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  • 1
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    Wiley-Blackwell
    Publication Date: 2018-01-03
    Description: In 2008, a new species for the French bee fauna was recorded in Allauch near Marseille: the giant resin bee, Megachile sculpturalis (Smith, 1853). This was the first European record of this species that is native to East Asia. To our knowledge, it is the first introduced bee species in Europe. Here, we provide an overview of the current distribution of M. sculpturalis in France and we describe the history of its range expansion. Besides our own observations, information was compiled from literature and Internet websites, and by contacting naturalist networks. We collected a total of 117 records ( locality  ×  year combinations) for the 2008–2016 period. The geographical range of M. sculpturalis has extended remarkably, now occupying a third of continental France, with the most northern and western records located 335 and 520 km from Allauch, respectively. Information on its phenology, feeding, and nesting behavior is also provided. We report several events of nest occupation or eviction of Osmia sp. and Xylocopa sp. individuals by M. sculpturalis . Our results show that M. sculpturalis is now well established in France. Given its capacity to adapt and rapidly expand its range, we recommend amplifying the monitoring of this species to better anticipate the changes in its geographical range and its potential impacts on native bees. In 2008, a new species for the French bee fauna was recorded in Allauch near Marseille: the giant resin bee, Megachile sculpturalis (Smith, 1853). This was the first European record of this species native from East Asia. Here, we provide an overview of the current distribution of M. sculpturalis in France and we describe its expansion history.
    Electronic ISSN: 2045-7758
    Topics: Biology
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  • 2
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    Wiley-Blackwell
    Publication Date: 2018-01-03
    Description: Transparent, durable coating materials that show excellent liquid repellency, both water and oil, have multiple applications in science and technology. In this perspective, herein, a simple aqueous chemical formulation is developed that provides a transparent slippery coating without any lubricating fluids, on various substrates extended over large areas. The coatings repel liquids having a range of polarity (solvents) as well as viscosity (oils and emulsions) and withstand mechanical strains. Exceptional optical transparency of 99% in the range of 350–900 nm along with high stability even after cyclic temperature, frost, exposure to sunlight, and corrosive liquids like aqua regia treatments, makes this material unique and widens its applicability in different fields. Besides, being a liquid, it can be coated on an array of substrates independent of their underlying topography, by various easily available techniques. Aside from these interesting properties, the coating is demonstrated as a potential solution contributing to the remediation of one of the biggest global issues of tomorrow: affordable drinking water. The coated surface can capture 5 L of water per day per m 2 at 27 °C when exposed to an atmosphere of 63% relative humidity. An inexpensive aqueous coating material , providing robust, transparent, and liquid repellent properties without any lubricating fluid once cured, is demonstrated. It is stable over extreme mechano-thermochemical perturbations and can be coated on a variety of substrates. Being a liquid, it enables the creation of large surfaces, which makes this material unique for different applications, including atmospheric water harvesting.
    Electronic ISSN: 2056-6646
    Topics: General, Interdisciplinary , Energy, Environment Protection, Nuclear Power Engineering
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  • 3
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    Wiley-Blackwell
    Publication Date: 2018-01-03
    Description: Severe heart pathology upon virus infection is closely associated with the immunological equipment of the host. Since there is no specific treatment available, current research focuses on identifying new drug targets to positively modulate predisposing immune factors. Utilizing a murine model with high susceptibility to coxsackievirus B3-induced myocarditis, this study describes ONX 0914—an immunoproteasome-specific inhibitor—as highly protective during severe heart disease. Represented by reduced heart infiltration of monocytes/macrophages and diminished organ damage, ONX 0914 treatment reversed fulminant pathology. Virus-induced immune response features like overwhelming pro-inflammatory cytokine and chemokine production as well as a progressive loss of lymphocytes all being reminiscent of a sepsis-like disease course were prevented by ONX 0914. Although the viral burden was only minimally affected in highly susceptible mice, resulting maintenance of immune homeostasis improved the cardiac output, and saved animals from severe illness as well as high mortality. Altogether, this could make ONX 0914 a potent drug for the treatment of severe virus-mediated inflammation of the heart and might rank immunoproteasome inhibitors among drugs for preventing pathogen-induced immunopathology. Resembling disease course in patients pre-disposed for severe pathogen-induced cardiac pathology, A/J mice exhibit high susceptibility for virus-induced adverse immune response activation. Systemic application of the LMP7-specific immunoproteasome inhibitor ONX 0914 inversed this hereditary predisposition.
    Print ISSN: 1757-4676
    Electronic ISSN: 1757-4684
    Topics: Medicine
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  • 4
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    Wiley-Blackwell
    Publication Date: 2018-01-03
    Description: Precise quantification of extracellular glutamate concentrations upon neuronal activation is crucial for the understanding of brain function and neurological disorders. While optogenetics is an outstanding method for the correlation between distinct neurons and their role in circuitry and behavior, the electrochemically inactive nature of glutamate has proven challenging for recording upon optogenetic stimulations. This difficulty is due to the necessity for using enzyme-coated microelectrodes and the risk for light-induced artifacts. In this study, we establish a method for the combination of in vivo optogenetic stimulation with selective measurement of glutamate concentrations using enzyme-coated multielectrode arrays and amperometry. The glutamatergic subthalamic nucleus (STN), which is the main electrode target site in deep brain stimulation treatment of advanced Parkinson′s disease, has recently proven opotogenetically targetable in Pitx2-Cre-transgenic mice and was here used as model system. Upon stereotactic injection of viral Channelrhodopsin2-eYFP constructs into the STN, amperometric recordings were performed at a range of optogenetic stimulation frequencies in the globus pallidus, the main STN target area, in anaesthetized mice. Accurate quantification was enabled through a multi-step analysis approach based on self-referencing microelectrodes and repetition of the experimental protocol at two holding potentials, which allowed for the identification, isolation and removal of photoelectric and photoelectrochemical artifacts. This study advances the field of in vivo glutamate detection with combined optogenetics and amperometric recordings by providing a validated analysis framework for application in a wide variety of glutamate-based approaches in neuroscience. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
    Print ISSN: 0022-3042
    Electronic ISSN: 1471-4159
    Topics: Medicine
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  • 5
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    Wiley-Blackwell
    Publication Date: 2018-01-05
    Description: In group-living species, individuals often have preferred affiliative social partners, with whom ties or bonds can confer advantages that correspond with greater fitness. For example, in adult female baboons and juvenile horses, individuals with stronger or more social ties experience greater survival. We used detailed behavioral and life history records to explore the relationship between tie quality and survival in a gregarious monkey ( Cercopithecus mitis stuhlmanni ), while controlling for dominance rank, group size, and life history strategy. We used Cox proportional hazards regressions to model the cumulative (multi-year) and current (single-year) relationships of social ties and the hazard of mortality in 83 wild adult females of known age, observed 2–8 years each (437 subject-years) in eight social groups. The strength of bonds with close partners was associated with increased mortality risk under certain conditions: Females that had strong bonds with close partners that were inconsistent over multiple years had a higher risk of mortality than females adopting any other social strategy. Within a given year, females had a higher risk of death if they were strongly bonded with partners that changed from the previous year versus with partners that remained consistent. Dominance rank, number of adult female groupmates, and age at first reproduction did not predict the risk of death. This study demonstrates that costs and benefits of strong social bonds can be context-dependent, relating to the consistency of social partners over time. We categorized adult female blue monkeys according to the strength and consistency over time of their closest social ties. Females that had strong but inconsistent ties had a higher risk of death than females in all other categories. Social dominance rank, group size, and life history strategies did not influence mortality.
    Electronic ISSN: 2045-7758
    Topics: Biology
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  • 6
    Publication Date: 2018-01-05
    Description: The Horn of Africa forms one of the two main historical entry points of domestics into the continent and Ethiopia is particularly important in this regard. Through the analysis of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) d -loop region in 309 individuals from 13 populations, we reveal the maternal genetic variation and demographic dynamics of Ethiopian indigenous goats. A total of 174 variable sites that generated 231 haplotypes were observed. They defined two haplogroups that were present in all the 13 study populations. Reference haplotypes from the six globally defined goat mtDNA haplogroups show the two haplogroups present in Ethiopia to be A and G, the former being the most predominant. Although both haplogroups are characterized by an increase in effective population sizes ( N e ) predating domestication, they also have experienced a decline in N e at different time periods, suggesting different demographic histories. We observed seven haplotypes, six were directly linked to the central haplotypes of the two haplogroups and one was central to haplogroup G. The seven haplotypes were common between Ethiopia, Kenya, Egypt, and Saudi Arabia populations, suggesting common maternal history and the introduction of goats into East Africa via Egypt and the Arabian Peninsula, respectively. While providing new mtDNA data from a historically important region, our results suggest extensive intermixing of goats mediated by human socio-cultural and economic interactions. These have led to the coexistence of the two haplogroups in different geographic regions in Ethiopia resulting in a large caprine genetic diversity that can be exploited for genetic improvement. The complete control region analysis of mtDNA of Ethiopian goats uncovers the maternal genetic variation and historical demographic profiles. In the result, we observed high genetic diversity but no clear phylogeographic structure. This suggests extensive past and present gene flow amongst indigenous goats mediated by human socio-cultural and economic interactions.
