687-8647
    Topics: Medicine
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  • 44
    facet.materialart.
    Hindawi
    Publication Date: 2018-03-05
    Description: Two Malaysian very virulent infectious bursal disease virus (vvIBDV) strains UPM0081 and UPM190 (also known as UPMB00/81 and UPM04/190, respectively) isolated from local IBD outbreaks were serially passaged 12 times (EP12) in specific pathogen free (SPF) chicken embryonated eggs (CEE) by chorioallantoic membrane (CAM) route. The EP12 isolate was further adapted and serially propagated in BGM-70 cell line up to 20 passages (P20). Characteristic cytopathic effects (CPEs) were subtly observed at P1 in both isolates 72 hours postinoculation (pi). The CPE became prominent at P5 with cell rounding, cytoplasmic vacuoles, granulation, and detachment from flask starting from day 3 pi, up to 7 days pi with titers of 109.50 TCID50/mL and  TCID50/mL for UPM0081 and UPM190, respectively. The CPE became subtle at P17 and disappeared by P18 and P19 for UPM0081 and UPM190, respectively. However, the presence of IBDV was confirmed by immunoperoxidase, immunofluorescence, and RT-PCR techniques. Phylogenetic analysis showed that these two isolates were of the vvIBDV. It appears that a single mutation of UPM190 and UPM0081 IBDV isolates at D279N could facilitate vvIBDV strain adaptability in CEE and BGM-70 cultures.
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    Topics: Medicine
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  • 45
    facet.materialart.
    Hindawi
    Publication Date: 2018-03-05
    Description: Gene expression, signal transduction, protein/chemical interactions, biomedical literature cooccurrences, and other concepts are often captured in biological network representations where nodes represent a certain bioentity and edges the connections between them. While many tools to manipulate, visualize, and interactively explore such networks already exist, only few of them can scale up and follow today’s indisputable information growth. In this review, we shortly list a catalog of available network visualization tools and, from a user-experience point of view, we identify four candidate tools suitable for larger-scale network analysis, visualization, and exploration. We comment on their strengths and their weaknesses and empirically discuss their scalability, user friendliness, and postvisualization capabilities.
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    Topics: Biology , Computer Science
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  • 46
    facet.materialart.
    Hindawi
    Publication Date: 2018-03-05
    Description: The inhibition of dipeptidyl peptidase-IV (DPPIV) is a popular route for the treatment of type-2 diabetes. Commercially available gliptin-based drugs such as sitagliptin, anagliptin, linagliptin, saxagliptin, and alogliptin were specifically developed as DPPIV inhibitors for diabetic patients. The use of Gynura bicolor in treating diabetes had been reported in various in vitro experiments. However, an understanding of the inhibitory actions of G. bicolor bioactive compounds on DPPIV is still lacking and this may provide crucial information for the development of more potent and natural sources of DPPIV inhibitors. Evaluation of G. bicolor bioactive compounds for potent DPPIV inhibitors was computationally conducted using Lead IT and iGEMDOCK software, and the best free-binding energy scores for G. bicolor bioactive compounds were evaluated in comparison with the commercial DPPIV inhibitors, sitagliptin, anagliptin, linagliptin, saxagliptin, and alogliptin. Drug-likeness and absorption, distribution, metabolism, and excretion (ADME) analysis were also performed. Based on molecular docking analysis, four of the identified bioactive compounds in G. bicolor, 3-caffeoylquinic acid, 5-O-caffeoylquinic acid, 3,4-dicaffeoylquinic acid, and trans-5-p-coumaroylquinic acid, resulted in lower free-binding energy scores when compared with two of the commercially available gliptin inhibitors. The results revealed that bioactive compounds in G. bicolor are potential natural inhibitors of DPPIV.
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  • 47
    facet.materialart.
