WILBERT

Wildauer Bücher+E-Medien Recherche-Tool

Your email was sent successfully. Check your inbox.

An error occurred while sending the email. Please try again.

Proceed reservation?

Export
  • 1
    facet.materialart.
    Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE)
    Publication Date: 2018-01-03
    Description: We present a silicon dual-coupled-ring resonator modulator with push–pull coupling tunings. The basic idea of this scheme is to construct a dual-coupled-ring resonator structure in which the coupling coefficients of all coupling regions are tunable through Mach–Zehnder interferometers operated in push–pull modes. Two coupling coefficients are tuned jointly for optical bandwidth shaping and tuning while another coupling coefficient is tuned for high speed and chirp-free modulation. The fundamental analytical expressions for the intensity transmittance, the critical and the resonance conditions of the proposed dual-coupled-ring resonator modulator are derived. In addition, the performance simulations and optimization are presented and compared with those of the single-ring resonator modulator. The proposed dual-coupled-ring resonator modulator is more likely to achieve wide optical bandwidth tuning range and narrow channel spacing simultaneously, which are suitable for future optical processing and interconnects.
    Electronic ISSN: 1943-0655
    Topics: Electrical Engineering, Measurement and Control Technology , Physics
    Location Call Number Limitation Availability
    BibTip Others were also interested in ...
  • 2
    facet.materialart.
    Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE)
    Publication Date: 2018-01-03
    Description: We investigate the decay properties of the quantumness including quantum entanglement, quantum discord, and quantum coherence for two photonic qubits, which are partially entangled in their orbital angular momenta, through Kolmogorov turbulent atmosphere. It is found that the decay of quantum coherence and quantum discord may be qualitatively different from that of quantum entanglement when the initial state of two photons is not maximally entangled. We also derive two universal decay laws for quantum coherence and quantum discord, respectively, and show that the decay of quantum coherence is more robust than nonclassical correlations.
    Electronic ISSN: 1943-0655
    Topics: Electrical Engineering, Measurement and Control Technology , Physics
    Location Call Number Limitation Availability
    BibTip Others were also interested in ...
  • 3
    facet.materialart.
    Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE)
    Publication Date: 2018-01-03
    Description: In this letter, we consider the inter-relay interference (IRI) problem for amplify-and-forward (AF) two-path successive relay networks. To reduce processing burden for IRI cancelation at the relay nodes, a novel precoding-based interference cancelation scheme based on row-space mapping is proposed, where a pair of orthogonal precoding matrices is alternately utilized to project the source data onto the null space of the received data that is independent of channel state information (CSI). By designing a combined decoding and re-encoding scheme, both the IRI signal and accumulated noise are perfectly suppressed at the relay nodes. Simulation results show that the proposed scheme is significantly better than the channel estimate based interference cancelation schemes.
    Print ISSN: 1070-9908
    Electronic ISSN: 1558-2361
    Topics: Electrical Engineering, Measurement and Control Technology
    Location Call Number Limitation Availability
    BibTip Others were also interested in ...
  • 4
    facet.materialart.
    Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE)
    Publication Date: 2018-01-03
    Description: An ultrafast high-sensitivity refractive index (RI) and temperature-sensing system based on an optoelectronic oscillator (OEO) is proposed and demonstrated in this paper. A Fabry–Perot fiber Bragg grating (FP-FBG), which combines a gap with two FBGs in a silica V-shaped slot and characterizes a narrow notch in the reflection spectrum, is incorporated in the OEO to implement a microwave photonic filter and perform oscillating frequency selection. A microwave signal is generated by the OEO, whose oscillating frequency is determined by the center frequency of the FP-FBG notch, which varies with the surrounding environments. The RI or the temperature change can be accordingly measured by monitoring the frequency shift of the microwave signal using an electrical spectrum analyzer or a digital signal processor. An experiment is performed to verify the proposal. An RI sensitivity of 413.8 MHz/0.001RIU and a temperature sensitivity of 2516 MHz/°C are successively demonstrated.
    Electronic ISSN: 1943-0655
    Topics: Electrical Engineering, Measurement and Control Technology , Physics
    Location Call Number Limitation Availability
    BibTip Others were also interested in ...
  • 5
    facet.materialart.
    Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE)
    Publication Date: 2018-01-03
    Description: Presents the table of contents for this issue of this publication.
    Print ISSN: 0018-9235
    Electronic ISSN: 1939-9340
    Topics: Electrical Engineering, Measurement and Control Technology
    Location Call Number Limitation Availability
    BibTip Others were also interested in ...
  • 6
    facet.materialart.
    Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE)
    Publication Date: 2018-01-03
    Description: In the 2015 science fiction blockbuster The Martian, the United States makes a rushed effort to send life-sustaining provisions to its marooned astronaut on the Red Planet. Alas, the attempt fails when NASA's resupply rocket explodes shortly after liftoff. But officials with China’s national space program save the day when they offer the services of a previously secret Chinese rocket that is capable of ferrying the needed materials. The Martian movie and the book on which it is based have been hailed for their many realistic technical details.
    Print ISSN: 0018-9235
    Electronic ISSN: 1939-9340
    Topics: Electrical Engineering, Measurement and Control Technology
    Location Call Number Limitation Availability
    BibTip Others were also interested in ...
  • 7
    facet.materialart.
    Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE)
    Publication Date: 2018-01-03
    Description: With Moore's Law slowing down, engineers have been taking a hard look at what will keep computing going when the law is no more. Certainly, artificial intelligence will play a role. So might quantum computing. But there are stranger things in the computing universe, and some of them got an airing at the IEEE International Conference on Rebooting Computing, in November. There were cool variations on classics such as reversible computing and neuromorphic chips. Less-familiar concepts got their time in the sun, too, such as photonics chips that accelerate artificial intelligence, nanomechanical comb-shaped logic, and a "hyperdimensional" speech recognition system. What follows includes a taste of both the strange and the potentially powerful.
    Print ISSN: 0018-9235
    Electronic ISSN: 1939-9340
    Topics: Electrical Engineering, Measurement and Control Technology
    Location Call Number Limitation Availability
    BibTip Others were also interested in ...
  • 8
    facet.materialart.
    Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE)
    Publication Date: 2018-01-03
    Description: Electronics enthusiasts like being able to make things themselves. In IEEE Spectrum's Hands On column, we've detailed how readers can make their own solder reflow ovens, conductive ink, and synthetic aperture radars. But making DIY integrated circuits seemed impossibly out of reach. After all, building a modern fab is astronomically expensive: For example, in 2017 Intel announced it was investing US $7 billion to complete a facility for making chips with 7-nanometer- scale features. But Sam Zeloof was not deterred. This 17-year-old high school student has started making chips in his garage,albeit with technology that's a few steps back along the curve of Moore's Law. Zeloof says he has been working on his garage fab, located in his home near Flemington, N.J., for about a year. He began thinking about how to make chips as his "way of trying to learn what's going on inside semiconductors and transistors. I started reading old books and old patents because the newer books explain processes that require very expensive equipment."
    Print ISSN: 0018-9235
    Electronic ISSN: 1939-9340
    Topics: Electrical Engineering, Measurement and Control Technology
    Location Call Number Limitation Availability
    BibTip Others were also interested in ...
  • 9
    facet.materialart.
    Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE)
    Publication Date: 2018-01-03
    Description: Over the years, programmers have developed all sorts of conventions to wrangle the infinitely malleable nature of software. There are rules for how new versions should be numbered; how variables and functions should be named; the use of README files; and so on. Such measures provide consistency, especially for people grappling with software written by others, which can otherwise be a maddeningly obfuscated black box.
    Print ISSN: 0018-9235
    Electronic ISSN: 1939-9340
    Topics: Electrical Engineering, Measurement and Control Technology
    Location Call Number Limitation Availability
    BibTip Others were also interested in ...
  • 10
    facet.materialart.
    Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE)
    Publication Date: 2018-01-03
    Description: A century ago, engineers working on New York's Long Island flew the first controlled heavier-than-air drone aircraft. Given the year-1918-it's not surprising that the craft was designed for warfare. People are now of course doing more interesting things with drones, including ferrying medical supplies in East Africa. Those lifesaving robotic fliers are one of two dozen tech breakthroughs that IEEE Spectrum's editors have uncovered for our annual January roundup. Elsewhere in the issue, you'll read about robotic cars poised to enter commercial service, robotic spacecraft that will be landing on the moon’s far side, and even robotic sewing machines, which at an Arkansas factory will soon be producing one T-shirt every 22 seconds—for 33 U.S. cents. In this time of technological ferment, you can count on us to show you the emerging possibilities.
    Print ISSN: 0018-9235
    Electronic ISSN: 1939-9340
    Topics: Electrical Engineering, Measurement and Control Technology
    Location Call Number Limitation Availability
    BibTip Others were also interested in ...
  • 11
    facet.materialart.
    Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE)
    Publication Date: 2018-01-03
    Description: Welcome to the 5G Olympics, where Nathan Chen, the 18-year-old figure-skating phenom, has just landed another quadruple jump. Can't see him well from your seat in the nosebleed section? No problem. Just slip on your 5G virtual reality headset for a 360-degree rink-side view! Now watch your step-we're boarding the 5G bus to the next attraction. Check out the windows: They're in fact transparent display screens providing ultrahigh-definition video—streamed live—from a hockey player's headcam, from drones flying above the ski slopes, and from the cockpit of a bobsled barreling down an icy track at 100...0...0 kilometers per hour!
    Print ISSN: 0018-9235
    Electronic ISSN: 1939-9340
    Topics: Electrical Engineering, Measurement and Control Technology
    Location Call Number Limitation Availability
    BibTip Others were also interested in ...
  • 12
    facet.materialart.
    Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE)
    Publication Date: 2018-01-03
    Description: "Wake up, this is not a test," intones a voice as the virtual reality game Awakening begins. Your game character is a child trapped in a nefarious government lab, and as you scan the room you see a variety of objects lying on the floor, each flashing with light. You focus your mental attention on a block, and it rises up and rotates in the air before you. Then you focus on a mirror on the wall, and the block hurtles toward it and smashes the glass, revealing a scrawled sequence of numbers beneath. You notice a keypad by the door with numbers that are also subtly flashing. Using only your Jedi powers, you focus on certain digits in the correct sequence to open the door.
    Print ISSN: 0018-9235
    Electronic ISSN: 1939-9340
    Topics: Electrical Engineering, Measurement and Control Technology
    Location Call Number Limitation Availability
    BibTip Others were also interested in ...
  • 13
    facet.materialart.
    Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE)
    Publication Date: 2018-01-03
    Description: "A fab is like an iceberg," someone tells me. I can't tell who because we're all covered head to toe in clean-room garb. A tour of GlobalFoundries' Fab 8 in Malta, N.Y., certainly reinforces that analogy: We've just come up from the "sub-fab," the 10 meters of vertical space under the floor, where pipes and wires snake down from each semiconductor-manufacturing tool above to a set of automated chemical handlers, water analyzers, power conditioners, and-in the case of the unit I've come to see-kilowatt-class lasers.
    Print ISSN: 0018-9235
    Electronic ISSN: 1939-9340
    Topics: Electrical Engineering, Measurement and Control Technology
    Location Call Number Limitation Availability
    BibTip Others were also interested in ...
  • 14
    facet.materialart.
    Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE)
    Publication Date: 2018-01-03
    Description: Every year, poachers kill about 27,000 African elephants-an astounding 8 percent of the population. If current trends continue, these magnificent animals could be gone within a decade. The solution, of course, is to stop poachers before they strike, but how to do that has long confounded authorities. In protected areas like wildlife preserves, elephants and other endangered animals may roam far and wide, while rangers can patrol only a small area at any time. "It's a two-part problem," explains Milind Tambe, a computer scientist at the University of Southern California, in Los Angeles. "Can you predict where poaching will happen? And can you [target] your patrols so that they're unpredictable, so that the poachers don't know the rangers are coming?"
    Print ISSN: 0018-9235
    Electronic ISSN: 1939-9340
    Topics: Electrical Engineering, Measurement and Control Technology
    Location Call Number Limitation Availability
    BibTip Others were also interested in ...
  • 15
    facet.materialart.
    Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE)
    Publication Date: 2018-01-03
    Print ISSN: 0278-0062
    Electronic ISSN: 1558-254X
    Topics: Medicine , Technology
    Location Call Number Limitation Availability
    BibTip Others were also interested in ...
  • 16
    facet.materialart.
    Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE)
    Publication Date: 2018-01-03
    Description: In this paper, we propose a generalized joint sparsity regularization prior and reconstruction framework for the synergistic reconstruction of positron emission tomography (PET) and under sampled sensitivity encoded magnetic resonance imaging data with the aim of improving image quality beyond that obtained through conventional independent reconstructions. The proposed prior improves upon the joint total variation (TV) using a non-convex potential function that assigns a relatively lower penalty for the PET and MR gradients, whose magnitudes are jointly large, thus permitting the preservation and formation of common boundaries irrespective of their relative orientation. The alternating direction method of multipliers (ADMM) optimization framework was exploited for the joint PET-MR image reconstruction. In this framework, the joint maximum a posteriori objective function was effectively optimized by alternating between well-established regularized PET and MR image reconstructions. Moreover, the dependency of the joint prior on the PET and MR signal intensities was addressed by a novel alternating scaling of the distribution of the gradient vectors. The proposed prior was compared with the separate TV and joint TV regularization methods using extensive simulation and real clinical data. In addition, the proposed joint prior was compared with the recently proposed linear parallel level sets (PLSs) method using a benchmark simulation data set. Our simulation and clinical data results demonstrated the improved quality of the synergistically reconstructed PET-MR images compared with the unregularized and conventional separately regularized methods. It was also found that the proposed prior can outperform both the joint TV and linear PLS regularization methods in assisting edge preservation and recovery of details, which are otherwise impaired by noise and aliasing artifacts. In conclusion, the proposed joint sparsity regularization within the presented a- ADMM reconstruction framework is a promising technique, nonetheless our clinical results showed that the clinical applicability of joint reconstruction might be limited in current PET-MR scanners, mainly due to the lower resolution of PET images.
    Print ISSN: 0278-0062
    Electronic ISSN: 1558-254X
    Topics: Medicine , Technology
    Location Call Number Limitation Availability
    BibTip Others were also interested in ...
  • 17
    facet.materialart.
    Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE)
    Publication Date: 2018-01-03
    Description: Magnetic particle imaging (MPI) is a promising new tomographic imaging method to detect the spatial distribution of superparamagnetic iron-oxide nanoparticles (SPIOs). The aim of this paper was to investigate the potential of MPI to quantify artificial stenoses in vessel phantoms. Custom-made stenosis phantoms (length 40 mm; inner diameter 8 mm) with different degrees of stenosis (0%, 25%, 50%, 75%, and 100%) were scanned in a custom-built MPI scanner (in-plane resolution: ~1–1.5 mm and field of view: 65 $times $ 29 $times $ 29 mm 3 ). Phantoms were filled with diluted Feru-carbotran [SPIO agent, 5 mmol (Fe)/l]. Each measurement (overall acquisition time: 20 ms per image, 400 averages) was repeated ten times to assess reproducibility. The MPI signal was used for semi-automatic stenosis quantification. Two stenosis evaluation approaches were compared based on the signal intensity profile alongside the stenosis phantoms. Using a novel multi-step image evaluation approach, MPI allowed for accurate quantification of different stenosis grades. While low grade stenoses were slightly over-estimated, high grade stenoses were slightly underestimated. In particular, the 0%, 25%, and 50% stenosis phantoms revealed a 6.2% ± 0.8, 25.7% ± 1.0, and 48.0% ± 1.5 stenosis, respectively. The higher grade 75% stenosis phantom revealed a 73.3% ± 2.8 and the 100% stenosis phantom a 95.8%± 1.9 stenosis. MPI accu- ately visualized and quantified different stenosis grades in vessel phantoms with high reproducibility demonstrating its great potential for fast and radiation-free preclinical cardiovascular imaging.
    Print ISSN: 0278-0062
    Electronic ISSN: 1558-254X
    Topics: Medicine , Technology
    Location Call Number Limitation Availability
    BibTip Others were also interested in ...
  • 18
    facet.materialart.
    Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE)
    Publication Date: 2018-01-03
    Description: By exploiting cross-information among multiple imaging data, multimodal fusion has often been used to better understand brain diseases. However, most current fusion approaches are blind, without adopting any prior information. There is increasing interest to uncover the neurocognitive mapping of specific clinical measurements on enriched brain imaging data; hence, a supervised, goal-directed model that employs prior information as a reference to guide multimodal data fusion is much needed and becomes a natural option. Here, we proposed a fusion with reference model called “multi-site canonical correlation analysis with reference + joint-independent component analysis” (MCCAR+jICA), which can precisely identify co-varying multimodal imaging patterns closely related to the reference, such as cognitive scores. In a three-way fusion simulation, the proposed method was compared with its alternatives on multiple facets; MCCAR+jICA outperforms others with higher estimation precision and high accuracy on identifying a target component with the right correspondence. In human imaging data, working memory performance was utilized as a reference to investigate the co-varying working memory-associated brain patterns among three modalities and how they are impaired in schizophrenia. Two independent cohorts (294 and 83 subjects respectively) were used. Similar brain maps were identified between the two cohorts along with substantial overlaps in the central executive network in fMRI, salience network in sMRI, and major white matter tracts in dMRI. These regions have been linked with working memory deficits in schizophrenia in multiple reports and MCCAR+jICA further verified them in a repeatable, joint manner, demonstrating the ability of the proposed method to identify potential neuromarkers for mental disorders.
    Print ISSN: 0278-0062
    Electronic ISSN: 1558-254X
    Topics: Medicine , Technology
    Location Call Number Limitation Availability
    BibTip Others were also interested in ...
  • 19
    facet.materialart.
    Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE)
    Publication Date: 2018-01-03
    Description: We present a comparative study for discriminative anatomy detection in high dimensional neuroimaging data. While most studies solve this problem using mass univariate approaches, recent works show better accuracy and variable selection using a sparse classification model. Two types of image-based regularization methods have been proposed in the literature based on either a Graph Net (GN) model or a total variation (TV) model. These studies showed increased classification accuracy and interpretability of results when using image-based regularization, but did not look at the accuracy and quality of the recovered significant regions. In this paper, we theoretically prove bounds on the recovered sparse coefficients and the corresponding selected image regions in four models (two based on GN penalty and two based on TV penalty). Practically, we confirm the theoretical findings by measuring the accuracy of selected regions compared with ground truth on simulated data. We also evaluate the stability of recovered regions over cross-validation folds using real MRI data. Our findings show that the TV penalty is superior to the GN model. In addition, we showed that adding an l 2 penalty improves the accuracy of estimated coefficients and selected significant regions for the both types of models.
    Print ISSN: 0278-0062
    Electronic ISSN: 1558-254X
    Topics: Medicine , Technology
    Location Call Number Limitation Availability
    BibTip Others were also interested in ...
  • 20
    facet.materialart.
    Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE)
    Publication Date: 2018-01-03
    Description: We present a direct (noniterative) algorithm for 1-D quadratic data fitting with neighboring intensity differences penalized by the Huber function. Applications of such an algorithm include 1-D processing of medical signals, such as smoothing of tissue time concentration curves in kinetic data analysis or sinogram preprocessing, and using it as a subproblem solver for 2-D or 3-D image restoration and reconstruction. dynamic programming was used to develop the direct algorithm. The problem was reformulated as a sequence of univariate optimization problems, for ${k} =textsf {1}, ldots , {N}$ , where ${N}$ is the number of data points. The solution to the univariate problem at index ${k}$ is parameterized by the solution at ${k}+textsf {1}$ , except at ${k}={N}$ . Solving the univariate optimization problem at ${k}={N}$ yields the solution to each problem in the sequence using back-tracking. Computational issues and memory cost are discussed in detail. Two numerical studies, tissue concentration curve smoothing and sinogram preprocessing for image reconstruction, are used to validate the direct algorithm and illustrate its practical applications. In the example of 1-D curve smoothing, the efficiency of the direct algorithm is compared with four iterative methods: the iterative coordinate descent, Nesterov’s accelerated gradient descent algorithm, FISTA, and an off-the-shelf second order method. The first two methods were applied to the primal problem, the others to the dual problem. The comparisons show that the direct - lgorithm outperforms all other methods by a significant factor, which rapidly grows with the curvature of the Huber function. The second example, sinogram preprocessing, showed that robustness and speed of the direct algorithm are maintained over a wide range of signal variations, and that noise and streaking artifacts could be reduced with almost no increase in computation time. We also outline how the proposed 1-D solver can be used for imaging applications.
    Print ISSN: 0278-0062
    Electronic ISSN: 1558-254X
    Topics: Medicine , Technology
    Location Call Number Limitation Availability
    BibTip Others were also interested in ...
  • 21
    facet.materialart.
    Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE)
    Publication Date: 2018-01-03
    Description: This paper demonstrates a robust diffusion-weighted single-shot fast spin echo (SS-FSE) sequence in the presence of significant off-resonance, which includes a variable-density acquisition and a self-calibrated reconstruction as improvements. A non-Carr–Purcell–Meiboom–Gill (nCPMG) SS-FSE acquisition stabilizes both the main and parasitic echo families for each echo. This preserves both the in-phase and quadrature components of the magnetization throughout the echo train. However, nCPMG SS-FSE also promotes aliasing of the quadrature component, which complicates reconstruction. A new acquisition and reconstruction approach is presented here, where the field-of-view is effectively doubled, but a partial k-space and variable density sampling is used to improve scan efficiency. The technique is presented in phantom scans to validate SNR and robustness against rapidly varying object phase. In vivo healthy volunteer examples and the clinical cases are demonstrated in abdominal imaging. This new approach provides comparable SNR to previous nCPMG acquisition techniques as well as providing more uniform apparent diffusion coefficient maps in phantom scans. In vivo scans suggest that this method is more robust against motion than previous approaches. The proposed reconstruction is an improvement to the nCPMG sequence as it is auto-calibrating and is justified to accurately treat the signal model for the nCPMG SS-FSE sequence.
    Print ISSN: 0278-0062
    Electronic ISSN: 1558-254X
    Topics: Medicine , Technology
    Location Call Number Limitation Availability
    BibTip Others were also interested in ...
  • 22
    facet.materialart.
    Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE)
    Publication Date: 2018-01-03
    Description: Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) provides a window on the human brain at work. Spontaneous brain activity measured during resting-state has already provided many insights into brain function. In particular, recent interest in dynamic interactions between brain regions has increased the need for more advanced modeling tools. Here, we deploy a recent fMRI deconvolution technique to express resting-state temporal fluctuations as a combination of large-scale functional network activity profiles. Then, building upon a novel sparse coupled hidden Markov model (SCHMM) framework, we parameterised their temporal evolution as a mix between intrinsic dynamics, and a restricted set of cross-network modulatory couplings extracted in data-driven manner. We demonstrate and validate the method on simulated data, for which we observed that the SCHMM could accurately estimate network dynamics, revealing more precise insights about direct network-to-network modulatory influences than with conventional correlational methods. On experimental resting-state fMRI data, we unraveled a set of reproducible cross-network couplings across two independent datasets. Our framework opens new perspectives for capturing complex temporal dynamics and their changes in health and disease.
    Print ISSN: 0278-0062
    Electronic ISSN: 1558-254X
    Topics: Medicine , Technology
    Location Call Number Limitation Availability
    BibTip Others were also interested in ...
  • 23
    facet.materialart.
    Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE)
    Publication Date: 2018-01-03
    Description: This paper presents a method for automatically calibrating and assessing the calibration quality of an externally tracked 2-D ultrasound (US) probe by scanning arbitrary, natural tissues, as opposed a specialized calibration phantom as is the typical practice. A generative topic model quantifies the posterior probability of calibration parameters conditioned on local 2-D image features arising from a generic underlying substrate. Auto-calibration is achieved by identifying the maximum a-posteriori image-to-probe transform, and calibration quality is assessed online in terms of the posterior probability of the current image-to-probe transform. Both are closely linked to the 3-D point reconstruction error (PRE) in aligning feature observations arising from the same underlying physical structure in different US images. The method is of practical importance in that it operates simply by scanning arbitrary textured echogenic structures, e.g., in-vivo tissues in the context of the US-guided procedures, without requiring specialized calibration procedures or equipment. Observed data take the form of local scale-invariant features that can be extracted and fit to the model in near real-time. Experiments demonstrate the method on a public data set of in vivo human brain scans of 14 unique subjects acquired in the context of neurosurgery. Online calibration assessment can be performed at approximately 3 Hz for the US images of $640times 480$ pixels. Auto-calibration achieves an internal mean PRE of 1.2 mm and a discrepancy of [2 mm, 6 mm] in comparison to the calibration via a standard phantom-based method.
    Print ISSN: 0278-0062
    Electronic ISSN: 1558-254X
    Topics: Medicine , Technology
    Location Call Number Limitation Availability
    BibTip Others were also interested in ...
  • 24
    facet.materialart.
    Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE)
    Publication Date: 2018-01-03
    Description: The use of appearance and shape priors in image segmentation is known to improve accuracy; however, existing techniques have several drawbacks. For instance, most active shape and appearance models require landmark points and assume unimodal shape and appearance distributions, and the level set representation does not support construction of local priors. In this paper, we present novel appearance and shape models for image segmentation based on a differentiable implicit parametric shape representation called a disjunctive normal shape model (DNSM). The DNSM is formed by the disjunction of polytopes, which themselves are formed by the conjunctions of half-spaces. The DNSM’s parametric nature allows the use of powerful local prior statistics, and its implicit nature removes the need to use landmarks and easily handles topological changes. In a Bayesian inference framework, we model arbitrary shape and appearance distributions using nonparametric density estimations, at any local scale. The proposed local shape prior results in accurate segmentation even when very few training shapes are available, because the method generates a rich set of shape variations by locally combining training samples. We demonstrate the performance of the framework by applying it to both 2-D and 3-D data sets with emphasis on biomedical image segmentation applications.
    Print ISSN: 0278-0062
    Electronic ISSN: 1558-254X
    Topics: Medicine , Technology
    Location Call Number Limitation Availability
    BibTip Others were also interested in ...
  • 25
    facet.materialart.
    Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE)
    Publication Date: 2018-01-03
    Print ISSN: 0278-0062
    Electronic ISSN: 1558-254X
    Topics: Medicine , Technology
    Location Call Number Limitation Availability
    BibTip Others were also interested in ...
  • 26
    facet.materialart.
    Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE)
    Publication Date: 2018-01-03
    Description: This paper describes an automated method for registering 3-D models of metallic knee implants to single-plane radiographic images. We develop a multistage approach that identifies the correct pose by matching altered dilations of an edge-detected image with the silhouette of an implant model. The location of the similarity function’s minimum is found using a novel optimization routine that combines the Dividing Rectangles algorithm with properties of the registration metric. Depending on the implant type (tibial or femoral), this technique reliably converges under maximum displacements of approximately 25 to 55 millimeters for translation components and 25° to 55° for Euler angles. The method proves to be robust to noise from bones and soft tissue. After an initial guess for the first image in the sequence, subsequent frames can be automatically registered from the optimum pose in the previous image.
    Print ISSN: 0278-0062
    Electronic ISSN: 1558-254X
    Topics: Medicine , Technology
    Location Call Number Limitation Availability
    BibTip Others were also interested in ...
  • 27
    facet.materialart.
    Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE)
    Publication Date: 2018-01-06
    Print ISSN: 2168-6831
    Topics: Architecture, Civil Engineering, Surveying , Electrical Engineering, Measurement and Control Technology , Geosciences , Computer Science
    Location Call Number Limitation Availability
    BibTip Others were also interested in ...
  • 28
    facet.materialart.
    Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE)
    Publication Date: 2018-01-06
    Description: HyperLabelMe is a web platform that allows the automatic benchmarking of remote-sensing image classifiers. To demonstrate this platform's attributes, we collected and harmonized a large data set of labeled multispectral and hyperspectral images with different numbers of classes, dimensionality, noise sources, and levels. The registered user can download training data pairs (spectra and land cover/use labels) and submit the predictions for unseen testing spectra. The system then evaluates the accuracy and robustness of the classifier, and it reports different scores as well as a ranked list of the best methods and users. The system is modular, scalable, and ever-growing in data sets and classifier results.
    Print ISSN: 2168-6831
    Topics: Architecture, Civil Engineering, Surveying , Electrical Engineering, Measurement and Control Technology , Geosciences , Computer Science
    Location Call Number Limitation Availability
    BibTip Others were also interested in ...
  • 29
    facet.materialart.
    Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE)
    Publication Date: 2018-01-06
    Description: Central to the looming paradigm shift toward data-intensive science, machine-learning techniques are becoming increasingly important. In particular, deep learning has proven to be both a major breakthrough and an extremely powerful tool in many fields. Shall we embrace deep learning as the key to everything? Or should we resist a black-box solution? These are controversial issues within the remote-sensing community. In this article, we analyze the challenges of using deep learning for remote-sensing data analysis, review recent advances, and provide resources we hope will make deep learning in remote sensing seem ridiculously simple. More importantly, we encourage remote-sensing scientists to bring their expertise into deep learning and use it as an implicit general model to tackle unprecedented, large-scale, influential challenges, such as climate change and urbanization.
    Print ISSN: 2168-6831
    Topics: Architecture, Civil Engineering, Surveying , Electrical Engineering, Measurement and Control Technology , Geosciences , Computer Science
    Location Call Number Limitation Availability
    BibTip Others were also interested in ...
  • 30
    facet.materialart.
    Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE)
    Publication Date: 2018-01-06
    Description: Presents information on various GRS Society chapters.
    Print ISSN: 2168-6831
    Topics: Architecture, Civil Engineering, Surveying , Electrical Engineering, Measurement and Control Technology , Geosciences , Computer Science
    Location Call Number Limitation Availability
    BibTip Others were also interested in ...
  • 31
    facet.materialart.
    Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE)
    Publication Date: 2018-01-06
    Print ISSN: 2168-6831
    Topics: Architecture, Civil Engineering, Surveying , Electrical Engineering, Measurement and Control Technology , Geosciences , Computer Science
    Location Call Number Limitation Availability
    BibTip Others were also interested in ...
  • 32
    facet.materialart.
    Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE)
    Publication Date: 2018-01-06
    Description: In this paper, we report on the theoretical and numerical study of the transmission of circularly polarized vortex beams through a plasmonic coaxial nanoring. We show that the transmission peak wavelength of an incident circularly polarized vortex beam is dominantly governed by the total angular momentum, which determines the coupling to the plasmonic eigenmode supported by the coaxial nanoring with a given geometry and ultimately the transmitted beam in the far field. In addition, our study shows that the total angular momentum of the incident circularly polarized vortex beam can be conserved, where the far field of the transmitted beam contains both left- and right-handed circular polarization components with correspondingly modulated orbital angular momentum preserving the same total angular momentum. Our work can be potentially useful to advanced nanophotonic devices harnessing light's angular momentum division.
    Electronic ISSN: 1943-0655
    Topics: Electrical Engineering, Measurement and Control Technology , Physics
    Location Call Number Limitation Availability
    BibTip Others were also interested in ...
  • 33
    facet.materialart.
    Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE)
    Publication Date: 2018-01-06
    Description: One-way electromagnetic mode that is guided by the mechanism of total internal reflection (TIR) can be realized in terahertz regime. In the optical system consisting of a dielectric layer sandwiched between magnetized semiconductor and metal, the one-way TIR mode can be immune to backscattering at imperfections. This mode possesses a broad band when high-order TIR modes are suppressed in the relevant semiconductor bandgap. Furthermore, it is shown that compared with one-way surface magnetoplasmons, the one-way TIR mode can more effectively match with the fundamental mode of conventional optical waveguide.