    Electronic ISSN: 2045-7758
    Topics: Biology
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  • 7
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    Wiley-Blackwell
    Publication Date: 2018-01-05
    Description: Double infections of Wolbachia and Spiroplasma are frequent in natural populations of Tetranychus truncatus , a polyphagous mite species that has been a dominant species in China since 2009. However, little is known about the causes and ecological importance of such coexistences. In this study, we established T. truncatus strains with different infection types and then inferred the impact of the two endosymbionts on host reproduction and fitness. Double infection induced cytoplasmic incompatibility, which was demonstrated by reduction in egg hatchability of incompatible crosses. However, doubly infected females produced more eggs relative to other strains. Wolbachia and Spiroplasma did not affect host survival, whereas doubly infected females and males developed faster than other strains. Such reproduction and fitness benefits provided by double infections may be associated with the lower densities of each symbiont, and the quantitative results also confirmed competition between Wolbachia and Spiroplasma in doubly infected females. These symbiont-conferred beneficial effects maintain stable prevalence of the symbionts and also help drive T. truncatus outbreaks in combination with other environmental factors. The symbiont-conferred beneficial effects on spider mite Tetranychus truncatus maintain stable prevalence of the symbionts and also help drive spider mite outbreaks in combination with other environmental factors.
    Electronic ISSN: 2045-7758
    Topics: Biology
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  • 8
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    Wiley-Blackwell
    Publication Date: 2018-01-05
    Description: Cocaine- and amphetamine-regulated transcript (CART) peptide is a widely distributed neurotransmitter that attenuates cocaine-induced locomotor activity when injected into the nucleus accumbens (NAc). Our previous work first confirmed that the inhibitory mechanism of the CART peptide on cocaine-induced locomotor activity is related to a reduction in cocaine-enhanced phosphorylated Ca 2+ /calmodulin-dependent protein kinaseIIα (pCaMKIIα) and the enhancement of cocaine-induced D3R function. The present study investigated whether CART peptide inhibited cocaine-induced locomotor activity via inhibition of interactions between pCaMKIIα and the D3 dopamine receptor (D3R). We demonstrated that lentivirus-mediated gene transfer transiently increased pCaMKIIα expression, which peaked at 10 days after microinjection into the rat NAc shell, and induced a significant increase in Ca 2+ influx along with greater behavioral sensitivity in the open field test after intraperitoneal injections of cocaine (15 mg/kg). However, western blot analysis and coimmunoprecipitation demonstrated that CART peptide treatment in lentivirus-transfected CaMKIIα-overexpressing NAc rat tissues or cells prior to cocaine administration inhibited the cocaine-induced Ca 2+ influx and attenuated the cocaine-increased pCaMKIIα expression in lentivirus-transfected CaMKIIα-overexpressing cells. CART peptide decreased the cocaine-enhanced phosphorylated cAMP response element binding protein (pCREB) expression via inhibition of the pCaMKIIα-D3R interaction, which may account for the prolonged locomotor sensitization induced by repeated cocaine treatment in lentivirus-transfected CaMKIIα-overexpressing cells. These results provide strong evidence for the inhibitory modulation of CART peptide in cocaine-induced locomotor sensitization. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
    Print ISSN: 0022-3042
    Electronic ISSN: 1471-4159
    Topics: Medicine
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  • 9
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    Wiley-Blackwell
    Publication Date: 2018-01-06
    Description: Carrion beetles, Nicrophorus vespilloides, are reared on decomposing carrion where larvae are exposed to high populations of carcass-derived bacteria. Larvae do not become colonized with these bacteria but instead are colonized with the gut microbiome of their parents, suggesting that bacteria in the beetle microbiome outcompete the carcass-derived species for larval colonization. Here, we test this hypothesis and quantify the fitness consequences of colonization with different bacterial symbionts. First, we show that beetles colonized by their endogenous microbiome produce heavier broods than those colonized with carcass-bacteria. Next, we show that bacteria from the endogenous microbiome, including Providencia rettgeri and Morganella morganii , are better colonizers of the beetle gut and can outcompete nonendogenous species, including Serratia marcescens and Escherichia coli , during in vivo competition. Finally, we find that Providencia and Morganella provide beetles with colonization resistance against Serratia and thereby reduce Serratia -induced larval mortality. This effect is eliminated in larvae first colonized by Serratia , suggesting that while competition within the larval gut is determined by priority effects, these effects are less important for Serratia -induced mortality. Our work suggests that an unappreciated benefit of parental care in N. vespilloides is the social transmission of the microbiome from parents to offspring. Our work supports the idea that bacterial gut symbionts provide direct fitness benefits to Nicrophorus larvae by outcompeting potential bacterial pathogens. They further suggest that one benefit of parental care in Nicrophorus vespilloides is the social transmission of the microbiome from caring parents to their offspring.
    Electronic ISSN: 2045-7758
    Topics: Biology
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  • 10
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    Wiley-Blackwell
    Publication Date: 2018-01-06
    Description: There are a number of ecogeographical “rules” that describe patterns of geographical variation among organisms. The island rule predicts that populations of larger mammals on islands evolve smaller mean body size than their mainland counterparts, whereas smaller-bodied mammals evolve larger size. Bergmann's rule predicts that populations of a species in colder climates (generally at higher latitudes) have larger mean body sizes than conspecifics in warmer climates (at lower latitudes). These two rules are rarely tested together and neither has been rigorously tested in treeshrews, a clade of small-bodied mammals in their own order (Scandentia) broadly distributed in mainland Southeast Asia and on islands throughout much of the Sunda Shelf. The common treeshrew, Tupaia glis , is an excellent candidate for study and was used to test these two rules simultaneously for the first time in treeshrews. This species is distributed on the Malay Peninsula and several offshore islands east, west, and south of the mainland. Using craniodental dimensions as a proxy for body size, we investigated how island size, distance from the mainland, and maximum sea depth between the mainland and the islands relate to body size of 13 insular T. glis populations while also controlling for latitude and correlation among variables. We found a strong negative effect of latitude on body size in the common treeshrew, indicating the inverse of Bergmann's rule. We did not detect any overall difference in body size between the island and mainland populations. However, there was an effect of island area and maximum sea depth on body size among island populations. Although there is a strong latitudinal effect on body size, neither Bergmann's rule nor the island rule applies to the common treeshrew. The results of our analyses demonstrate the necessity of assessing multiple variables simultaneously in studies of ecogeographical rules. Although there are latitudinal and island effects on body size, neither Bergmann's rule nor the island rule applies to the common treeshrew. The results of our analyses demonstrate the necessity of assessing multiple variables simultaneously in studies of ecogeographical rules.