    Hindawi
    Publication Date: 2018-03-05
    Description: Results of the combined use of the classical force field and the recent quantum chemical PM7 method for docking are presented. Initially the gridless docking of a flexible low molecular weight ligand into the rigid target protein is performed with the energy function calculated in the MMFF94 force field with implicit water solvent in the PCM model. Among several hundred thousand local minima, which are found in the docking procedure, about eight thousand lowest energy minima are chosen and then energies of these minima are recalculated with the recent quantum chemical semiempirical PM7 method. This procedure is applied to 16 test complexes with different proteins and ligands. For almost all test complexes such energy recalculation results in the global energy minimum configuration corresponding to the ligand pose near the native ligand position in the crystalized protein-ligand complex. A significant improvement of the ligand positioning accuracy comparing with MMFF94 energy calculations is demonstrated.
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  • 48
    facet.materialart.
    Hindawi
    Publication Date: 2018-03-05
    Description: Although realistic representation of the convective boundary layer (CBL) in the desert region in Northwest China is important for weather forecasts and climate simulations, evaluations of the performance of various planetary boundary layer (PBL) schemes in simulating the CBL in the region are rare. In this study, the performance of a scale-aware PBL scheme newly implemented into the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model in simulating the CBL in the Taklimakan desert is evaluated based on a comparison with both the WRF-LES simulations and observations, with the focus on scale dependencies of the simulations compared to the conventional PBL scheme. A series of simulations are performed with a scale-aware PBL scheme (Shin-Hong) and the conventional PBL scheme (YSU) for a deep CBL observed at Tazhong station in the central Taklimakan on 1 July 2016. The CBL was over 5000 m deep with wider and deeper rolls than in a shallow boundary layer. The results showed that the vertical structure simulated with the Shin-Hong scheme was closer to that in both the WRF-LES (large-eddy-simulation) and observations than that simulated with the YSU. The simulation with the scale-aware scheme reproduced cellular rolls similar to those in the WRF-LES, while the conventional PBL scheme struggled to trigger intense convective cells rather than cellular rolls. The results strongly suggest that the scale-aware nonlocal PBL scheme can be used to adequately reproduce the scale and evolution of the observed rolls in the deep CBL in Taklimakan desert at subkilometer resolutions.
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    Electronic ISSN: 1687-9317
    Topics: Geosciences , Physics
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  • 49
    facet.materialart.
    Hindawi
    Publication Date: 2018-03-05
    Description: In order to improve the measurement of precipitation microphysical characteristics sensor (PMCS), the sampling process of raindrops by PMCS based on a particle-by-particle Monte-Carlo model was simulated to discuss the effect of different bin sizes on DSD measurement, and the optimum sampling bin sizes for PMCS were proposed based on the simulation results. The simulation results of five sampling schemes of bin sizes in four rain-rate categories show that the raw capture DSD has a significant fluctuation variation influenced by the capture probability, whereas the appropriate sampling bin size and width can reduce the impact of variation of raindrop number on DSD shape. A field measurement of a PMCS, an OTT PARSIVEL disdrometer, and a tipping bucket rain Gauge shows that the rain-rate and rainfall accumulations have good consistencies between PMCS, OTT, and Gauge; the DSD obtained by PMCS and OTT has a good agreement; the probability of ,, and Λ shows that there is a good agreement between the Gamma parameters of PMCS and OTT; the fitted and Z-R relationship measured by PMCS is close to that measured by OTT, which validates the performance of PMCS on rain-rate, rainfall accumulation, and DSD related parameters.
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    Electronic ISSN: 1687-9317
    Topics: Geosciences , Physics
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  • 50
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    Hindawi
    Publication Date: 2018-03-05
    Description: We investigate the validity of generalized second law of thermodynamics of a physical system comprising newly proposed dark energy model called Ricci-Gauss-Bonnet and cold dark matter enveloped by apparent horizon and event horizon in flat Friedmann-Robertson-Walker (FRW) universe. For this purpose, Bekenstein entropy, Renyi entropy, logarithmic entropy, and power law entropic corrections are used. It is found that this law exhibits the validity on both apparent and event horizons except for the case of logarithmic entropic correction at apparent horizon. Also, we check the thermodynamical equilibrium condition for all cases of entropy and found its vitality in all cases of entropy.