    Print ISSN: 1041-1135
    Electronic ISSN: 1941-0174
    Topics: Electrical Engineering, Measurement and Control Technology
    Location Call Number Limitation Availability
    BibTip Others were also interested in ...
  • 34
    facet.materialart.
    Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE)
    Publication Date: 2018-01-06
    Description: We propose and experimentally demonstrate a photonic technique for Fourier transformation of broadband optical spectrum and compression of time–bandwidth product (TBP) simultaneously. Conventionally, an optical spectrum could be Fourier transformed based on the so-called time-spectrum convolution technique with a linearly dispersive delay line. In this paper, a nonlinearly dispersive delay line is implemented by the convolution of an input optical spectrum in the spectral domain with a nonlinearly chirped temporal sinusoidal waveform in the time domain. By specially designing the chirp rate variation of the temporal waveform, an anamorphic Fourier transformation functionality is realized to compress the TBP of output waveform. The key feature of this paper is that it is the first time to our knowledge to carry out the Fourier transformation of an optical spectrum with TBP compression. In addition, since the dispersive delay line could be programmable with high resolution, this technique is adaptable for different optical spectra and realizable for a reconfigurable TBP compression ratio. Experimental results show that the TBP compression ratio is programmable from 1.6 to 3 by engineering the nonlinear dispersive delay line. After reconstructing the Fourier transform of optical spectrum from the output waveforms, the error rate of the recovered waveform is calculated quantitatively. Also, we discussed and proved the possibility to recover the input spectrum only with intensity information. This proposed method is promising to break the big data limitation of the conventional real-time optical spectrum Fourier transformation technique based on the TBP engineering for data compression.
    Electronic ISSN: 1943-0655
    Topics: Electrical Engineering, Measurement and Control Technology , Physics
    Location Call Number Limitation Availability
    BibTip Others were also interested in ...
  • 35
    facet.materialart.
    Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE)
    Publication Date: 2018-01-06
    Description: Digital micro-mirror device (DMD)-based optical switch can dynamically change the channels reallocation and provide flexibility in optical networking with the advantages of fast time response and scalable port number. However, the DMD as a binary diffraction device has a limited efficiency of 10.1% at the +1st diffraction order. Here we propose and demonstrate a DMD-based optical switch with improved efficiency enabled by a blazed micro-grating array. The blazed micro-grating array is designed and fabricated to diffract and make use of the wasted −1st order beams of the DMD. Using this device, we achieve ~2 dB efficiency improvements for a $2times 2$ optical switch with all switching states. We experimentally demonstrate high speed switching of channels carrying 15 and 30 Gb/s ON-OFF keying signals. The micro-grating array has the potential to develop for the DMD-based optical switch with multiple channels.
    Print ISSN: 1041-1135
    Electronic ISSN: 1941-0174
    Topics: Electrical Engineering, Measurement and Control Technology
    Location Call Number Limitation Availability
    BibTip Others were also interested in ...
  • 36
    facet.materialart.
    Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE)
    Publication Date: 2018-01-06
    Description: A thermally/electrically tunable graphene on white graphene polarizer is proposed, in which the resonant coupling between the plasmonic surface modes of the structure and the transverse electric (TE) [or transverse magnetic (TM)] polarized incident wave is used to absorb this polarization, while the TM (or TE) polarized incident wave is totally reflected. It is then shown that the thermal and electrical tunability of surface conductivity of graphene can be used to control the optical properties of the proposed polarizer, including the selection of the desired polarization, and adjusting the amplitude of the reflected (desired) polarization. The application of the hexagonal boron-nitride (white graphene) as the substrate of graphene increases the propagation of the surface waves of the structure, which in turn results in the very high polarization extinction ratio of 75 dB. Moreover, the ultra-small insertion loss of 0.022 dB and relatively large bandwidth of ~ 60 nm are calculated for the proposed polarizer.
    Print ISSN: 1041-1135
    Electronic ISSN: 1941-0174
    Topics: Electrical Engineering, Measurement and Control Technology
    Location Call Number Limitation Availability
    BibTip Others were also interested in ...
  • 37
    facet.materialart.
    Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE)
    Publication Date: 2018-01-06
    Description: For the first time, a backward-pumped random distributed feedback fiber laser is applied to the conventional distributed Raman amplification (DRA). A new asymmetric DRA scheme for improving the signal power variation (SPV) performance was achieved. The scheme was studied numerically and was shown to effectively reduce the SPV of all signals to less than 1.2 dB, whilst maintaining a flat ON–OFF gain over 40 nm bandwidth for a 61.5 km fiber span. Moreover, the nonlinear Fourier transform technique, which is utilized to deal with the nonlinear noise, could be realized on the proposed scheme with such a low SPV.
    Print ISSN: 1041-1135
    Electronic ISSN: 1941-0174
    Topics: Electrical Engineering, Measurement and Control Technology
    Location Call Number Limitation Availability
    BibTip Others were also interested in ...
  • 38
    facet.materialart.
    Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE)
    Publication Date: 2018-01-06
    Description: A novel fully explicit vectorial time-domain algorithm for the analysis of photonic devices capable of solving Maxwell’s equations with arbitrarily large time steps is presented. Furthermore, the time-domain propagation algorithm ensures energy conservation and stability. For this purpose, a unitary time-domain propagation scheme is defined by a suitable polynomial expansion of the propagator.
    Print ISSN: 1041-1135
    Electronic ISSN: 1941-0174
    Topics: Electrical Engineering, Measurement and Control Technology
    Location Call Number Limitation Availability
    BibTip Others were also interested in ...
  • 39
    facet.materialart.
    Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE)
    Publication Date: 2018-01-06
    Description: Visible light communication (VLC) is a promising technology to achieve high data rates in heterogeneous scenarios. However, VLC strongly depends on the existence of a line-of-sight (LoS) link between transmitter and receiver to guarantee a good data rate performance, which is often a condition that is difficult to satisfy in practice. In this letter, a novel cooperative multicarrier transmission scheme is proposed, where neighboring attocells smartly cooperate to decrease the probability of blockage in the LoS link. This approach is compared to single-cell transmission schemes, obtaining notable gains in both received signal-to-interference-plus-noise ratio and cell data rate when blockage of the LoS link occurs toward the nearest base station.
    Print ISSN: 1041-1135
    Electronic ISSN: 1941-0174
    Topics: Electrical Engineering, Measurement and Control Technology
    Location Call Number Limitation Availability
    BibTip Others were also interested in ...
  • 40
    facet.materialart.
    Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE)
    Publication Date: 2018-01-06
    Description: Fiber Bragg gratings (FBGs) are written using an infrared (IR) femtosecond laser and a phase mask into pure silica microstructured optical fiber having a cladding region comprised of random air-lines (RAL). Scanning electron microscopy measurements of the IR irradiated RAL fiber samples shows the presence of subwavelength nanograting structures associated with thermally stable type II Bragg gratings. High temperature annealing testing shows that although the RAL FBGs have a high degree of stability even at 1000 °C, they are less stable than similar FBGs made in single mode telecom fiber (SMF-28).
    Print ISSN: 1041-1135
    Electronic ISSN: 1941-0174
    Topics: Electrical Engineering, Measurement and Control Technology
    Location Call Number Limitation Availability
    BibTip Others were also interested in ...
  • 41
    facet.materialart.
    Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE)
    Publication Date: 2018-01-06
    Print ISSN: 1540-7977
    Electronic ISSN: 1558-4216
    Topics: Electrical Engineering, Measurement and Control Technology
    Location Call Number Limitation Availability
    BibTip Others were also interested in ...
  • 42
    facet.materialart.
    Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE)
    Publication Date: 2018-01-06
    Print ISSN: 1540-7977
    Electronic ISSN: 1558-4216
    Topics: Electrical Engineering, Measurement and Control Technology
    Location Call Number Limitation Availability
    BibTip Others were also interested in ...
  • 43
    facet.materialart.
    Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE)
    Publication Date: 2018-01-06
    Description: Human action recognition in 3D skeleton sequences has attracted a lot of research attention. Recently, long short-term memory (LSTM) networks have shown promising performance in this task due to their strengths in modeling the dependencies and dynamics in sequential data. As not all skeletal joints are informative for action recognition, and the irrelevant joints often bring noise which can degrade the performance, we need to pay more attention to the informative ones. However, the original LSTM network does not have explicit attention ability. In this paper, we propose a new class of LSTM network, global context-aware attention LSTM, for skeleton-based action recognition, which is capable of selectively focusing on the informative joints in each frame by using a global context memory cell. To further improve the attention capability, we also introduce a recurrent attention mechanism, with which the attention performance of our network can be enhanced progressively. Besides, a two-stream framework, which leverages coarse-grained attention and fine-grained attention, is also introduced. The proposed method achieves state-of-the-art performance on five challenging datasets for skeleton-based action recognition.
    Print ISSN: 1057-7149
    Electronic ISSN: 1941-0042
    Topics: Electrical Engineering, Measurement and Control Technology
    Location Call Number Limitation Availability
    BibTip Others were also interested in ...
  • 44
    facet.materialart.
    Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE)
    Publication Date: 2018-01-06
    Description: Emerging sensor designs increasingly rely on novel color filter arrays (CFAs) to sample the incident spectrum in unconventional ways. In particular, capturing a near-infrared (NIR) channel along with conventional RGB color is an exciting new imaging modality. RGB+NIR sensing has broad applications in computational photography, such as low-light denoising, it has applications in computer vision, such as facial recognition and tracking, and it paves the way toward low-cost single-sensor RGB and depth imaging using structured illumination. However, cost-effective commercial CFAs suffer from severe spectral cross talk. This cross talk represents a major challenge in high-quality RGB+NIR imaging, rendering existing spatially multiplexed sensor designs impractical. In this work, we introduce a new approach to RGB+NIR image reconstruction using learned convolutional sparse priors. We demonstrate high-quality color and NIR imaging for challenging scenes, even including high-frequency structured NIR illumination. The effectiveness of the proposed method is validated on a large data set of experimental captures, and simulated benchmark results which demonstrate that this work achieves unprecedented reconstruction quality.
    Print ISSN: 1057-7149
    Electronic ISSN: 1941-0042
    Topics: Electrical Engineering, Measurement and Control Technology
    Location Call Number Limitation Availability
    BibTip Others were also interested in ...
  • 45
    facet.materialart.
    Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE)
    Publication Date: 2018-01-06
    Description: We propose a novel technique for detection of visual saliency in dynamic video based on video decomposition. The decomposition obtains the sparse features in a particular orientation by exploiting the spatiotemporal discontinuities present in a video cube. A weighted sum of the sparse features along three orthogonal directions determines the salient regions in the video cubes. The weights computed using the frame correlation along three directions are based on the characteristic of human visual system that identifies the sparsest feature as the most salient feature in a video. Unlike the existing methods, which detect the salient region as blob, the proposed approach detects the exact boundaries of salient region with minimum false detection. The experimental results confirm that the detected salient regions of a video closely resemble the salient regions detected by actual tracking of human eyes. The algorithm is tested on different types of video contents and compared with the several state-of-the-art methods to establish the effectiveness of the proposed method.