    Electronic ISSN: 2045-7758
    Topics: Biology
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  • 11
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    Wiley-Blackwell
    Publication Date: 2018-01-06
    Print ISSN: 1757-1693
    Electronic ISSN: 1757-1707
    Topics: Energy, Environment Protection, Nuclear Power Engineering
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  • 12
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    Wiley-Blackwell
    Publication Date: 2018-01-07
    Description: Growing evidence suggests a close relationship between Alzheimer′s Disease (AD) and cerebral hypoxia. Astrocytes play a key role in brain homeostasis and disease states, while some of the earliest changes in AD occur in astrocytes. We have therefore asked whether mutations associated with AD increase astrocyte vulnerability to ischemia. Two astroglioma cell lines derived from APP SWE /PS1A246E (APP, amyloid precursor protein; PS1, presenilin 1) transgenic mice and controls from normal mice were subjected to oxygen and glucose deprivation (OGD), an in vitro model of ischemia. Cell death was increased in the APP SWE /PS1A246E line compared to the control. Increasing extracellular calcium concentration ([Ca 2+ ]) exacerbated cell death in the mutant but not in the control cells. In order to explore cellular Ca 2+ homeostasis the cells were challenged with ATP or thapsigargin and [Ca 2+ ] was measured by fluorescence microscopy. Changes in cytosolic Ca 2+ concentration ([Ca 2+ ] c ) were potentiated in the APP SWE /PS1A246E transgenic line. Mitochondrial function was also altered in the APP SWE /PS1A246E astroglioma cells; mitochondrial membrane potential and production of reactive oxygen species were increased while mitochondrial basal respiratory rate and ATP production were decreased compared to control astroglioma cells. These results suggest that AD mutations in astrocytes make them more sensitive to ischemia; Ca 2+ dysregulation and mitochondrial dysfunction may contribute to this increased vulnerability. Our results also highlight the role of astrocyte dyshomeostasis in the pathophysiology of neurodegenerative brain disorders. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
    Print ISSN: 0022-3042
    Electronic ISSN: 1471-4159
    Topics: Medicine
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  • 13
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    Wiley-Blackwell
    Publication Date: 2018-01-07
    Description: N-myc downstream-regulated gene 2 (NDRG2) is a differentiation- and stress-associated molecule that is predominantly expressed in astrocytes in the central nervous system. In this study, we examined the expression and role of NDRG2 in experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE), which is an animal model of multiple sclerosis. Western blot and immunohistochemical analysis revealed that the expression of NDRG2 was observed in astrocytes of spinal cord, and was enhanced after EAE induction. A comparative analysis of wild-type (WT) and Ndrg2 -/- mice revealed that deletion of Ndrg2 ameliorated the clinical symptoms of EAE. Although Ndrg2 deficiency only slightly affected the inflammatory response, based on the results of flow cytometry, qRT-PCR, and immunohistochemistry, it significantly reduced demyelination in the chronic phase, and, more importantly, neurodegeneration both in the acute and chronic phases. Further studies revealed that the expression of astrocytic glutamate transporters, including glutamate aspartate transporter (GLAST) and glutamate transporter 1 (GLT-1), was more maintained in the Ndrg2 -/- mice compared with WT mice after EAE induction. Consistent with these results, studies using cultured astrocytes revealed that Ndrg2 gene silencing increased the expression of GLAST, while NDRG2 overexpression decreased it without altering the expression of glial fibrillary acidic protein. The effect of NDRG2 on GLAST expression was associated with the activation of Akt, but not with the activation of nuclear factor-kappa B. These findings suggest that NDRG2 plays a key role in the pathology of EAE by modulating glutamate metabolism. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
    Print ISSN: 0022-3042
    Electronic ISSN: 1471-4159
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  • 14
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    Wiley-Blackwell
    Publication Date: 2018-01-07
    Description: Molecular imaging of vesicular acetylcholine transporter (VAChT) in the brain provides an important cholinergic biomarker for the pathophysiology and treatment of dementias including Alzheimer's disease (AD). In this study, kinetics modeling methods were applied and compared for quantifying regional brain uptake of the VAChT-specific PET radiotracer, ((-)-(1-(-8-(2-fluoroethoxy)-3-hydroxy-1,2,3,4-tetrahydronaphthalen-2-yl)piperidin-4-yl)(4-fluorophenyl)-methanone) ([ 18 F]VAT) in macaques. Total volume distribution ( V T ) estimates were compared for one-tissue compartment model (1TCM), two-tissue compartment model (2TCM), Logan graphic analysis (LoganAIF) and multiple linear analysis (MA1) with arterial blood input function using data from three macaques. Using the cerebellum-hemispheres as the reference region with data from seven macaques, three additional models were compared: reference tissue model (RTM), simplified reference tissue model (SRTM), and Logan graphic analysis (LoganREF). Model selection criterion (MSC) indicated that a) 2TCM and SRTM were the most appropriate kinetics models for [ 18 F]VAT; and b) SRTM was strongly correlated with 2TCM (Pearson's coefficients r 〉 0.93, p 〈 0.05). Test-retest studies demonstrated that [ 18 F]VAT has good reproducibility and reliability (TRV 〈 10%, ICC 〉 0.72). These studies demonstrate [ 18 F]VAT is a promising VAChT PET tracer for quantitative assessment of VAChT levels in the brain of living subjects. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
    Print ISSN: 0022-3042
    Electronic ISSN: 1471-4159
    Topics: Medicine
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  • 15
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    Wiley-Blackwell
    Publication Date: 2018-01-09
    Description: With increasing attention being paid to the consequences of global biodiversity losses, several recent studies have demonstrated that realistic species losses can have larger impacts than random species losses on community productivity and resilience. However, little is known about the effects of the order in which species are lost on biodiversity–disease relationships. Using a multiyear nitrogen addition and artificial warming experiment in natural assemblages of alpine meadow vegetation on the Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau, we inferred the sequence of plant species losses under fertilization/warming. Then the sequence of species losses under fertilization/warming was used to simulate the species loss orders (both realistic and random) in an adjacently novel removal experiment manipulating plot-level plant diversity. We explicitly compared the effect sizes of random versus realistic species losses simulated from fertilization/warming on plant foliar fungal diseases. We found that realistic species losses simulated from fertilization had greater effects than random losses on fungal diseases, and that species identity drove the diversity–disease relationship. Moreover, the plant species most prone to foliar fungal diseases were also the least vulnerable to extinction under fertilization, demonstrating the importance of protecting low competence species (the ability to maintain and transmit fungal infections was low) to impede the spread of infectious disease. In contrast, there was no difference between random and realistic species loss scenarios simulated from experimental warming (or the combination of warming and fertilization) on the diversity–disease relationship, indicating that the functional consequences of species losses may vary under different drivers. Most manipulative biodiversity–ecosystem function (BEF) experiments use randomly constructed species assemblages. We took a novel approach to explicitly compare dilution effects on foliar fungal infections for random versus realistic species losses simulated from nitrogen addition and warming treatments. We found that realistic species losses under fertilization had greater effects than random losses on fungal diseases.
    Electronic ISSN: 2045-7758
    Topics: Biology
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  • 16
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    Wiley-Blackwell
    Publication Date: 2018-01-09
    Description: Understanding local adaptation of tree populations to climate allows the development of assisted migration guidelines as a tool for forest managers to address climate change. Here, we study the relationship among climate, a wide range of physiological traits, and field performance of selected white spruce provenances originating from throughout the species range. Tree height, survival, cold hardiness, hydraulic, and wood anatomical traits were measured in a 32-year-old common garden trial, located in the center of the species range. Provenance performance included all combinations of high versus low survival and growth, with the most prevalent population differentiation for adaptive traits observed in cold hardiness. Cold hardiness showed a strong association with survival and was associated with cold winter temperatures at the site of seed origin. Tree height was mostly explained by the length of the growing season at the origin of the seed source. Although population differentiation was generally weak in wood anatomical and hydraulic traits, within-population variation was substantial in some traits, and a boundary analysis revealed that efficient water transport was associated with vulnerable xylem and low wood density, indicating that an optimal combination of high water transport efficiency and high cavitation resistance is not possible. Our results suggest that assisted migration prescriptions may be advantageous under warming climate, but pronounced trade-offs between survival and cold hardiness require a careful consideration of the distances of these transfers. In this study, we study relationships between climate, a wide range of physiological traits, and field performance of selected white spruce provenances in a common garden. We observed a strong influence of fall hardiness in tree mortality while tree growth was mostly explained by growing season length. These results will help develop assisted migration prescriptions to mitigate the climate change impact in our forests.
    Electronic ISSN: 2045-7758
    Topics: Biology
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  • 17
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    Wiley-Blackwell
    Publication Date: 2018-01-09
    Description: Plant species affect soil bacterial diversity and compositions. However, little is known about the role of dominant plant species in shaping the soil bacterial community during the restoration of sandy grasslands in Horqin Sandy Land, northern China. We established a mesocosm pots experiment to investigate short-term responses of soil bacterial diversity and composition, and the related soil properties in degraded soils without vegetation (bare sand as the control, CK) to restoration with five plant species that dominate across restoration stages: Agriophyllum squarrosum (AS), Artemisia halodendron (AH), Setaria viridis (SV), Chenopodium acuminatum (CA), and Corispermum macrocarpum (CM). We used redundancy analysis (RDA) to analyze the association between soil bacterial composition and soil properties in different plant species. Our results indicated that soil bacterial diversity was significantly lower in vegetated soils independent of plant species than in the CK. Specifically, soil bacterial species richness and diversity were lower under the shrub AH and the herbaceous plants AS, SV, and CA, and soil bacterial abundance was lower under AH compared with the CK. A field investigation confirmed the same trends where soil bacteria diversity was lower under AS and AH than in bare sand. The high-sequence annotation analysis showed that Proteobacteria , Actinobacteria, and Bacteroidetes were the most common phyla in sandy land irrespective of soil plant cover. The OTUs (operational taxonomic units) indicated that some bacterial species were specific to the host plants. Relative to bare sand (CK), soils with vegetative cover exhibited lower soil water content and temperature, and higher soil carbon and nitrogen contents. The RDA result indicated that, in addition to plant species, soil water and nitrogen contents were the most important factors shaping soil bacterial composition in semiarid sandy land. Our study from the pot and field investigations clearly demonstrated that planting dominant species in bare sand impacts bacterial diversity. In semiarid ecosystems, changes in the dominant plant species during vegetation restoration efforts can affect the soil bacterial diversity and composition through the direct effects of plants and the indirect effects of soil properties that are driven by plant species. In addition to plant species, soil water and nitrogen contents were the most important factors shaping soil bacterial composition in semiarid sandy land. Our study from the pot and field investigations clearly demonstrated that planting dominant species in bare sand impacts bacterial diversity. In semiarid ecosystems, changes in the dominant plant species during vegetation restoration efforts can affect the soil bacterial diversity and composition through the direct effects of plants and the indirect effects of soil properties that are driven by plant species.