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  • 51
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    Hindawi
    Publication Date: 2018-03-05
    Description: We report on recent results obtained within the Hamiltonian approach to QCD in Coulomb gauge. Furthermore this approach is compared to recent lattice data, which were obtained by an alternative gauge-fixing method and which show an improved agreement with the continuum results. By relating the Gribov confinement scenario to the center vortex picture of confinement, it is shown that the Coulomb string tension is tied to the spatial string tension. For the quark sector, a vacuum wave functional is used which explicitly contains the coupling of the quarks to the transverse gluons and which results in variational equations which are free of ultraviolet divergences. The variational approach is extended to finite temperatures by compactifying a spatial dimension. The effective potential of the Polyakov loop is evaluated from the zero-temperature variational solution. For pure Yang–Mills theory, the deconfinement phase transition is found to be second order for and first order for , in agreement with the lattice results. The corresponding critical temperatures are found to be and , respectively. When quarks are included, the deconfinement transition turns into a crossover. From the dual and chiral quark condensate, one finds pseudocritical temperatures of and , respectively, for the deconfinement and chiral transition.
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  • 52
    facet.materialart.
    Hindawi
    Publication Date: 2018-03-05
    Description: The aim of this paper is to study static spherically symmetric noncommutative wormhole solutions along with Lorentzian distribution. Here, and are torsion scalar and teleparallel equivalent Gauss-Bonnet term, respectively. We take a particular redshift function and two models. We analyze the behavior of shape function and also examine null as well as weak energy conditions graphically. It is concluded that there exist realistic wormhole solutions for both models. We also studied the stability of these wormhole solutions through equilibrium condition and found them stable.
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  • 53
    facet.materialart.
    Hindawi
    Publication Date: 2018-03-05
    Description: Anisotropic dark energy cosmological models have been constructed in a Bianchi V space-time, with the energy momentum tensor consisting of two noninteracting fluids, namely, bulk viscous fluid and dark energy fluid. Two different models are constructed based on the power law cosmology and de Sitter universe. The constructed model was also embedded with different pressure gradients along different spatial directions. The variable equation of state (EoS) parameter and skewness parameters for both models are obtained and analysed. The physical properties of the models obtained with the use of scale factors of power law and de Sitter law are also presented.
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  • 54
    facet.materialart.
    Hindawi
    Publication Date: 2018-03-05
    Description: We consider the BRST symmetric four-dimensional BF theory, a topological theory, containing antisymmetric tensor fields in Landau gauge and extend the BRST symmetry by introducing a shift symmetry to it. Within this formulation, the antighost fields corresponding to shift symmetry coincide with antifields of standard field/antifield formulation. Furthermore, we provide a superspace description for the BF model possessing extended BRST and extended anti-BRST transformations.
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  • 55
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    Hindawi
    Publication Date: 2018-03-05
    Description: We have studied the scattering problem of relativistic fermions from a quaternionic double Dirac delta potential. We have used Dirac equation in the presence of the scalar and vector potentials in the quaternionic formalism of relativistic quantum mechanics to study the problem. The wave functions of different regions have been derived. Then, using the reflection coefficient, transmission coefficient, and the continuity equation, the scattering problem has been investigated in detail. It has been shown that we have faced some fluctuations in the reflection and transmission coefficients.
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  • 56
    facet.materialart.
    Hindawi
    Publication Date: 2018-03-05
    Description: The production potential of the excited neutrinos at the FCC-based electron-hadron colliders, namely, the with  TeV, the with  TeV, and the with  TeV, has been analyzed. The branching ratios of the excited neutrinos have been calculated for the different decay channels and shown that the dominant channel is . We have calculated the production cross sections with the process of and the decay widths of the excited neutrinos with the process of . The signals and corresponding backgrounds are studied in detail to obtain accessible mass limits. It is shown that the discovery limits obtained on the mass of the excited neutrino are  GeV for  , GeV for   ( GeV for ), and GeV for   ( GeV for  ), for the center-of-mass energies of ,, and  TeV, respectively.
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  • 57
    facet.materialart.