    Print ISSN: 1057-7149
    Electronic ISSN: 1941-0042
    Topics: Electrical Engineering, Measurement and Control Technology
    Location Call Number Limitation Availability
    BibTip Others were also interested in ...
  • 46
    facet.materialart.
    Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE)
    Publication Date: 2018-01-06
    Print ISSN: 0018-9480
    Topics: Electrical Engineering, Measurement and Control Technology
    Location Call Number Limitation Availability
    BibTip Others were also interested in ...
  • 47
    facet.materialart.
    Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE)
    Publication Date: 2018-01-06
    Description: Solving inverse scattering problems (ISPs) for targets with high contrasts and/or large dimensions suffer from severe ill-posedness and strong nonlinearity. Recently, a family of new integral equations (NIE) has been proposed to tackle such problems, in which the multiple scattering effects in estimating contrasts during inversions are suppressed by the local wave effects. This effectively reduces the nonlinearity of ISPs by transforming the problems into a new form. As in most inversions, to achieve better (stabler and faster) inversion efficiency, proper regularization techniques are needed. This paper provides the detailed studies on the two different types of regularization techniques in the inversions with the NIE, i.e., the twofold subspace-based optimization method, directly applied in the modeling, and the total variation type multiplicative regularization, conventionally applied on the unknowns. We will show that how each regularization works with the NIE and how they work together with the NIE to obtain the better performance in terms of reducing the nonlinearity and increasing the stability of the inversions. Numerical tests against synthetic data and experimental data are provided to verify the interests.
    Print ISSN: 0018-9480
    Topics: Electrical Engineering, Measurement and Control Technology
    Location Call Number Limitation Availability
    BibTip Others were also interested in ...
  • 48
    facet.materialart.
    Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE)
    Publication Date: 2018-01-06
    Description: A new artificial material single layer (AMSL) model is presented to solve shielding problem. The field penetration through the conductive shield is described by lossy transmission line equations. The resulting equations are used to numerically synthetize an equivalent material for the shield region having the same geometrical configuration of the original shield, but different specific constants. The AMSL method is very accurate and highly efficient since it allows to discretizing the shield region using only a single layer of finite elements avoiding the fine discretization required by the finite-element method (FEM) to model the skin effect. The most relevant aspect of the proposed procedure is that the AMSL method can be easily implemented in FEM-based commercial software tools.
    Print ISSN: 0018-9480
    Topics: Electrical Engineering, Measurement and Control Technology
    Location Call Number Limitation Availability
    BibTip Others were also interested in ...
  • 49
    facet.materialart.
    Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE)
    Publication Date: 2018-01-06
    Description: We present the design and development of a Ka-band Doherty power amplifier (DPA) that achieves high efficiency at power backoff (PBO) using a new load modulation scheme and a proposed load–pull-based design technique. Using the proposed technique, the device size of the peaking amplifier and the impedance of the quarter-wavelength ( $lambda $ /4) inverter are properly chosen to achieve high power-added efficiency (PAE) at a specific PBO level. The DPA is fabricated in a 0.15- $mu {text{m}}$ gallium arsenide pseudomorphic high-electron mobility transistor enhancement mode process and achieves a measured small signal gain of 10.5 dB, output power at 1-dB compression point ( $P_{1,{text{dB}}}$ ) of 27 dBm, and measured maximum PAE of 38%. The PAE at 6-dB PBO and 8-dB PBO are 32% and 28.5%, respectively. Furthermore, the PAE at 6-dB PBO maintains higher than 28.4% over a 1-GHz bandwidth from 29.25 to 30.25 GHz.
    Print ISSN: 0018-9480
    Topics: Electrical Engineering, Measurement and Control Technology
    Location Call Number Limitation Availability
    BibTip Others were also interested in ...
  • 50
    facet.materialart.
    Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE)
    Publication Date: 2018-01-06
    Description: This paper presents a statistical self-calibration procedure for two-port vector network analyzers (VNAs). It is a generalization of the Multiline thru-reflect-line (TRL) method and allows to combine the information of multiple A-standards, which can be realized by any matched networks. Moreover, the reflect standard is replaced by a more general network standard as a symmetrical network that may have nonzero transmission. In consequence, this method offers more flexibility in the choice of calibration standards and an extended bandwidth especially toward lower frequencies. At the same time, the improved accuracy over conventional methods persists, as well as the simple implementation, avoiding iterative solutions. The presented error analysis yields some new insights on the choice of calibration standards. In addition, a method is provided to modify the performed weighting of the information of different standards.
    Print ISSN: 0018-9480
    Topics: Electrical Engineering, Measurement and Control Technology
    Location Call Number Limitation Availability
    BibTip Others were also interested in ...
  • 51
    facet.materialart.
    Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE)
    Publication Date: 2018-01-06
    Print ISSN: 0018-9480
    Topics: Electrical Engineering, Measurement and Control Technology
    Location Call Number Limitation Availability
    BibTip Others were also interested in ...
  • 52
    facet.materialart.
    Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE)
    Publication Date: 2018-01-06
    Description: This paper presents an optimized segmented modeling approach using a new quasi-memoryless (QM) behavioral model (BM) that allows for RF power amplifier (RF PA) modeling over a range of different solid state PA technologies. The presented model is a combination of an existing semiphysical amplitude-modulation-to-amplitude-modulation (AM/AM) memoryless BM, which correctly predicts third-order intermodulation distortion (3rd IMD) response in the small signal region, with the newly proposed amplitude-modulation-to-phase-modulation (AM/PM) model derived from the existing AM/AM model. Using the segmentation and optimization methods, performance comparisons with this new model are presented, showing normalized mean squared error AM/PM improvements up to 20 dB, as well as over 5-dB improvement in predicting the 3rd IMD using the proposed model. Comparisons against other well-known QM BMs are conducted using measured data as well as with data presented in the literature. The effects of these improvements on linearizer performance are also evaluated. The model significantly improves system-level modeling by allowing designers to accurately predict system performance using various RF PA devices over a range of technologies, based on data available through manufacturers’ data or simple tests.
    Print ISSN: 0018-9480
    Topics: Electrical Engineering, Measurement and Control Technology
    Location Call Number Limitation Availability
    BibTip Others were also interested in ...
  • 53
    facet.materialart.
    Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE)
    Publication Date: 2018-01-06
    Description: The misalignment problem is a major challenge in dynamic wireless power transfer systems with a segmented transmitter (Tx) array. Tx coils farther away from receiver (Rx) experience higher currents as compared to Tx coils nearer to Rx coil leading to higher losses and lower performances. This paper reports theoretical optimum current distribution among Tx coils for any Rx position. A current amplitude modulation scheme is analyzed with the analogy of N-Cartesian coordinate equivalent of spherical coordinates. Efficiency and transferred power are evaluated for the proposed current distribution, and further optimization is performed with respect to load resistance, operating frequency, and the number of simultaneously powered Tx coils. The maximum performances that can be obtained with the optimized design conditions have been derived as well. The analysis is validated using numerical and experimental results.
    Print ISSN: 0018-9480
    Topics: Electrical Engineering, Measurement and Control Technology
    Location Call Number Limitation Availability
    BibTip Others were also interested in ...
  • 54
    facet.materialart.
    Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE)
    Publication Date: 2018-01-06
    Description: Imaging of subcutaneous vasculature is of great interest for biometric security and point-of-care medicine. We investigate the feasibility of microwave-induced thermoacoustic (TA) tomography as a safe, compact, low-power, and cost-effective imaging technique for subcutaneous vasculature by means of application-specific design of near-field, radio frequency (RF) applicators. Using commercial transducers, we demonstrate proof-of-concept TA imaging of synthetic phantoms, plant vasculature, and earthworm blood vessels with only 50 W of peak power, or 42 mW average power, at 300 $mu text{m}$ resolution. The proposed RF applicator design enabled uniform, orientation-independent illumination of vasculature phantoms with only 10% variation. Finally, we show that the benefits of microwave contrast make possible the distinction of actual blood vessels, in an earthworm, from surrounding tissue within a modest receiver dynamic range of 40 dB.
    Print ISSN: 0018-9480
    Topics: Electrical Engineering, Measurement and Control Technology
    Location Call Number Limitation Availability
    BibTip Others were also interested in ...
  • 55
    facet.materialart.
    Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE)
    Publication Date: 2018-01-06
    Print ISSN: 0018-9480
    Topics: Electrical Engineering, Measurement and Control Technology
    Location Call Number Limitation Availability
    BibTip Others were also interested in ...
  • 56
    facet.materialart.
    Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE)
    Publication Date: 2018-01-06
    Description: Photonic generation of tunable microwave signal has gained the attention of many research communities. Various active components such as vertical-cavity surface-emitting laser diode, semiconductor optical amplifier, and Fabry–Perot laser diode have been used for generating microwave signals using different techniques including side mode injection, feedback injection, and frequency combs. In this paper, we propose and demonstrate a novel approach to generate millimeter wave, simultaneous microwave and millimeter wave, and microwave together with hopping of RF frequency using a single external beam. Furthermore, we demonstrate injecting multiple external beams in a spatial-mode Fabry–Perot laser diode (SMFP-LD) to generate simultaneous multiband signals with negative wavelength detuning. The generated signal ranges from microwave to terahertz. We inject four external beams in SMFP-LD to generate RF frequencies that lie in Ku-, K-, Ka-, V-bands and higher millimeter wave. The frequency of generated signals can be tuned from a few gigahertz to several terahertz. The effects of changing the dominant mode, injecting external beams to different side modes, wavelength and power stability of beating wavelengths, and harmonic generations are analyzed. The maximum linewidth of the generated RF signals with multiple input beams (up to 42.5 GHz) is found to be about 300 kHz.
    Print ISSN: 0018-9480
    Topics: Electrical Engineering, Measurement and Control Technology
    Location Call Number Limitation Availability
    BibTip Others were also interested in ...
  • 57
    facet.materialart.
    Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE)
    Publication Date: 2018-01-10
    Description: The impact of spectral phase noise on the temporal pulse contrast is explored experimentally by using two zero-dispersion stretchers (Offner stretcher and two-lens stretcher). The results show clearly that a long temporal pedestal appears when there exists far-field spectral phase noise, which greatly degrades the pulse contrast. In our proof-of-principle experiment, by using a two-lens stretcher, the far-field spectral phase noise is avoided and the noise pedestal of the amplified pulse in a Nd:glass laser system is reduced, with the contrast reaching a level of 10 –11 in the 60-ps time window before the main pulse. This simple method may pave the way in a PW-level Nd:glass laser by directly using pre-cleaning techniques.