    Electronic ISSN: 2045-7758
    Topics: Biology
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  • 18
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    Wiley-Blackwell
    Publication Date: 2018-01-09
    Description: Over the past two decades, the population of monarch butterflies east of the Rocky Mountains has experienced a significant decline in overwintering numbers. Habitat restoration that includes planting milkweeds is essential to boost monarch numbers within the breeding range. Milkweeds are the only host plants for larval monarch butterflies, but female oviposition preference for different milkweed species, especially those with overlapping ranges, is not well documented. We examined the relative inclination to lay eggs on nine milkweed species native to Iowa (no choice), and oviposition preference (choice) among the four most commonly occurring Iowa species ( Asclepias incarnata , Asclepias syriaca , Asclepias tuberosa , and Asclepias verticillata ). In both experiments, eggs were counted daily for four days. The milkweeds tested were Asclepias exaltata (poke milkweed), Asclepias hirtella (tall green milkweed), A. incarnata (swamp milkweed), Asclepias speciosa (showy milkweed), Asclepias sullivantii (prairie milkweed), A. syriaca (common milkweed), A. tuberosa (butterfly milkweed), A. verticillata (whorled milkweed), and Cynanchum laeve (honeyvine milkweed). When females were given only a single species on which to lay eggs, there were significant differences among milkweed species in the average number of eggs laid; A. incarnata had the highest average egg count. When females were given a choice among A. incarnata , A. syriaca , A. tuberosa , and A. verticillata , there were also differences among milkweed species in the number of eggs laid; again, A. incarnata had the highest average number of eggs laid. Additionally, females laid more total eggs when four plants of different milkweed species were available than when there were four plants of a single milkweed species. Our results show that monarch butterflies will lay eggs on all nine milkweeds, but that there are clear preferences for some milkweed species over others.
    Electronic ISSN: 2150-8925
    Topics: Energy, Environment Protection, Nuclear Power Engineering
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  • 19
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    Wiley-Blackwell
    Publication Date: 2018-01-09
    Description: Inherited CTPS1, CD27, and CD70 deficiencies in humans have revealed key factors of T-lymphocyte expansion, a critical prerequisite for an efficient immunity to Epstein–Barr virus (EBV) infection. RASGRP1 is a T-lymphocyte-specific nucleotide exchange factor known to activate the pathway of MAP kinases (MAPK). A deleterious homozygous mutation in RASGRP1 leading to the loss RASGRP1 expression was identified in two siblings who both developed a persistent EBV infection leading to Hodgkin lymphoma. RASGRP1-deficient T cells exhibited defective MAPK activation and impaired proliferation that was restored by expression of wild-type RASGRP1. Similar defects were observed in T cells from healthy individuals when RASGRP1 was downregulated. RASGRP1-deficient T cells also exhibited decreased CD27-dependent proliferation toward CD70-expressing EBV-transformed B cells, a crucial pathway required for expansion of antigen-specific T cells during anti-EBV immunity. Furthermore, RASGRP1-deficient T cells failed to upregulate CTPS1, an important enzyme involved in DNA synthesis. These results show that RASGRP1 deficiency leads to susceptibility to EBV infection and demonstrate the key role of RASGRP1 at the crossroad of pathways required for the expansion of activated T lymphocytes. RASGRP1 deficiency is characterized by a high susceptibility to develop Epstein-Barr virus (EBV)-driven B-cell lymphoproliferative disorders such as B-cell lymphoma like Hodgkin lymphoma. This is caused by defective expansion of activated T cells required for an efficient immune response to EBV.
    Print ISSN: 1757-4676
    Electronic ISSN: 1757-4684
    Topics: Medicine
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  • 20
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    Wiley-Blackwell
    Publication Date: 2018-01-09
    Description: The attribution of incentive salience to reward-predictive stimuli has been shown to be associated with substance abuse-like behavior such as increased drug taking. Evidence suggests that glutamate neurotransmission and sequential N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) activation are involved in the attribution of incentive salience. Here we further explore the role of second-by-second glutamate neurotransmission in the attribution of incentive salience to reward-predictive stimuli by measuring sign-tracking behavior during a Pavlovian conditioned approach procedure using ceramic-based microelectrode arrays configured for sensitive measures of extracellular glutamate in awake behaving Sprague Dawley rats. Specifically, we show that there is an increase in extracellular glutamate levels in the prelimbic cortex (PrL) and the nucleus accumbens core (NAcC) during sign-tracking behavior to a food-predictive conditioned stimulus (CS+) compared to the presentation of a non-predictive conditioned stimulus (CS-). Further, the results indicate greater increases in extracellular glutamate levels in the PrL compared to NAcC in response to the CS+, including differences in glutamate release and signal decay. Taken together, the present research suggests that there is differential glutamate signaling in the NAcC and PrL during sign-tracking behavior to a food-predictive CS+. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
    Print ISSN: 0022-3042
    Electronic ISSN: 1471-4159
    Topics: Medicine
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  • 21
    Publication Date: 2018-01-09
    Description: Delayed cell death in the penumbra region of acute ischemic stroke occurs through apoptotic mechanisms, making it amenable to therapeutic interventions. Fas/CD95 mediates apoptotic cell death in response to external stimuli. In mature neurons, Fas/CD95 signaling is modulated by Fas-apoptotic inhibitory molecule 2 (Faim2), which reduces cell death in animal models of stroke, meningitis, and Parkinson disease. Erythropoietin (EPO) has been studied as a therapeutic strategy in ischemic stroke. Erythropoietin stimulates the phosphatidylinositol-3 kinase/Akt (PI3K/Akt) pathway, which regulates Faim2 expression. Therefore, upregulation of Faim2 may contribute to neuroprotection by EPO. Male Faim2 deficient mice (Faim2 -/- ) and wild type littermates (WT) were subjected to 30 min of middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAo) followed by 72 h of reperfusion. EPO was applied before (30 min) and after (24 and 48 h) MCAo. In WT mice application of EPO at a low dose (5,000 U/kg) significantly reduced stroke volume whereas treatment with high dose (90,000 U/kg) did not. In Faim2 -/- animals administration of low dose EPO did not result in a significant reduction of stroke volume. Faim2 expression as measured by quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) increased after low dose EPO but not with high dose. An extensive phenotyping including analysis of cerebral vessel architecture did not reveal confounding differences between the genotypes. In human post mortem brain Faim2 displayed a differential expression in areas of penumbral ischemia. Faim2 upregulation may contribute to the neuroprotective effects of low dose erythropoietin in transient brain ischemia. The dose-dependency may explain mixed effects of erythropoietin observed in clinical stroke trials. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
    Print ISSN: 0022-3042
    Electronic ISSN: 1471-4159
    Topics: Medicine
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  • 22
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    Wiley-Blackwell
    Publication Date: 2018-01-10
    Description: Plant and animal diversity generally increases with increasing environmental heterogeneity. Here, we test whether this relationship also holds for bacterial communities in soil. Specifically, we investigate whether invasive annual grasslands have reduced soil heterogeneity and, thereby, decreased bacterial alpha- and beta-diversity. Soils were sampled at nine sites within a 5-km stretch of Southern California, at five depths in three habitats, including non-native invasive annual grassland, native oak woodland, and native coastal sage scrub. We characterized soil heterogeneity as well as bacterial alpha- and beta-diversity by 16S ribosomal RNA sequencing. We found that invasive annual grasslands harbored less soil heterogeneity and reduced bacterial alpha-diversity relative to the two native woody habitats. Further, across all habitats and depths, bacterial alpha- and beta-diversity was positively related to soil heterogeneity. These results suggest that plant invasions associated with soil homogenization may lead to reduced microbial diversity.