    Hindawi
    Publication Date: 2018-03-05
    Description: We show that if the non-Gaussian part of the cumulants of a random matrix model obeys some scaling bounds in the size of the matrix, then Wigner’s semicircle law holds. This result is derived using the replica technique and an analogue of the renormalisation group equation for the replica effective action.
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  • 58
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    Hindawi
    Publication Date: 2018-03-05
    Description: We consider in this note the mean field approximation for the description of the probe charged particle in a dense charged drop. We solve the corresponding Schrödinger equation for the drop with spherical symmetry in the first order of mean field approximation and discuss the obtained results.
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  • 59
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    Hindawi
    Publication Date: 2018-03-05
    Description: The transverse momentum distributions for inclusive meson described by gluon-gluon interactions from photoproduction processes in relativistic heavy ion collisions are calculated. We considered the color-singlet (CS) and color-octet (CO) components within the framework of Nonrelativistic Quantum Chromodynamics (NRQCD) in the production of heavy quarkonium. The phenomenological values of the matrix elements for the color-singlet and color-octet components give the main contribution to the production of heavy quarkonium from the gluon-gluon interaction caused by the emission of additional gluon in the initial state. The numerical results indicate that the contribution of photoproduction processes cannot be negligible for midrapidity in p-p and Pb-Pb collisions at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) energies.
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  • 60
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    Hindawi
    Publication Date: 2018-03-05
    Description: Applying the Bethe ansatz method, we investigate the Schrödinger equation for the three quasi-exactly solvable double-well potentials, namely, the generalized Manning potential, the Razavy bistable potential, and the hyperbolic Shifman potential. General exact expressions for the energies and the associated wave functions are obtained in terms of the roots of a set of algebraic equations. Also, we solve the same problems using the Lie algebraic approach of quasi-exact solvability through the algebraization and show that the results are the same. The numerical evaluation of the energy spectrum is reported to display explicitly the energy levels splitting.
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  • 61
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    Hindawi
    Publication Date: 2018-03-05
    Description: It is our aim to show that the Chern-Simons terms of modified gravity can be understood as generated by the addition of a 3-dimensional algebraic manifold to an initial 11-dimensional space-time manifold; this builds up an -dimensional space-time. In this system, firstly, some fields living in the bulk join the fields that live on the 11-dimensional manifold, so that the rank of the gauge fields exceeds the dimension of the algebra; consequently, there emerges an anomaly. To solve this problem, another 11-dimensional manifold is included in the -dimensional space-time, and it interacts with the initial manifold by exchanging Chern-Simon fields. This mechanism is able to remove the anomaly. Chern-Simons terms actually produce an extra manifold in the pair of 11-dimensional manifolds of the -space-time. Summing up the topology of both the 11-dimensional manifolds and the topology of the exchanged Chern-Simons manifold in the bulk, we conclude that the total topology shrinks to one, which is in agreement with the main idea of the Big Bang theory.
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  • 62
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    Hindawi
    Publication Date: 2018-03-05
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  • 63
    facet.materialart.
    Hindawi
    Publication Date: 2018-03-05
    Description: The Schwarzschild-de Sitter black hole solution, which has two event horizons, is considered to examine the relation between the energy component of quasi-localized energy-momentum complexes on and the heat flows passing through its boundary . Here is the patch between cosmological event horizon and black hole event horizon of the SdS black hole solution. Conclusively, the relation, like the Legendre transformation, between the energy component of quasi-localized Einstein and Møller energy-momentum complex and the heat flows passing through the boundary is obeyed, and these two energy components of quasi-localized energy-momentum complexes could be corresponding to thermodynamic potentials.
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  • 64
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    Hindawi
    Publication Date: 2018-03-05
    Description: A generalized super-NLS-mKdV hierarchy is proposed related to Lie superalgebra ; the resulting supersoliton hierarchy is put into super bi-Hamiltonian form with the aid of supertrace identity. Then, the super-NLS-mKdV hierarchy with self-consistent sources is set up. Finally, the infinitely many conservation laws of integrable super-NLS-mKdV hierarchy are presented.