    Print ISSN: 1077-260X
    Electronic ISSN: 1558-4542
    Topics: Electrical Engineering, Measurement and Control Technology
    Location Call Number Limitation Availability
    BibTip Others were also interested in ...
  • 58
    facet.materialart.
    Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE)
    Publication Date: 2018-01-10
    Description: Localization of magnetic target can be estimated through a magnetic anomaly. Generally, we need to solve the high-order nonlinear equations for estimating the position and magnetic moment of the target. Therefore, optimization algorithms are applied to calculate the solution of the nonlinear equations. In this paper, we present a fast linear algorithm for locating the target based on the total magnetic field gradient. In the algorithm, we give the closed-form formula of the static magnetic target localization. According to the properties of the vector, we can obtain a cubic equation of any 1-D position of the target. Thus, we can easily solve the cubic equation and obtain the closed-form formula of the target localization. Compared with the optimization algorithms, the proposed method provides good performance using short time and can be used to locate the target in real time. The proposed method is validated by the numerical simulation and real experimental data. The position and magnetic moment of the target are calculated rapidly. And the results show that the estimated parameters of the static target using the proposed method are very close to the true values.
    Print ISSN: 1530-437X
    Electronic ISSN: 1558-1748
    Topics: Electrical Engineering, Measurement and Control Technology
    Location Call Number Limitation Availability
    BibTip Others were also interested in ...
  • 59
    facet.materialart.
    Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE)
    Publication Date: 2018-01-10
    Description: Fabrication and characterization of a highly sensitive fiber-optic cholesterol sensor utilizing cholesterol oxidase (ChOx) have been carried out. The operation of the sensor is based on combined phenomenon of localized and propagating surface plasmons. Two different immobilization schemes of enzyme ChOx have been used. In one, the enzyme is entrapped in the hydrogel and in second the enzyme is immobilized over the graphene oxide (GO) nanosheets. The synthesis of GO is confirmed by XRD, TEM, and Raman spectroscopy and the binding between ChOx and GO is verified through the Raman spectroscopy and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy techniques. Following three types of probes having different configurations are fabricated and compared: 1) enzyme entrapped gel layer over silver coated unclad fiber; 2) enzyme immobilized over silver and GO coated unclad fiber; and 3) enzyme immobilized over silver, GO, and silver nanoparticles coated unclad fiber. The performance of all these probes have been compared in terms of operating range, sensitivity and limit of detection. The sensors have many advantages, such as compact size, modest cost, high sensitivity, high selectivity, and capability of remote sensing.
    Print ISSN: 1530-437X
    Electronic ISSN: 1558-1748
    Topics: Electrical Engineering, Measurement and Control Technology
    Location Call Number Limitation Availability
    BibTip Others were also interested in ...
  • 60
    facet.materialart.
    Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE)
    Publication Date: 2018-01-10
    Description: A high-performance fiber-optic relative humidity (RH) sensor was prepared by layer-by-layer self-assembly of polycation, poly (4-vinylpyridinium chloride), and polyanion, sodium alginate, on the surface of a thin-core fiber modal interferometer. The process of layer-by-layer self-assembly was monitored by UV-vis spectroscopy and surface profilometer. The morphology of the fabricated multilayer film was characterized by atomic force microscopy and field emission scanning electron microscopy. A fast, reversible, and linear response to RH with a high resolution of 0.1 nm/1% RH has been experimentally demonstrated by the proposed fiber-optic sensor.
    Print ISSN: 1530-437X
    Electronic ISSN: 1558-1748
    Topics: Electrical Engineering, Measurement and Control Technology
    Location Call Number Limitation Availability
    BibTip Others were also interested in ...
  • 61
    facet.materialart.
    Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE)
    Publication Date: 2018-01-10
    Description: Three-layered single mode fibers with a GeO 2 and F co-doped inner core are proposed. Stimulated Brillouin scattering properties in the fibers are investigated for the discriminative sensing of strain and temperature. The optical properties of the proposed fibers are designed to be well compatible with those of the widely used standard single mode fibers. The acoustic properties, including effective acoustic velocity, Brillouin frequency shifts, and peak Brillouin gain efficiencies of the first three acoustic modes, are numerically calculated and elaborately analyzed under different structural and doping parameters. The co-doped fibers with three different structural and doping parameters are chosen for simultaneous sensing of temperature and strain because of their capability of supporting two comparable peaks, which can be easily identified and distinguished in the Brillouin gain spectrum. The sensing properties of the fibers are estimated and discussed. The temperature and strain sensitivities as well as the temperature and strain errors are calculated to be comparable to those of the few mode fibers and multimode fibers.
    Print ISSN: 1530-437X
    Electronic ISSN: 1558-1748
    Topics: Electrical Engineering, Measurement and Control Technology
    Location Call Number Limitation Availability
    BibTip Others were also interested in ...
  • 62
    facet.materialart.
    Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE)
    Publication Date: 2018-01-10
    Description: This paper gives a solution to solve the interference problem of electronic nose (e-nose), which is ill-posed due to the uncertainty and unpredictability of its instable behavior. Traditional methods for interference suppression are component correction frameworks, which are laborious or little efficient. With interference (especially background interference and sensor drift), the distribution of test data obtained in practical application is different from that of the previous training data. From the viewpoint of machine learning, a novel domain correction and adaptive extreme learning machines (DC-AELM) framework with transferring capability is proposed to solve the serious interference problem in e-nose. The framework consists of two parts: 1) DC, which makes the distributions of two domains close and 2) AELM, which realizes the knowledge transfer at the decision level and makes the robustness of the prediction model improved. This method is motivated by the idea of transfer learning, especially from the perspective of domain correction and decision-making, to realize the knowledge transfer for interference suppression. A background interference data set obtained by our designed e-nose and a public benchmark sensor drift data set are used to verify the effectiveness of the proposed DC-AELM method.
    Print ISSN: 1530-437X
    Electronic ISSN: 1558-1748
    Topics: Electrical Engineering, Measurement and Control Technology
    Location Call Number Limitation Availability
    BibTip Others were also interested in ...
  • 63
    facet.materialart.
    Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE)
    Publication Date: 2018-01-10
    Description: Phase fraction of oil–water two-phase flow is important to the process control and optimization. In this paper, a prediction model based on the mechanism of ultrasound attenuations in oil–water mixture is presented to estimate the phase fraction. This model consists of physical parameters of the two-phase flow and ultrasound frequency, by incorporating the scattering and attenuation of ultrasound in different flow patterns of the oil–water two-phase flow. The nonlinear relationship between ultrasound attenuation coefficient and phase fraction is corrected. An array of 16 ultrasonic transducers with 1-MHz center frequency and 20-Vpp sine acoustic signal is presented to implement this method, and a measuring system was designed and tested on a multiphase flow loop with actual flow experiments. The proposed prediction model showed a good agreement with the online phase fraction calibration in the flow experiments. The average error is 2.3% in water continuous flow, while in 2.8% in oil continuous flow. These findings and the mechanism prediction model provide basic foundations for the phase fraction estimation of oil–water two-phase flow by using the ultrasound attenuation technique.
    Print ISSN: 1530-437X
    Electronic ISSN: 1558-1748
    Topics: Electrical Engineering, Measurement and Control Technology
    Location Call Number Limitation Availability
    BibTip Others were also interested in ...
  • 64
    facet.materialart.
    Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE)
    Publication Date: 2018-01-10
    Description: The real-time electromagnetic tracking method has been widely applied, despite its limitations such as a high computational cost and complex hardware components. In this paper, a simple and efficient electromagnetic tracking approach, with both 3-D and 6-D pose tracking, is proposed. This approach utilizes the geomagnetic field and the magnetic field generated by the 2.5-kHz sinusoidal signal from a uniaxial transmitting coil. By extracting both the alternating current (AC) and direct current (DC) components from the outputs of a miniature tri-axial magneto-resistive sensor, the position and orientation parameters of the sensor can be computed by using the combination of the geomagnetic orientation algorithm and the magnetic dipole model-based localization algorithm. Since the implementation of the tracking algorithm is based on a sextic equation, this proposed approach is simple and fast. Experimental results show that the root-mean-square value of the position error is 2.6±0.79 mm and the orientation error is 1.4±0.61°. This tracking approach has simple structures of both software and hardware but promising performance and applicability.
    Print ISSN: 1530-437X
    Electronic ISSN: 1558-1748
    Topics: Electrical Engineering, Measurement and Control Technology
    Location Call Number Limitation Availability
    BibTip Others were also interested in ...
  • 65
    facet.materialart.
    Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE)
    Publication Date: 2018-01-10
    Description: In this paper, we propose a generalized co-prime multiple-input multiple-output (MIMO) configuration for direction of arrival estimation. Compared with the conventional co-prime MIMO radar that requires prototype co-prime arrays for transmitter and receiver, the proposed configuration enlarges the inter-element spacing of transmitter with an integer expansion factor. By vectorizing the sample covariance matrix, the generalized sum and difference coarray (GSDC) concept is defined for exploiting the advantages of proposed configuration. The analytical expressions for the expansion factor, the maximum consecutive lags, and the number of unique lags are derived carefully. It is verified that GSDC can obtain more degrees of freedom (DOFs) with the increase of expansion factor. Specifically, with $mathcal {O}(M+N)$ sensors, GSDC can provide $mathcal {O}(M^{2}N^{2})$ DOFs, whereas the conventional one only has $mathcal {O}(MN)$ DOFs. Simulation results demonstrate the usefulness of proposed configuration utilizing both spatial smoothing and sparse representation algorithms.
    Print ISSN: 1530-437X
    Electronic ISSN: 1558-1748
    Topics: Electrical Engineering, Measurement and Control Technology
    Location Call Number Limitation Availability
    BibTip Others were also interested in ...
  • 66
    facet.materialart.
    Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE)
    Publication Date: 2018-01-10
    Description: Gesturing is an instinctive way of communicating to present a specific meaning or intent. Therefore, research into sign language interpretation using gestures has been explored progressively during recent decades to serve as an auxiliary tool for deaf and mute people to blend into society without barriers. In this paper, a smart sign language interpretation system using a wearable hand device is proposed to meet this purpose. This wearable system utilizes five flex-sensors, two pressure sensors, and a three-axis inertial motion sensor to distinguish the characters in the American sign language alphabet. The entire system mainly consists of three modules: 1) a wearable device with a sensor module; 2) a processing module; and 3) a display unit mobile application module. Sensor data are collected and analyzed using a built-in embedded support vector machine classifier. Subsequently, the recognized alphabet is further transmitted to a mobile device through Bluetooth low energy wireless communication. An Android-based mobile application was developed with a text-to-speech function that converts the received textinto audible voice output. Experiment results indicate that a true sign language recognition accuracy rate of 65.7% can be achieved on average in the first version without pressure sensors. A second version of the proposed wearable system with the fusion of pressure sensors on the middle finger increased the recognition accuracy rate dramatically to 98.2%. The proposed wearable system outperforms the existing method, for instance, although background lights, and other factors are crucial to a vision-based processing method, they are not for the proposed system.