    Electronic ISSN: 2150-8925
    Topics: Energy, Environment Protection, Nuclear Power Engineering
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  • 23
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    Wiley-Blackwell
    Publication Date: 2018-01-10
    Description: Ground penetrating radar (GPR) has emerged as an effective tool for estimating active layer thickness (ALT) and volumetric water content (VWC) within the active layer. In August 2013, we conducted a series of GPR and probing surveys using a 500 MHz antenna and metallic probe around Barrow, Alaska. We collected about 15 km of GPR data and 1.5 km of probing data. Here, we describe the GPR data processing workflow from raw GPR data to the estimated ALT and VWC. We include the corresponding uncertainties for each measured and estimated parameter. The estimated average GPR-derived ALT was 41 cm, with a standard deviation of 9 cm. The average probed ALT was 40 cm, with a standard deviation of 12 cm. The average GPR-derived VWC was 0.65, with a standard deviation of 0.14.
    Electronic ISSN: 2049-6060
    Topics: Geosciences
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  • 24
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    Wiley-Blackwell
    Publication Date: 2018-01-11
    Description: Plant species are known to adapt locally to their environment, particularly in mountainous areas where conditions can vary drastically over short distances. The climate of such landscapes being largely influenced by topography, using fine-scale models to evaluate environmental heterogeneity may help detecting adaptation to micro-habitats. Here, we applied a multiscale landscape genomic approach to detect evidence of local adaptation in the alpine plant Biscutella laevigata . The two gene pools identified, experiencing limited gene flow along a 1-km ridge, were different in regard to several habitat features derived from a very high resolution (VHR) digital elevation model (DEM). A correlative approach detected signatures of selection along environmental gradients such as altitude, wind exposure, and solar radiation, indicating adaptive pressures likely driven by fine-scale topography. Using a large panel of DEM-derived variables as ecologically relevant proxies, our results highlighted the critical role of spatial resolution. These high-resolution multiscale variables indeed indicate that the robustness of associations between genetic loci and environmental features depends on spatial parameters that are poorly documented. We argue that the scale issue is critical in landscape genomics and that multiscale ecological variables are key to improve our understanding of local adaptation in highly heterogeneous landscapes. Plant species are known to adapt locally to their environment, particularly in mountainous areas where conditions can vary drastically with topography. In this article, we applied a multiscale landscape genomic approach to study local adaptation of the alpine plant Biscutella laevigata using fine-scale digital elevation models (DEMs) as relevant ecological proxies. Our results highlight the relevance of DEM-derived variables and the critical role of spatial resolution to understand local adaptation in alpine landscapes.
    Electronic ISSN: 2045-7758
    Topics: Biology
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  • 25
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    Wiley-Blackwell
    Publication Date: 2018-01-11
    Description: Transferring plant material during ecological restoration has inherent risk. The use of seed transfer guidelines minimizes the possibility of introducing maladapted genotypes. We delineated biogeographic regions relevant to the distribution of Cercocarpus montanus for the purpose of creating provisional seed transfer zones for ecological restoration. We also modeled seed transfer guidelines using quantitative estimates of environmental tolerance and thresholds. Analyses identified broadscale environmental patterns relevant for seed transfer success. First, a species distribution model was used to identify the distribution of C. montanus . Next, we used non-metric multidimensional scaling to investigate the structure of environmental data, and hierarchical cluster analysis to delineate biogeographic regions (i.e., environmental discontinuities) using species distribution data. Finally, we calculated measures of environmental tolerance and thresholds for C. montanus to model the probability of seed transfer success with multiple logistic regression. Biogeographic regionalization of C. montanus resulted in four major clusters, which agreed with ordination methods. Logistic regression was implemented using estimates of environmental tolerance and threshold data to model seed transfer success. We compared our species-specific seed transfer zones and guidelines with other provisional seed transfer zone methods and found that our species-specific methods performed better at explaining phenotypic variation of C. montanus in four out of six cases. Seed transfer zones are useful for restoration planning; however, zonal models fail to reflect much of the environmental heterogeneity present across the range of C. montanus . Continuous models for seed transfer success using environmental tolerance and thresholds enhance the development and use of seed transfer guidelines because they reflect landscape heterogeneity at a fine scale, and the results are relative to restoration sites of interest. Herein, we describe a methodology to construct provisional seed transfer zones and continuous seed transfer guidelines using species-specific distribution models and multivariate analyses.
    Electronic ISSN: 2150-8925
    Topics: Energy, Environment Protection, Nuclear Power Engineering
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  • 26
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    Wiley-Blackwell
    Publication Date: 2018-01-11
    Description: In studies of community assembly, species are often assumed to have similar spatial distributions and responses to the environment regardless of age or size. Under this assumption, it is possible to use species and species-level traits in community composition studies. Here, we test this assumption for two species of soil-living arthropods (springtails: Collembola) with direct development but assumed differences in self-organizing behavior. We expected that the species with more pronounced social interactions ( Hypogastrura tullbergi ) should be less influenced by environmental factors and species interactions across all age classes, than Folsomia quadrioculata that is not known to exhibit social behavior. We used variance partitioning to examine the relative contributions of soil variables, vegetation composition, and other Collembola, vs. spatial variables (as a proxy for intraspecific interactions, i.e., self-organization), on the distribution of the two species and three of their age classes. We show that two coexisting species with clear aggregation patterns greatly differ in how much the environment contributes to affecting the species’ spatial structure. Local F. quadrioculata abundance was explained by different spatial and environmental variables depending on age class. In contrast, for H. tullbergi, spatial variables explained more of the abundance variation in all age classes. These differences have implications for the general predictability of changes in spatial structuring of species, as self-organized species may be less likely to respond to changes in environmental factors. Our results show that because age classes may be differentially affected by environmental conditions, caution should be taken when assuming that species traits can be applied to all developmental stages in a species.
    Electronic ISSN: 2150-8925
    Topics: Energy, Environment Protection, Nuclear Power Engineering
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  • 27
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    Wiley-Blackwell
    Publication Date: 2018-01-11
    Description: Properly designed (randomized and/or balanced) experiments are standard in ecological research. Molecular methods are increasingly used in ecology, but studies generally do not report the detailed design of sample processing in the laboratory. This may strongly influence the interpretability of results if the laboratory procedures do not account for the confounding effects of unexpected laboratory events. We demonstrate this with a simple experiment where unexpected differences in laboratory processing of samples would have biased results if randomization in DNA extraction and PCR steps do not provide safeguards. We emphasize the need for proper experimental design and reporting of the laboratory phase of molecular ecology research to ensure the reliability and interpretability of results. Properly designed (randomized and/or balanced) experiments are standard in ecological research, but laboratory experiments in molecular ecology do not report the detailed design of sample processing in the laboratory. Confounding effects of unexpected laboratory events may strongly influence the interpretability of results, as we demonstrate this with a simple experiment. Only proper experimental design and reporting of the laboratory phase of molecular ecology research ensure the reliability and interpretability of results.
    Electronic ISSN: 2045-7758
    Topics: Biology
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  • 28
    Publication Date: 2018-01-12
    Description: Air masses in the convective outflows of four large convective systems near Borneo Island in Malaysia were sampled in the height range 11–13 km within the frame of the SHIVA (Stratospheric Ozone: Halogen Impacts in a Varying Atmosphere) FP7 European project in November and December 2011. Correlated enhancements of CO, CH 4 and the short-lived halogen species (CH 3 I and CHBr 3 ) were detected when the aircraft crossed the anvils of the four systems. These enhancements were interpreted as the fingerprint of vertical transport from the boundary layer by the convective updraft and then horizontal advection in the outflow. For the four observations, the fraction f of air from the boundary layer ranged between 15 and 67%, showing the variability in transport efficiency depending on the dynamics of the convective system. Convective outflows were sampled in the tropical West Pacific in November and December 2011 during SHIVA project. Correlated enhancements of CO, CH 4 and the short-lived halogen species volume mixing ratios were detected when the aircraft crossed the outflow of the convective systems. Using these observations, the fraction of boundary layer air contained in fresh convective outflow was calculated.
    Electronic ISSN: 1530-261X
    Topics: Geosciences , Physics
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  • 29
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    Wiley-Blackwell
    Publication Date: 2018-01-12
    Description: Most of the global climate models (GCMs) in the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project, phase 5 (CMIP5) do not include precipitating ice (a.k.a. falling snow) in their radiation calculations. We examine the importance of the radiative effects of precipitating ice on simulated surface wind stress and sea surface temperatures (SSTs) in terms of seasonal variation and in the evolution of Central Pacific El Nino (CP-El Nino) events. Using controlled simulations with the CESM1 model, we show that the exclusion of precipitating ice radiative effects generates a persistent excessive upper-level radiative cooling and an increasingly unstable atmosphere over convective regions such as the western Pacific and tropical convergence zones. The invigorated convection leads to persistent anomalous low-level outflows which weaken the easterly trade winds, reducing upper-ocean mixing and leading to a positive SST bias in the model mean state. In CP-El Nino events, this means that outflow from the modeled convection in the central Pacific reduces winds to the east, allowing unrealistic eastward propagation of warm SST anomalies following the peak in CP-El Nino activity. Including the radiative effects of precipitating ice reduces these model biases and improves the simulated life cycle of the CP-El Nino. Improved simulations of present day tropical seasonal variations and CP-El Nino events would increase the confidence in simulating their future behaviour.