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  • 65
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    Hindawi
    Publication Date: 2018-03-05
    Description: The paper shows that the regularity up to the boundary of a weak solution of the Navier–Stokes equation with generalized Navier’s slip boundary conditions follows from certain rate of integrability of at least one of the functions , (the positive part of ), and , where are the eigenvalues of the rate of deformation tensor . A regularity criterion in terms of the principal invariants of tensor is also formulated.
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  • 66
    facet.materialart.
    Hindawi
    Publication Date: 2018-03-05
    Description: The negative order Camassa-Holm (CH) hierarchy consists of nonlinear evolution equations associated with the CH spectral problem. In this paper, we show that all the negative order CH equations admit peakon solutions; the Lax pair of the -order CH equation given by the hierarchy is compatible with its peakon solutions. Special peakon-antipeakon solutions for equations of orders and are obtained. Indeed, for , the peakons of -order CH equation can be constructed explicitly by the inverse scattering approach using Stieltjes continued fractions. The properties of peakons for -order CH equation when is odd are much different from the CH peakons; we present the case as an example.
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  • 67
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    Hindawi
    Publication Date: 2018-03-05
    Description: The traditionally ignored physical processes of viscous dissipation, Joule heating, streamwise heat diffusion, and work shear are assessed and their importance is established. The study is performed for the MHD flow due to a linearly stretching sheet with induced magnetic field. Cases of prescribed surface temperature, heat flux, surface feed (injection or suction), velocity slip, and thermal slip are considered. Sample numerical solutions are obtained for the chosen combinations of the flow parameters.
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  • 68
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    Hindawi
    Publication Date: 2018-03-05
    Description: We employ the -expansion method to seek exact traveling wave solutions of two nonlinear wave equations—Padé-II equation and Drinfel’d-Sokolov-Wilson (DSW) equation. As a result, hyperbolic function solution, trigonometric function solution, and rational solution with general parameters are obtained. The interesting thing is that the exact solitary wave solutions and new exact traveling wave solutions can be obtained when the special values of the parameters are taken. Comparing with other methods, the method used in this paper is very direct. The -expansion method presents wide applicability for handling nonlinear wave equations.
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  • 69
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    Hindawi
    Publication Date: 2018-03-05
    Description: We construct metric connection associated with a first-order differential equation by means of the generator set of a Pfaffian system on a submanifold of an appropriate first-order jet bundle. We firstly show that the inviscid and viscous Burgers’ equations describe surfaces attached to an ODE of the form with certain Gaussian curvatures. In the case of PDEs, we show that the scalar curvature of a three-dimensional manifold encoding a system of first-order PDEs is determined in terms of the integrability condition and the Gaussian curvatures of the surfaces corresponding to the integral curves of the vector fields which are annihilated by the contact form. We see that an integral manifold of any PDE defines intrinsically flat and totally geodesic submanifold.
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  • 70
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    Hindawi
    Publication Date: 2018-03-05
    Description: Via a generalization of the pseudospectral method for numerical solution of differential equations, a family of nonlinear algebraic identities satisfied by the zeros of a wide class of orthogonal polynomials is derived. The generalization is based on a modification of pseudospectral matrix representations of linear differential operators proposed in the paper, which allows these representations to depend on two, rather than one, sets of interpolation nodes. The identities hold for every polynomial family orthogonal with respect to a measure supported on the real line that satisfies some standard assumptions, as long as the polynomials in the family satisfy differential equations , where is a linear differential operator and each is a polynomial of degree at most ; does not depend on . The proposed identities generalize known identities for classical and Krall orthogonal polynomials, to the case of the nonclassical orthogonal polynomials that belong to the class described above. The generalized pseudospectral representations of the differential operator for the case of the Sonin-Markov orthogonal polynomials, also known as generalized Hermite polynomials, are presented. The general result is illustrated by new algebraic relations satisfied by the zeros of the Sonin-Markov polynomials.