    Print ISSN: 1530-437X
    Electronic ISSN: 1558-1748
    Topics: Electrical Engineering, Measurement and Control Technology
    Location Call Number Limitation Availability
    BibTip Others were also interested in ...
  • 67
    facet.materialart.
    Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE)
    Publication Date: 2018-01-10
    Description: A quasi-coaxial system consisting of a central current carrying copper rod and five symmetric return paths takes up to 20 kA. The installation provides a homogeneous magnetic field $mathbf {B_{varphi }}$ to a Taylor–Couette flow. One challenging part of the system is the design of the current distributor, which is supposed to divide the return current into several equally weighted lines. The individual components like the copper rods as well as all electrical contacts provide a characteristic resistance, each in the same magnitude of several $ {mu }Omega $ . By initial installation this will support an imbalance in the current distribution affecting the symmetry of the magnetic field. So the adjustment of current distribution becomes mandatory to ensure maximum field homogeneity. Controlling the outflow temperature of the required water cooling offers an indirect access to set the current by thermostatically operated valves with CO 2 adsorption charge in conjunction with the temperature dependent branch resistance. A numerical investigation proves that a stable current distribution can be achieved by a couple of paralleled thermal controlled heater valves with proportional characteristics. Finally, recent ironless Hall-effect current sensors help to calibrate the system so that the current homogeneity differs less than 1% from optimal state in a wide range of currents.
    Print ISSN: 1530-437X
    Electronic ISSN: 1558-1748
    Topics: Electrical Engineering, Measurement and Control Technology
    Location Call Number Limitation Availability
    BibTip Others were also interested in ...
  • 68
    facet.materialart.
    Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE)
    Publication Date: 2018-01-10
    Description: Recognition of movement is a crucial process to assist humans in activities of daily living, such as walking. In this work, a high-level method for the simultaneous recognition of locomotion and gait phases using wearable sensors is presented. A Bayesian formulation is employed to iteratively accumulate evidence to reduce uncertainty, and to improve the recognition accuracy. This process uses a sequential analysis method to autonomously make decisions, whenever the recognition system perceives that there is enough evidence accumulated. We use data from three wearable sensors, attached to the thigh, shank, and foot of healthy humans. Level-ground walking, ramp ascent and descent activities are used for data collection and recognition. In addition, an approach for segmentation of the gait cycle for recognition of stance and swing phases is presented. Validation results show that the simultaneous Bayesian recognition method is capable to recognize walking activities and gait phases with mean accuracies of 99.87% and 99.20%. This process requires a mean of 25 and 13 sensor samples to make a decision for locomotion mode and gait phases, respectively. The recognition process is analyzed using different levels of confidence to show that our method is highly accurate, fast, and adaptable to specific requirements of accuracy and speed. Overall, the simultaneous Bayesian recognition method demonstrates its benefits for recognition using wearable sensors, which can be employed to provide reliable assistance to humans in their walking activities.
    Print ISSN: 1530-437X
    Electronic ISSN: 1558-1748
    Topics: Electrical Engineering, Measurement and Control Technology
    Location Call Number Limitation Availability
    BibTip Others were also interested in ...
  • 69
    facet.materialart.
    Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE)
    Publication Date: 2018-01-10
    Description: With the increase of large outdoor advertising boards, the issues of public safety raised by the collapse of outdoor advertising boards have attracted great public concern. In this paper, a wireless sensor network (WSN) monitoring system is designed for the structural health monitoring of large outdoor advertising boards. By using the WSN technology, this system can judge the security of the outdoor advertising boards and give early warnings when the boards are being in danger. The monitoring system consists of two subsystems, one is the WSN structure system based on ZigBee wireless sensor nodes with a six-axis MEMS motion sensor integrated to capture the movement information, and the other is the monitoring center system controlled by ARM microcontroller for data processing and long-distance wireless communications with remote server through a GPRS module. The simulation model of outdoor advertising board is also built to analyze the deformed shape of the advertising board structure under wind load, and the early warning judgment standard is proposed. The performance of the monitoring system is evaluated through several experiments under the condition of laboratory in different aspects of the comparison experiments. The experimental results indicate that the WSN monitoring system can real timely and accurately monitor the state of the outdoor advertising boards.
    Print ISSN: 1530-437X
    Electronic ISSN: 1558-1748
    Topics: Electrical Engineering, Measurement and Control Technology
    Location Call Number Limitation Availability
    BibTip Others were also interested in ...
  • 70
    facet.materialart.
    Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE)
    Publication Date: 2018-01-10
    Description: The experimental results of the paper titled “Delay compensation of tilt sensors based on mems accelerometer using data fusion technique” was commented by Bodnicki and Łuczak. In this note, we address the raised comments by the mentioned authors. Moreover, appropriate explanations are provided in order to make the procedure of the experimental section more clear.
    Print ISSN: 1530-437X
    Electronic ISSN: 1558-1748
    Topics: Electrical Engineering, Measurement and Control Technology
    Location Call Number Limitation Availability
    BibTip Others were also interested in ...
  • 71
    facet.materialart.
    Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE)
    Publication Date: 2018-01-10
    Description: Presents a listing of the editorial board, board of governors, current staff, committee members, and/or society editors for this issue of the publication.
    Print ISSN: 1530-437X
    Electronic ISSN: 1558-1748
    Topics: Electrical Engineering, Measurement and Control Technology
    Location Call Number Limitation Availability
    BibTip Others were also interested in ...
  • 72
    facet.materialart.
    Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE)
    Publication Date: 2018-01-10
    Description: This letter investigates an amplify-and-forward two-way relay network (TWRN) for short-packet communications. We consider a classical three-node TWRN consisting of two sources and one relay. Both two time slots (2TS) scheme and three time slots (3TS) scheme are studied under the finite blocklength regime. We derive approximate closed-form expressions of sum-block error rate (BLER) for both schemes. Simple asymptotic expressions for sum-BLER at high signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) are also derived. Based on the asymptotic expressions, we analytically compare the sum-BLER performance of 2TS and 3TS schemes, and attain an expression of critical blocklength, which can determine the performance superiority of 2TS and 3TS in terms of sum-BLER. Extensive simulations are provided to validate our theoretical analysis. Our results discover that 3TS scheme is more suitable for a system with higher differences between the average SNR of both links, and relatively lower requirements on data rate and latency.
    Print ISSN: 1070-9908
    Electronic ISSN: 1558-2361
    Topics: Electrical Engineering, Measurement and Control Technology
    Location Call Number Limitation Availability
    BibTip Others were also interested in ...
  • 73
    facet.materialart.
    Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE)
    Publication Date: 2018-01-10
    Description: Provides a listing of current staff, committee members and society officers.
    Print ISSN: 0018-9375
    Electronic ISSN: 1558-187X
    Topics: Electrical Engineering, Measurement and Control Technology
    Location Call Number Limitation Availability
    BibTip Others were also interested in ...
  • 74
    facet.materialart.
    Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE)
    Publication Date: 2018-01-10
    Description: Measurement of the quality factor of a reverberation chamber has been examined using numerical simulation and experimental measurements. The numerical simulations demonstrate that common frequency-domain and time-domain approaches yield the same measured quality factors, provided that the measurement bandwidths of each approach are equal and the frequency-domain measurements are accurately compensated for antenna-efficiency effects. Measurements performed using intentionally mismatched antennas eliminate the antenna loading effects and give the quality factor of the chamber itself. The experimental validation confirms that the frequency-domain and time-domain approaches yield the same measured quality factors under practical conditions when the antennas are well-to-moderately matched. However, the accuracy of the frequency-domain measurement is compromised when large antenna-efficiency compensation must be applied when using poorly matched test antennas. The narrowband time-domain approach with poorly matched antennas provides consistent and repeatable measurements of the quality factor of the chamber itself without antenna loading effects.
    Print ISSN: 0018-9375
    Electronic ISSN: 1558-187X
    Topics: Electrical Engineering, Measurement and Control Technology
    Location Call Number Limitation Availability
    BibTip Others were also interested in ...
  • 75
    facet.materialart.
    Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE)
    Publication Date: 2018-01-10
    Description: The continuous trend toward the miniaturization of modules, comprising high sensitive devices along with noisy circuits like wireless transceivers and digital core blocks, has led us to investigate the effect of disturbances on analog front-end circuits used in system-in-package modules. In this context, this paper focuses on the distortion of radio frequency interference in CMOS current feedback instrumentation amplifiers like those used in MEMS readout circuits. The way baseband signals are distorted by such amplifiers, when the interference is superimposed onto the input signals, is analyzed referring to a math model, to computer simulations and to measurements carried out on a test chip designed and fabricated specifically for this purpose.
    Print ISSN: 0018-9375
    Electronic ISSN: 1558-187X
    Topics: Electrical Engineering, Measurement and Control Technology
    Location Call Number Limitation Availability
    BibTip Others were also interested in ...
  • 76
    facet.materialart.
    Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE)
    Publication Date: 2018-01-10
    Description: The purpose of this paper is to demonstrate the use of an optimized parallel feeding system to achieve low magnetic field in the overhead-feeder-type dc rail system. Traction conductors for electrified railways often produce very high electromagnetic fields especially at locations close to the railway, consequently posing an electromagnetic interference threat to any sensitive neighboring systems. This paper describes a technique for reducing the magnetic fields generated by the traction conductors, to as low as a few milliGauss, for achieving electromagnetic compatibility in a dc rail system design. It also shows how the optimization of the rail system conductors’ cross section, especially the feeder cables, can improve cancellation of the generated magnetic fields.
    Print ISSN: 0018-9375
    Electronic ISSN: 1558-187X
    Topics: Electrical Engineering, Measurement and Control Technology
    Location Call Number Limitation Availability
    BibTip Others were also interested in ...
  • 77
    facet.materialart.
    Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE)
    Publication Date: 2018-01-10
    Description: In order to reduce resistance loss due to skin effect and proximity effect in high-frequency inductive wireless transmission coils, an impedance calculation model is built in this paper for analyzing the electromagnetic field and resistance loss of the double-layer composite conductor in the frequency range of less than 100 kHz. The analytical formulas on calculating high-frequency resistance and power loss of the composite conductor are obtained. It is found that there is a critical frequency above which the resistance of the double-layer composite conductor is significantly lower than that of a pure copper conductor. The loss density within the aluminum layer is lower than that of a copper conductor, and will increase sharply at the interface between copper and aluminum layer. The wiring mode, coil shape factor, and the magnetic field angle determine the distribution of the magnetic field intensity around the composite conductor. When the angle of magnetic field vector varies from 0° to 360°, the magnetic field intensity will vary in a spiraling way. Finally, the high-frequency resistances of the two double-layer composite conductor coils are measured and are consistent with the analytical results, which is helpful to the high-frequency coil design in inductive wireless power transmission.
    Print ISSN: 0018-9375
    Electronic ISSN: 1558-187X
    Topics: Electrical Engineering, Measurement and Control Technology
    Location Call Number Limitation Availability
    BibTip Others were also interested in ...
  • 78
    facet.materialart.
    Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE)
    Publication Date: 2018-01-10
    Description: In previous studies, high-frequency approximation (HFA) and outgoing wave methods (OWM) were used in calculating the high-altitude electromagnetic pulse (HEMP) generated by the high-altitude nuclear explosion. Maxwell's equations were reduced to ordinary differential equations. Here, an integral equation method (IEM) based on the HFA is employed to solve Maxwell's equations in the HEMP environment. A space and basis function decomposition is developed to improve the calculation performance. The IEM and the OWM are found identical in calculating both the transverse and the radial electric field. They are found to be of the first-order accuracy during the calculation of the transverse radiation field and the radial electric field. The saturation effects of both the transverse and the radial electric field are also discussed in this paper.
    Print ISSN: 0018-9375
    Electronic ISSN: 1558-187X
    Topics: Electrical Engineering, Measurement and Control Technology
    Location Call Number Limitation Availability
    BibTip Others were also interested in ...
  • 79
    facet.materialart.
    Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE)
    Publication Date: 2018-01-10
    Description: To protect power equipment and electronic devices in low-voltage control circuits in power plants and substations from abnormal voltages such as lightning or switching surges, it is necessary to design effective protection measures based on the prediction of surge phenomena. Nowadays, full-wave numerical approaches have become effective tools for analyzing electromagnetic transient phenomena in three-dimensional or grounding structures. To apply the finite-difference time-domain (FDTD) method to surge analysis, several techniques for representing thin wires and coaxial cables have been developed. In this study, to simulate lossy wires and cables in FDTD-based surge simulations, first, we propose a technique for taking into account the effect of the conductor internal impedances of thin wires and metal sheath of coaxial cables by using a series of lumped-parameter frequency-dependent impedances on the conductors. Second, we propose a technique for simulating the effect of the surface transfer impedances of coaxial cables in the FDTD method while representing the metal sheath directly by a lossy thin wire in the FDTD method and solving surge phenomena inside the coaxial cables on the basis of transmission line theory. The proposed techniques are validated by circuit-theory-based simulations.
    Print ISSN: 0018-9375
    Electronic ISSN: 1558-187X
    Topics: Electrical Engineering, Measurement and Control Technology
    Location Call Number Limitation Availability
    BibTip Others were also interested in ...
  • 80
    facet.materialart.
    Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE)
    Publication Date: 2018-01-10
    Description: In this paper, a multiscale compressed and spliced Sherman–Morrison–Woodbury algorithm (MSCS-SMWA), based on the characteristic basis function method (CBFM), has been presented to accelerate direct solutions of electromagnetic scattering. The impedance matrix or reduced matrix can be compressed into block diagonal matrices with the adaptive cross approximation (ACA) and easily obtained the matrix inverse with this method. The MSCS-SMWA method is combined with a multiscale compressed ACA and a multiscale spliced singular value decomposition (SVD). The numerical results of several perfect electric conducting (PEC) objects are validated to demonstrate the performance of this method. Compared with the conventional methods, SMWA with the ACA and CBFM, the simulation results of the proposal method have been shown that the computation time and storage requirements have reduced about 10.77% and 44.22%, for the sphere with 10 λ radius. Also, it costs 49.16% less CPU time and 1.54% less memory than the conventional method with SVD.
    Print ISSN: 0018-9375
    Electronic ISSN: 1558-187X
    Topics: Electrical Engineering, Measurement and Control Technology
    Location Call Number Limitation Availability
    BibTip Others were also interested in ...
  • 81
    facet.materialart.
    Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE)
    Publication Date: 2018-01-10
    Description: In order to realize the ultrawideband suppression of simultaneous switching noise (SSN), a hybrid-embedded novel electromagnetic band-gap (EBG) structure is proposed. The presented EBG structure is based on the traditional Z-bridge EBG embedded the L-bridge EBG structure. By the HFSS software simulation and real test, the results show that the proposed EBG structure can obtain ultrawideband suppression of SSN. Compared with the traditional Z-bridge and L-bridge, the suppression effect is greatly improved. This paper analyzes the reason that the new structure can achieve ultrawideband suppression of SSN based on the equivalent circuit model of the structure. Moreover, the proposed structure will lead to signal integrity problems, which is analyzed by eye diagrams.
    Print ISSN: 0018-9375
    Electronic ISSN: 1558-187X
    Topics: Electrical Engineering, Measurement and Control Technology
    Location Call Number Limitation Availability
    BibTip Others were also interested in ...
  • 82
    facet.materialart.
    Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE)
    Publication Date: 2018-01-10
    Description: A novel broadband bandpass frequency-selective surface (FSS) designed for fifth generation (5G) EMI shielding is proposed in this paper. This new design employs the vertical vias into the 2-D periodic arrays, and such a single 2.5-D periodic layer of via-based structure is demonstrated to produce a highly stable angular response up to 60° for both TE and TM polarizations. By cascading two layers of such 2.5-D periodic arrays, the proposed FSS is able to obtain a broad passband as well as the wide out-of-band rejection. Moreover, it has a quite sharp band edge between the passband and the specified stopband. A corresponding equivalent circuit model (ECM) is further developed for better analysis of the operating principle. Finally, a prototype working at the center frequency of around 28 GHz is fabricated and measured. The main novelty of this paper is introducing the 2.5-D concept into designing a wideband FSS, and further reduce the unit size as well as improve the angular stability. Favorable agreement is achieved among the 3-D full-wave simulation, ECM and measurement. All these results demonstrate that the proposed FSS is a good candidate for 5G EMI shielding.
    Print ISSN: 0018-9375
    Electronic ISSN: 1558-187X
    Topics: Electrical Engineering, Measurement and Control Technology
    Location Call Number Limitation Availability
    BibTip Others were also interested in ...
  • 83
    facet.materialart.
    Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE)
    Publication Date: 2018-01-10
    Description: Magnetic field energy could be calculated by means of inductance, magnetic field intensity, or vector potential A, respectively. However, the former two methods may not reach an agreement in open loop problems. Partial inductance is calculated through A , whereas magnetic field intensity is also related to A . This letter analytically derives the difference between the former two methods. It is necessary that displacement current have to be carefully considered in open loop problems. A numerical example is given out for validation.
    Print ISSN: 0018-9375
    Electronic ISSN: 1558-187X
    Topics: Electrical Engineering, Measurement and Control Technology
    Location Call Number Limitation Availability
    BibTip Others were also interested in ...
  • 84
    facet.materialart.
    Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE)
    Publication Date: 2018-01-10
    Description: Advertisement, IEEE. IEEE Collabratec is a new, integrated online community where IEEE members, researchers, authors, and technology professionals with similar fields of interest can network and collaborate, as well as create and manage content. Featuring a suite of powerful online networking and collaboration tools, IEEE Collabratec allows you to connect according to geographic location, technical interests, or career pursuits. You can also create and share a professional identity that showcases key accomplishments and participate in groups focused around mutual interests, actively learning from and contributing to knowledgeable communities. All in one place! Learn about IEEE Collabratec at ieeecollabratec.org.
    Print ISSN: 0018-9375
    Electronic ISSN: 1558-187X
    Topics: Electrical Engineering, Measurement and Control Technology
    Location Call Number Limitation Availability
    BibTip Others were also interested in ...
  • 85
    facet.materialart.
    Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE)
    Publication Date: 2018-01-10
    Description: Advertisement.
    Print ISSN: 0018-9375
    Electronic ISSN: 1558-187X
    Topics: Electrical Engineering, Measurement and Control Technology
    Location Call Number Limitation Availability
    BibTip Others were also interested in ...
  • 86
    facet.materialart.
    Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE)
    Publication Date: 2018-01-10
    Description: An integrated two-stage polyphase filter (PPF) with feedback control for quadrature local oscillator generation at millimeter-wave frequencies is described. To minimize the in-phase (I) and quadrature (Q) mismatch, the second stage of the PPF utilizes triode-region nMOS transistors to implement variable resistors where the resistance is precisely controlled by modulating the shared gate-to-source bias voltage at the gate of nMOS devices. The gate bias voltage of the triode-region devices is set by a feedback loop which changes with variations in process, voltage, and temperature. A prototype quadrature signal generator, employing this PPF design, is integrated in a 28-nm LP CMOS process. A worst case measured phase/amplitude imbalance of 2°/0.32 dB (typical-typical corner dies) and 2.2°/0.55 dB (slow-slow corner dies) is reported over 7-GHz bandwidth for a fixed control current ( $I_{mathrm{ Ctrl}}$ ). By retuning $I_{mathrm{ Ctrl}}$ at every 7 GHz, this IQ generator would maintain the measured quadrature accuracy from 55 to 70 GHz. The core area occupied by the IQ generator circuitry is $20~mu text{m} times 40~mu text{m}$ and the device consumes less than $192~mu text{W}$ , of which 120/ $72~mu text{W}$ comes from the feedback control-loop/opamp, respectively. The proposed PPF method has a simulated input impedance of $150~Omega$ in-parallel with 18 fF.
    Print ISSN: 0018-9480
    Topics: Electrical Engineering, Measurement and Control Technology
    Location Call Number Limitation Availability
    BibTip Others were also interested in ...
  • 87
    facet.materialart.
    Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE)
    Publication Date: 2018-01-10
    Description: Given a large collection of unlabeled face images, we address the problem of clustering faces into an unknown number of identities. This problem is of interest in social media, law enforcement, and other applications, where the number of faces can be of the order of hundreds of million, while the number of identities (clusters) can range from a few thousand to millions. To address the challenges of run-time complexity and cluster quality, we present an approximate Rank-Order clustering algorithm that performs better than popular clustering algorithms (k-Means and Spectral). Our experiments include clustering up to 123 million face images into over 10 million clusters. Clustering results are analyzed in terms of external (known face labels) and internal (unknown face labels) quality measures, and run-time. Our algorithm achieves an F-measure of 0.87 on the LFW benchmark (13 K faces of 5,749 ind