    Electronic ISSN: 2333-5084
    Topics: Geosciences , Physics
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  • 30
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    Wiley-Blackwell
    Publication Date: 2018-01-12
    Description: One of the central goals of the field of population ecology is to identify the drivers of population dynamics, particularly in the context of predator–prey relationships. Understanding the relative role of top-down versus bottom-up drivers is of particular interest in understanding ecosystem dynamics. Our goal was to explore predator–prey relationships in a boreal ecosystem in interior Alaska through the use of multispecies long-term monitoring data. We used 29 years of field data and a dynamic multistate site occupancy modeling approach to explore the trophic relationships between an apex predator, the golden eagle, and cyclic populations of the two primary prey species available to eagles early in the breeding season, snowshoe hare and willow ptarmigan. We found that golden eagle reproductive success was reliant on prey numbers, but also responded prior to changes in the phase of the snowshoe hare population cycle and failed to respond to variation in hare cycle amplitude. There was no lagged response to ptarmigan populations, and ptarmigan populations recovered quickly from the low phase. Together, these results suggested that eagle reproduction is largely driven by bottom-up processes, with little evidence of top-down control of either ptarmigan or hare populations. Although the relationship between golden eagle reproductive success and prey abundance had been previously established, here we established prey populations are likely driving eagle dynamics through bottom-up processes. The key to this insight was our focus on golden eagle reproductive parameters rather than overall abundance. Although our inference is limited to the golden eagle–hare–ptarmigan relationships we studied, our results suggest caution in interpreting predator–prey abundance patterns among other species as strong evidence for top-down control. Reproductive success in golden eagles is linked to ptarmigan and snowshoe hare abundance. The characteristics of these linkages strongly suggest bottom-up limitation of eagles by their prey.
    Electronic ISSN: 2045-7758
    Topics: Biology
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  • 31
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    Wiley-Blackwell
    Publication Date: 2018-01-12
    Description: Large regulated rivers often require fisheries and water managers to make management decisions involving resident fish population dynamics that have many ecological drivers. Because of the large scale of the system and often competing interests and demands for water, there is a critical need for decision support tools (DSTs) that allow examination of alternative management scenarios while considering key ecological interactions. Spatially explicit individual-based models (IBMs) can serve as effective DSTs by providing information on fish population dynamics while accounting for, and providing extensive, spatially explicit information on, the numerous ecological drivers. Spatially explicit IBMs are often difficult to implement owing to the numerous and often complex inputs the models require. Here, I demonstrate how a suite of free, graphical user interface equipped programs, along with three custom-built and publicly available plugins, can streamline the modeling process and serve as a IBM-based DST for fisheries management on large regulated rivers. The main program is a spatially explicit IBM of juvenile salmonid dynamics, inSALMO, with two other programs that generate the key input data in the required spatially explicit formats. I then use this proposed DST to simulate a Chinook salmon population on a portion of California's Sacramento River to determine whether an IBM-based DST is appropriate to evaluate management impacts on a large regulated river. The Sacramento is a large river of major concern in California and is representative of many rivers in the United States and worldwide in that it is dammed, has a resident fish population, and is heavily used for water supply. The proposed DTS results compare favorably with the predictive power of a general additive model, while providing a much fuller and richer data set that could significantly aid and inform management decisions.
    Electronic ISSN: 2150-8925
    Topics: Energy, Environment Protection, Nuclear Power Engineering
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  • 32
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    Wiley-Blackwell
    Publication Date: 2018-01-03
    Description: Many species are shifting their ranges in response to the changing climate. In cases where such shifts lead to the colonization of a new ecosystem, it is critical to establish how the shifting species itself is impacted by novel environmental and biological interactions. Anthropogenic habitats that are analogous to the historic habitat of a shifting species may play a crucial role in the ability of that species to expand or persist in suboptimal colonized ecosystems. We tested if the anthropogenic habitat of docks, a likely mangrove analog, provides improved conditions for the range-shifting mangrove tree crab Aratus pisonii within the colonized suboptimal salt marsh ecosystem. To test if docks provided an improved habitat, we compared the impact of the salt marsh and dock habitats on ecological and life history traits that influence the ability of this species to persist and expand into the salt marsh and compared these back to baselines in the historic mangrove ecosystem. Specifically, we examined behavior, physiology, foraging, and the thermal conditions of A. pisonii in each habitat. We found that docks provide a more favorable thermal and foraging habitat than the surrounding salt marsh, while their ability to provide conditions which improved behavior and physiology was mixed. Our study shows that anthropogenic habitats can act as analogs to historic ecosystems and enhance the habitat quality for range-shifting species in colonized suboptimal ecosystems. If the patterns that we document are general across systems, then anthropogenic habitats may play an important facilitative role in the range shifts of species with continued climate change. Many species are shifting their ranges in response to the changing climate, and in cases where such shifts lead to the colonization of a new ecosystem, it is critical to establish how the shifting species itself is impacted by novel environmental and biological interactions. We tested if the anthropogenic analogous habitat of docks provides improved conditions for the range-shifting mangrove tree crab Aratus pisonii within the suboptimal colonized salt marsh ecosystem. We found that docks provide a more favorable thermal and foraging habitat than the surrounding salt marsh, while their ability to provide improved behavioral and physiological conditions was mixed.
    Electronic ISSN: 2045-7758
    Topics: Biology
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  • 33
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    Wiley-Blackwell
    Publication Date: 2018-01-05
    Description: The early stages of intraspecific diversity are important for the evolution of diversification and speciation. Early stages of diversification can be seen in individual specialization, where individuals consume only a portion of the diet of the population as a whole, and how such specialization is related to phenotypic diversity within populations. Here, we study the strength of the relationship between morphological and dietary distances among individuals in eighteen populations of Icelandic small benthic charr. We furthermore studied if the strength of the relationship could be related to variation in local ecological factors these populations inhabit. In all the populations studied, there was a clear relationship between morphological and dietary distances, indicating that fish that had similar morphology were at the same time-consuming similar food items. Our findings show a systematic variation in the relationship between morphology and diet at early stages of diversification in a highly specialized small benthic charr morph. The results show the importance of fine scale comparisons within populations and furthermore the value that systematic comparisons among populations under parallel evolution can contribute toward our increased understanding of evolutionary and ecological processes. We compared the morphology and diet relationships within a number of populations of small benthic charr and related those with ecological variables. In all populations, there were clear relationships between morphology and diet, but not clear relationships with ecological factors. The results show importance of fine scale comparisons within populations and furthermore the value that systematic comparisons among populations under parallel evolution can contribute toward our increased understanding of evolutionary ecology processes.
    Electronic ISSN: 2045-7758
    Topics: Biology
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  • 34
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    Wiley-Blackwell
    Publication Date: 2018-01-05
    Description: A novel method is developed to realize a III-V/Si dual-junction photovoltaic cell by combining epitaxial lift-off (ELO) and print-transfer-assisted bonding methods. The adoption of ELO enables III-V wafers to be recycled and reused, which can further lower the cost of III-V/Si photovoltaic panels. For demonstration, high crystal quality, micrometer-thick, GaAs/AlGaAs/GaAs films are lifted off, transferred, and directly bonded onto Si wafer without the use of any adhesive or bonding agents. The bonding interface is optically transparent and conductive both thermally and electrically. Prototype AlGaAs/Si dual-junction tandem solar cells have been fabricated and exhibit decent performance. A novel method is developed to realize an III-V/Si multijunction photovoltaic device by combining the epitaxial lift-off (ELO) and print-transfer-assisted bonding methods. The adoption of ELO enables III-V wafers to be recycled and reused, which is promising to further lower the cost of III-V/Si photovoltaic panels.
    Electronic ISSN: 2050-0505
    Topics: Energy, Environment Protection, Nuclear Power Engineering
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  • 35
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    Wiley-Blackwell
    Publication Date: 2018-01-06
    Electronic ISSN: 2150-8925
    Topics: Energy, Environment Protection, Nuclear Power Engineering
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  • 36
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    Wiley-Blackwell
    Publication Date: 2018-01-06
    Description: Many different factors influence animal activity. Often, the value of an environmental variable may influence significantly the upper or lower tails of the activity distribution. For describing relationships with heterogeneous boundaries, quantile regressions predict a quantile of the conditional distribution of the dependent variable. A quantile count model extends linear quantile regression methods to discrete response variables, and is useful if activity is quantified by trapping, where there may be many tied (equal) values in the activity distribution, over a small range of discrete values. Additionally, different environmental variables in combination may have synergistic or antagonistic effects on activity, so examining their effects together, in a modeling framework, is a useful approach. Thus, model selection on quantile counts can be used to determine the relative importance of different variables in determining activity, across the entire distribution of capture results. We conducted model selection on quantile count models to describe the factors affecting activity (numbers of captures) of cane toads ( Rhinella marina ) in response to several environmental variables (humidity, temperature, rainfall, wind speed, and moon luminosity) over eleven months of trapping. Environmental effects on activity are understudied in this pest animal. In the dry season, model selection on quantile count models suggested that rainfall positively affected activity, especially near the lower tails of the activity distribution. In the wet season, wind speed limited activity near the maximum of the distribution, while minimum activity increased with minimum temperature. This statistical methodology allowed us to explore, in depth, how environmental factors influenced activity across the entire distribution, and is applicable to any survey or trapping regime, in which environmental variables affect activity.