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  • 71
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    Hindawi
    Publication Date: 2018-03-05
    Description: The previously obtained integral field representation in the form of double weighted Fourier transform (DWFT) describes effects of inhomogeneities with different scales. The first DWFT approximation describing the first-order effects does not account for incident wave distortions. However, in inhomogeneous media the multiscale second-order effects can also take place when large-scale inhomogeneities distort the field structure of the wave incident on small-scale inhomogeneities. The paper presents the results of the use of DWFT to derive formulas for wave statistical moments with respect to the first- and second-order effects. It is shown that, for narrow-band signals, the second-order effects do not have a significant influence on the frequency correlation. We can neglect the contribution of the second-order effects to the spatial intensity correlation when thickness of the inhomogeneous layer is small, but these effects become noticeable as the layer thickness increases. Accounting for the second-order effects enabled us to get a spatial intensity correlation function, which at large distances goes to the results obtained earlier by the path integral method. This proves that the incident wave distortion effects act on the intensity fluctuations of a wave propagating in a multiscale randomly inhomogeneous medium.
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  • 72
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    Hindawi
    Publication Date: 2018-03-05
    Description: We focus on the following elliptic system with critical Sobolev exponents:  ; ; , where , either or , and critical Sobolev exponents and . Conditions on potential functions lead to no compact embedding. Relying on concentration-compactness principle, mountain pass lemma, and genus theory, the existence of solutions to the elliptic system with or will be established.
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  • 73
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    Hindawi
    Publication Date: 2018-03-05
    Description: We describe a mathematical link between aspects of information theory, called pairwise comparisons, and discretized gauge theories. The link is made by the notion of holonomy along the edges of a simplex. This correspondence leads to open questions in both fields.
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  • 74
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    Hindawi
    Publication Date: 2018-03-05
    Description: As a unitary quantum walk with infinitely many internal degrees of freedom, the quantum walk in terms of quantum Bernoulli noise (recently introduced by Wang and Ye) shows a rather classical asymptotic behavior, which is quite different from the case of the usual quantum walks with a finite number of internal degrees of freedom. In this paper, we further examine the structure of the walk. By using the Fourier transform on the state space of the walk, we obtain a formula that links the moments of the walk’s probability distributions directly with annihilation and creation operators on Bernoulli functionals. We also prove some other results on the structure of the walk. Finally, as an application of these results, we establish a quantum central limit theorem for the annihilation and creation operators themselves.
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  • 75
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    Hindawi
    Publication Date: 2018-03-05
    Description: We study the following generalized quasilinear Schrödinger equations with critical growth where , , is a even function, , and for all , where . Under some suitable conditions, we prove that the equation has a nontrivial solution by variational method.
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  • 76
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    Hindawi
    Publication Date: 2018-03-05
    Description: In this paper we treat a particular class of planar Filippov systems which consist of two smooth systems that are separated by a discontinuity boundary. In such systems one vector field undergoes a saddle-node bifurcation while the other vector field is transversal to the boundary. The boundary-saddle-node (BSN) bifurcation occurs at a critical value when the saddle-node point is located on the discontinuity boundary. We derive a local topological normal form for the BSN bifurcation and study its local dynamics by applying the classical Filippov’s convex method and a novel regularization approach. In fact, by the regularization approach a given Filippov system is approximated by a piecewise-smooth continuous system. Moreover, the regularization process produces a singular perturbation problem where the original discontinuous set becomes a center manifold. Thus, the regularization enables us to make use of the established theories for continuous systems and slow-fast systems to study the local behavior around the BSN bifurcation.
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  • 77
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    Hindawi
    Publication Date: 2018-03-05
    Description: We consider the kinematics of the locally BPS super-Wilson loop in super-Yang-Mills with scalar coupling from a twistorial point of view. We find that the kinematics can be described either as supersymmetrized pure spinors or as a point in the product of two super-Grassmannian manifolds . In this description of the kinematics the scalar–scalar correlation function appearing in the one-loop evaluation of the super-Wilson loop can be neatly written as a sum of four superdeterminants.