    Electronic ISSN: 2150-8925
    Topics: Energy, Environment Protection, Nuclear Power Engineering
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  • 37
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    Wiley-Blackwell
    Publication Date: 2018-01-06
    Description: Tropical cyclones (TCs) have major effects on ecological and social systems. However, studies integrating the effects of TCs on both social and ecological systems are rare, especially in the northwest Pacific, where the frequency of TCs (locally named typhoons) is the highest in the world. We synthesized studies of effects of recurrent typhoons on social and ecological systems in Taiwan over the last several decades. Many responses to TCs are comparable between social and ecological systems. High forest ecosystem resistance, evident from tree mortality below 2% even following multiple strong typhoons, is comparable with resistance of social systems, including the only 4% destruction of river embankments following a typhoon that brought nearly 3000 mm rainfall in three days. High resilience as reflected by quick returns of leaf area index, mostly in one year, and streamwater chemistry, one to several weeks to pre-typhoon levels of ecosystems, are comparable to quick repair of the power grid within one to several days and returns of vegetable price within several weeks to pre-typhoon levels of the social systems. Landslides associated with intense typhoons have buried mountain villages and transported large quantities of woody debris to the coast, affecting the coastal plains and reefs, illustrating a ridge-to-reef link between ecological and societal systems. Metrics of both social and ecological function showed large fluctuations in response to typhoons but quickly returned to pre-disturbance levels, except when multiple intense typhoons occurred within a single season. Our synthesis illustrates that the social–ecological systems in Taiwan are highly dynamic and responsive to frequent typhoon disturbance, with extraordinarily high resistance and resilience. For ecosystems, the efficient responsiveness results from the selective force of TCs on ecosystem structure and processes. For social systems, it is the result of the effects of TCs on planning and decision making by individuals (e.g., farmers), management sectors, and ultimately the government. In regions with frequent TCs, the social–ecological systems are inevitably highly dynamic and rapid responses are fundamental to system resistance and resilience which in turn is key to maintaining structure and function of the social–ecological systems.
    Electronic ISSN: 2150-8925
    Topics: Energy, Environment Protection, Nuclear Power Engineering
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  • 38
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    Wiley-Blackwell
    Publication Date: 2018-01-07
    Description: The etiology of Alzheimer's disease (AD) is egregiously comprehended, but epidemiological studies have posited that diets rich in the saturated fatty acid palmitic acid (palmitate) are a significant risk factor. The production and accumulation of Amyloid-beta peptide (Aβ) is considered the core pathological molecular event in the pathogenesis of AD. The rate limiting step in Aβ genesis from Amyloid-β precursor protein (AβPP) is catalyzed by the enzyme β-site APP cleaving enzyme 1 (BACE1), the expression and enzymatic activity of which is significantly upregulated in the AD brain. In this study, we determined the molecular mechanisms that potentially underlie the palmitate-induced up-regulation in BACE1 expression and augmented Aβ production. We demonstrate that a palmitate-enriched diet and exogenous palmitate treatment evoke an increase in BACE1 expression and activity leading to enhanced Aβ genesis in the mouse brain and SH-SY5Y-APP S we cells respectively, through the activation of the transcription factor NF-κB. Chromatin Immunoprecipitation (ChIP) assays and luciferase reporter assays revealed that palmitate enhances BACE1 expression by increasing the binding of NF-κB in the BACE1 promoter followed by an enhancement in the transactivation of the BACE1 promoter. Elucidation and delineation of upstream molecular events unveiled a critical role of the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress-associated transcription factor, C/EBP Homologous Protein (CHOP) in the palmitate-induced NF-κB activation, as CHOP knock-down cells and Chop -/- mice do not exhibit the same degree of NF-κB activation in response to the palmitate challenge. Our study delineates a novel CHOP-NF-κB signaling pathway that mediates palmitate-induced up-regulation of BACE1 expression and Aβ genesis. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
    Print ISSN: 0022-3042
    Electronic ISSN: 1471-4159
    Topics: Medicine
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  • 39
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    Wiley-Blackwell
    Publication Date: 2018-01-07
    Description: Dysregulation of prefrontal cortical glutamatergic signalling via NMDA receptor hypofunction has been implicated in cognitive dysfunction and impaired inhibitory control in such neuropsychiatric disorders as schizophrenia, attention deficit hyperactivity disorder and drug addiction. Although NMDA receptors functionally interact with metabotropic glutamate receptor 5 (mGluR5), the consequence of this interaction for glutamate release in the prefrontal cortex (PFC) is unknown. We therefore investigated the effects of positive and negative allosteric mGluR5 modulation on changes in extracellular glutamate efflux in the medial PFC (mPFC) induced by systemic administration of the non-competitive NMDA receptor antagonist dizocilpine (or MK801) in rats. Extracellular glutamate efflux was measured following systemic administration of the positive allosteric mGluR5 modulator [S-(4-Fluoro-phenyl)-{3-[3-(4-fluoro-phenyl)-[1,2,4]-oxadiazol-5-yl]-piperidin-1-yl}-methanone] (ADX47273; 100 mg/kg, p.o.) and negative allosteric mGluR5 modulator [2-chloro-4-{[1-(4-fluorophenyl)-2,5-dimethyl-1H-imidazol-4-yl]ethynyl}pyridine] (RO4917523; 0.3 mg/kg, p.o.), using a wireless glutamate biosensor in awake, freely-moving rats. The effect of MK801 (0.03-0.06 mg/kg, s.c.) on mPFC glutamate efflux was also investigated in addition to the effects of MK801 (0.03 mg/kg, s.c.) following ADX47273 (100 mg/kg, p.o.) pre-treatment. ADX47273 produced a sustained increase in glutamate efflux and increased the effect of NMDA receptor antagonism on glutamate efflux in the mPFC. By contrast, negative allosteric mGluR5 modulation with RO4917523 decreased glutamate efflux in the mPFC. These findings indicate that positive and negative allosteric mGluR5 modulators produce long lasting and opposing actions on extracellular glutamate efflux in the mPFC. Positive and negative allosteric modulators of mGluR5 may therefore be viable therapeutic agents to correct abnormalities in glutamatergic signalling present in a range of neuropsychiatric disorders. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
    Print ISSN: 0022-3042
    Electronic ISSN: 1471-4159
    Topics: Medicine
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  • 40
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    Wiley-Blackwell
    Publication Date: 2018-01-08
    Description: Genotyping of classical major histocompatibility complex (MHC) genes is challenging when they are hypervariable and occur in multiple copies. In this study, we used several different approaches to genotype the moderately variable MHC class I exon 3 (MHCIe3) and the highly polymorphic MHC class II exon 2 (MHCIIβe2) in the bluethroat ( Luscinia svecica ). Two family groups (eight individuals) were sequenced in replicates at both markers using Ion Torrent technology with both a single- and a dual-indexed primer structure. Additionally, MHCIIβe2 was sequenced on Illumina MiSeq. Allele calling was conducted by modifications of the pipeline developed by Sommer et al. (BMC Genomics, 14, 2013, 542) and the software AmpliSAS. While the different genotyping strategies gave largely consistent results for MHCIe3, with a maximum of eight alleles per individual, MHCIIβe2 was remarkably complex with a maximum of 56 MHCIIβe2 alleles called for one individual. Each genotyping strategy detected on average 50%–82% of all MHCIIβe2 alleles per individual, but dropouts were largely allele-specific and consistent within families for each strategy. The discrepancies among approaches indicate PCR biases caused by the platform-specific primer tails. Further, AmpliSAS called fewer alleles than the modified Sommer pipeline. Our results demonstrate that allelic dropout is a significant problem when genotyping the hypervariable MHCIIβe2. As these genotyping errors are largely nonrandom and method-specific, we caution against comparing genotypes across different genotyping strategies. Nevertheless, we conclude that high-throughput approaches provide a major advance in the challenging task of genotyping hypervariable MHC loci, even though they may not reveal the complete allelic repertoire. Several different approaches were used to genotype the moderately variable MHC class I exon 3 (MHCIe3) and the highly polymorphic MHC class II exon 2 (MHCIIβe2) in the bluethroat, using replicates and family data. While the results were largely consistent for MHCIe3 among strategies, the different strategies rendered different results for MHCIIβe2.