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  • 78
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    Hindawi
    Publication Date: 2018-03-05
    Description: A temperature index model with delay and stochastic perturbation is constructed in this paper. It explores the influence of parameters and stochastic factors on the stability and complexity of the model. Based on historical temperature data of four cities of Anhui Province in China, the temperature periodic variation trends of approximately sinusoidal curves of four cities are given, respectively. In addition, we analyze the existence conditions of the local stability of the temperature index model without stochastic term and estimate its parameters by using the same historical data of the four cities, respectively. The numerical simulation results of the four cities are basically consistent with the descriptions of their historical temperature data, which proves that the temperature index model constructed has good fitting degree. It also shows that unreasonable delay parameter can make the model lose stability and improve the complexity. Stochastic factors do not usually change the trend in temperature, but they can cause high frequency fluctuations in the process of temperature evolution. Stability control is successfully realized for unstable systems by the variable feedback control method. The trend of temperature changes in Anhui Province is deduced by analyzing four typical cities.
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  • 79
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    Hindawi
    Publication Date: 2018-03-05
    Description: (E)-N-Aryl-2-ethene-sulfonamide and its derivatives are potent anticancer agents; these compounds inhibit cancer cells proliferation. A study of quantitative structure-activity relationship (QSAR) has been applied on 40 compounds based on (E)-N-Aryl-2-ethene-sulfonamide, in order to predict their anticancer biological activity. The principal components analysis is used for minimizing the base matrix and the multiple linear regression (MLR) and multiple nonlinear regression have been used to design the relationships between the molecular descriptor and anticancer properties of the sulfonamide derivatives. The validation of the models MLR and MNLR has been done by dividing the dataset into training and test set, the external validation of multiple correlation coefficients was RpIC50 = 0.81 for MLR and RpIC50 = 0.91 for MNLR. The artificial neural network (ANN) showed a correlation coefficient close to 0.96, which concluded that this latter model is more effective and much better than the other models. This obtained model (ANN) has been confirmed by two methods of LOO cross-validation and scrambling (or Y-randomization). The high correlation between experimental and predicted activity values was observed, indicating the validation and the good quality of the derived QSAR model.
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    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Physics
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  • 80
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    Hindawi
    Publication Date: 2018-03-05
    Description: In this work, we synthesized In2S3 powder through chemical bath deposition method (CBD) in acid medium; we used thioacetamide as sulphide source and InCl3 as indium ion source. X-ray diffraction, diffuse reflection, and Raman spectroscopy measurements were used for In2S3 powder physicochemical characterization. Optical analysis indicated that In2S3 was active in the visible region of electromagnetic spectrum; it had a band gap of 2.47 eV; the diffraction patterns and Raman spectroscopy suggested that powder had polycrystalline structure. Furthermore, we also studied the adsorption process of methylene blue (MB) on In2S3 powder; adsorption studies indicated that the Langmuir model describes experimental data. Finally, photocatalytic degradation of MB was studied under visible irradiation in aqueous solution; besides, pseudo-first-order model was used to obtain kinetic information about photocatalytic degradation; results indicated that the powder catalyst reduces 26% concentration of MB under visible irradiation.
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    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Physics
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  • 81
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    Hindawi
    Publication Date: 2018-03-05
    Description: The ability of gum exudates of Azadirachta indica (GAI) to inhibit corrosion on mild steel in 1 mol L−1 HCl has been studied using mass loss, polarization, and impedence measurements. The effect of temperature (303–323 K) and immersion time of 1, 2, 4, 6, and 12 hours on corrosion behavior of mild steel was examined. Gum exudates decrease the corrosion rate up to a concentration of 80 ppm and at 323 K temperature. GAI adsorb chemically onto the surface of the mild steel while it obeys Langmuir adsorption isotherms. Polarization studies show GAI as mixed mode inhibitor. Surface studies ascertain that a shielding layer was formed on the mild steel surface.
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  • 82
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    Hindawi
    Publication Date: 2018-03-05
    Description: Cathodic electrochemical deposition (CED) is introduced as an efficient and effective method for synthesis and surface coating of superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles (SPIONs). In this way, bare Fe3O4 nanoparticles were electrosynthesized through CED method from aqueous solution Fe3+ : Fe2+ chloride (molar ratio of 2 : 1). In the next step, the surface of NPs was coated with polyethyleneimine (PEI) and polyethylene glycol (PEG) during the CED procedure, and PEG/PEI coated SPIONs were obtained. The prepared NPs were evaluated by powder X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), dynamic light scattering (DLS), vibrating sample magnetometer (VSM), and field-emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM). The pure magnetite phase and nanosize (about 15 nm) of the prepared NPs were confirmed by XRD and FE-SEM. The presence of two coats (i.e., PEG and PEI) on the surface of electrosynthesized NPs was proved via FTIR results. The percentage of polymer coat (37.5%) on the NPs surface was provided by TGA analysis. The high magnetization value, negligible coercivity, and remanence measured by VSM indicate the superparamagnetic nature of both prepared NPs. The obtained results confirmed that the prepared Fe3O4 nanoparticles have suitable physicochemical and magnetic properties for biomedical applications.
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  • 83
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    Hindawi
    Publication Date: 2018-03-05
    Description: In a search of newer and potent antileishmanial (against promastigotes and amastigotes form of parasites) drug, a series of 60 variously substituted acridines derivatives were subjected to a quantitative structure activity relationship (QSAR) analysis for studying, interpreting, and predicting activities and designing new compounds by using multiple linear regression and artificial neural network (ANN) methods. The used descriptors were computed with Gaussian 03, ACD/ChemSketch, Marvin Sketch, and ChemOffice programs. The QSAR models developed were validated according to the principles set up by the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD). The principal component analysis (PCA) has been used to select descriptors that show a high correlation with activities. The univariate partitioning (UP) method was used to divide the dataset into training and test sets. The multiple linear regression (MLR) method showed a correlation coefficient of 0.850 and 0.814 for antileishmanial activities against promastigotes and amastigotes forms of parasites, respectively. Internal and external validations were used to determine the statistical quality of QSAR of the two MLR models. The artificial neural network (ANN) method, considering the relevant descriptors obtained from the MLR, showed a correlation coefficient of 0.933 and 0.918 with 7-3-1 and 6-3-1 ANN models architecture for antileishmanial activities against promastigotes and amastigotes forms of parasites, respectively. The applicability domain of MLR models was investigated using simple and leverage approaches to detect outliers and outsides compounds. The effects of different descriptors in the activities were described and used to study and design new compounds with higher activities compared to the existing ones.
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  • 84
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    Hindawi
    Publication Date: 2018-03-05
    Description: The removal of toxic dye rhodamine B (RB) from aqueous solution was achieved by using Casuarina equisetifolia cone (CEC) as an adsorbent. Batch experiment method was used in order to investigate the effects of contact time, pH, temperature, ionic strength, and dye concentration on the adsorption process. Kinetics and isotherm theoretical models were applied on the experimental data and it was found that the pseudo-2nd-order kinetics and the Langmuir isotherm model best fitted into the data. The Langmuir maximum adsorption capacity for CEC was determined as 49.5 mg g−1. The adsorption of RB onto CEC is thermodynamically favourable, feasible, and endothermic in nature.
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  • 85
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    Hindawi
    Publication Date: 2018-03-06
    Description: Background. Systemic sclerosis (SSc) and localized scleroderma (LoS) are two different diseases that may share some features. We evaluated the relationship between SSc and LoS in our case series of SSc patients. Methods. We analysed the clinical records of 330 SSc patients, in order to find the eventual occurrence of both the two diseases. Results. Eight (2.4%) female patients presented both the two diagnoses in their clinical histories. Six developed LoS prior to SSc; in 4/6 cases, the presence of autoantibodies was observed before SSc diagnosis. Overall, the median time interval between LoS and SSc diagnosis was 18 (range 0–156) months. Conclusions. LoS and SSc are two distinct clinical entities that may coexist. Moreover, as anecdotally reported in pediatric populations, we suggested the possible development of SSc in adult patients with LoS, particularly in presence of Raynaud’s phenomenon or antinuclear antibodies before the SSc onset.
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    Electronic ISSN: 1687-6113
    Topics: Medicine
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  • 86
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    Hindawi