    Electronic ISSN: 2045-7758
    Topics: Biology
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  • 41
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    Wiley-Blackwell
    Publication Date: 2018-01-09
    Description: Despite the advantage of plant clonality in patchy environments, studies focusing on genet demography in relation to spatially heterogeneous environments remain scarce. Regeneration of bamboos in forest understoreys after synchronous die-off provides an opportunity for assessing how they come to proliferate across heterogeneous light environments. In a Japanese forest, we examined genet demography of a population of Sasa kurilensis over a 7-year period starting 10 years after die-off, shortly after which some genets began spreading horizontally by rhizomes. The aboveground biomass was estimated, and genets were discriminated in 9-m 2 plots placed under both canopy gaps and closed canopies. Overall, the results suggest that the survival and spread of more productive genets and the spatial expansion of genets into closed canopies underlie the proliferation of S. kurilensis . Compared to canopy gaps, the recovery rate of biomass was much slower under closed canopies for the first 10 years after the die-off, but became accelerated during the next 7 years. Genet survival was greater for more productive genets (with greater initial number of culms), and the spaces occupied by genets that died were often colonized afterward by clonal growth of surviving genets. The number of genets decreased under canopy gaps due to greater mortality, but increased under closed canopies where greater number of genets colonized clonally from outside the plots than genets died. The colonizing genets were more productive (having larger culms) than those originally germinated within the plots, and the contribution of colonizing genets to the biomass was greater under closed canopies. Our study emphasizes the importance of investigating genet dynamics over relevant spatiotemporal scales to reveal processes underlying the success of clonal plants in heterogeneous habitats. Despite the advantage of plant clonality in patchy environments, studies focusing on genet demography in relation to spatially heterogeneous environments remain scarce. Regeneration of bamboos in forest understoreys after synchronous die-off provides an opportunity for assessing how they come to proliferate across heterogeneous light environments. We studied the long-term genet demography of a dwarf bamboo, Sasa kurilensis , after synchronous flowering and die-off, and found that the survival and spread of more productive genets and the clonal expansion of genets into closed canopies likely underlie the proliferation of S. kurilensis .
    Electronic ISSN: 2045-7758
    Topics: Biology
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  • 42
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    Wiley-Blackwell
    Publication Date: 2018-01-09
    Description: Rare species can play important functional roles, but human-induced changes to disturbance regimes, such as fire, can inadvertently affect these species. We examined the influence of prescribed burns on the recruitment and diversity of plant species within a temperate forest in southeastern Australia, with a focus on species that were rare prior to burning. Floristic composition was compared among plots in landscapes before and after treatment with prescribed burns differing in the extent of area burnt and season of burn (before–after, control-impact design). Floristic surveys were conducted before burns, at the end of a decade of drought, and 3 years postburn. We quantified the effect of prescribed burns on species grouped by their frequency within the landscape before burning (common, less common, and rare) and their life-form attributes (woody perennials, perennial herbs or geophytes, and annual herbs). Burn treatment influenced the response of rare species. In spring-burn plots, the recruitment of rare annual herbs was promoted, differentiating this treatment from both autumn-burn and unburnt plots. In autumn-burn plots, richness of rare species increased across all life-form groups, although composition remained statistically similar to control plots. Richness of rare woody perennials increased in control plots. For all other life-form and frequency groups, the floristic composition of landscapes changed between survey years, but there was no effect of burn treatment, suggesting a likely effect of rainfall on species recruitment. A prescribed burn can increase the occurrence of rare species in a landscape, but burn characteristics can affect the promotion of different life-form groups and thus affect functional diversity. Drought-breaking rain likely had an overarching effect on floristic composition during our study, highlighting that weather can play a greater role in influencing recruitment and diversity in plant communities than a prescribed burn. Prescribed burning can inadvertently affect plant rarity. We examined the influence of prescribed fire on plants in a temperate forest and found that prescribed burns can positively influence the presence of rare species. Burn characteristics, such as season and extent, can influence the type of life-form promoted, for example, extensive spring burns favoring rare annual herbs. Managing disturbance to promote heterogeneous landscapes may help maintain rare species diversity on a landscape scale.
    Electronic ISSN: 2045-7758
    Topics: Biology
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  • 43
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    Wiley-Blackwell
    Publication Date: 2018-01-09
    Electronic ISSN: 2045-7758
    Topics: Biology
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  • 44
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    Wiley-Blackwell
    Publication Date: 2018-01-09
    Description: Fire exclusion in eastern North American Quercus–Carya woodlands has resulted in overstory compositional changes, linked to altered fuel composition, structure, and ultimately, altered fire regimes. These compositional changes have been implicated in a dampening effect on fire behavior in formerly fire-prone ecosystems, the positive feedback termed “mesophication.” Several proposed mechanisms are likely involved in this process; however, few have been examined. We evaluated the potential mechanism of dampened forest floor flammability through changes in litter composition in a southeastern U.S. oak–hickory forest undergoing mesophication. Laboratory drying and burning experiments revealed that increasing the relative contribution of litter from fire-sensitive mesophytic tree species ( Liquidambar styraciflua , Ulmus alata , and Cornus florida ) increased moisture retention and diminished litter flammability. Litterbeds composed of ≥66% mesophyte litter gained the most moisture following fuelbed saturation and were consistently wetter than pyrophyte litter following 12 and 24 h of drying. Flammability metrics decreased with increasing contribution of mesophyte litter with reductions most pronounced under more moist conditions. Under dry conditions, where litter moisture did not differ across compositional treatments, mesophyte litter was less flammable than fuelbeds that contained any pyrophyte litter. The combined effects of moisture retention and less flammable litter reveal an important synergistic impact that may result with increased dominance of fire-sensitive mesophytic species. Restoration efforts in long-unburned eastern hardwood forests may require altering stand composition to limit mesophytic litter input or developing burn prescriptions that intensify surface fire behavior in less flammable fuels.
    Electronic ISSN: 2150-8925
    Topics: Energy, Environment Protection, Nuclear Power Engineering
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  • 45
    Publication Date: 2018-01-09
    Description: Deposition of amyloid-β (Aβ) as senile plaques is one of the pathological hallmarks in the brains of Alzheimer's disease (AD) patients. In addition, glial activation has been found in AD brains, although the precise pathological role of astrocytes remains unclear. Here, we identified kallikrein-related peptidase 7 (KLK7) as an astrocyte-derived Aβ degrading enzyme. Expression of KLK7 mRNA was significantly decreased in the brains of AD patients. Ablation of Klk7 exacerbated the thioflavin S-positive Aβ pathology in AD model mice. The expression of Klk7 was upregulated by Aβ treatment in the primary astrocyte, suggesting that Klk7 is homeostatically modulated by Aβ-induced responses. Finally, we found that the Food and Drug Administration-approved anti-dementia drug memantine can increase the expression of Klk7 and Aβ degradation activity specifically in the astrocytes. These data suggest that KLK7 is an important enzyme in the degradation and clearance of deposited Aβ species by astrocytes involved in the pathogenesis of AD. Decreased clearance of Aβ from the brain is related to the pathogenesis of Alzheimer's disease (AD). Kallikrein-related peptidase 7 (KLK7) is an astrocyte-derived Aβ degrading enzyme that affects the amyloid pathology. Thus, astrocytes could be an effective cellular target for AD.
    Print ISSN: 1757-4676
    Electronic ISSN: 1757-4684
    Topics: Medicine
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  • 46
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    Wiley-Blackwell
    Publication Date: 2018-01-10
    Description: Residues of pharmaceuticals are increasingly detected in surface waters throughout the world. In four streams in Baltimore, Maryland, USA, we detected analgesics, stimulants, antihistamines, and antibiotics using passive organic samplers. We exposed biofilm communities in these streams to the common drugs caffeine, cimetidine, ciprofloxacin, and diphenhydramine. Respiration rates in the least urban stream were suppressed when exposed to these drugs, but biofilm functioning in the most urban stream was resistant to drug exposure. Exposure to the antibiotic ciprofloxacin altered bacterial community composition at all sites, with the greatest change occurring in the most urban stream. These results indicated that continuous exposure to drugs in urban streams may select for sub-populations of highly resistant bacteria that maintain community function in response to urban contaminants.
    Electronic ISSN: 2150-8925
    Topics: Energy, Environment Protection, Nuclear Power Engineering
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  • 47
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    Wiley-Blackwell
    Publication Date: 2018-01-10
    Description: Leaf area index (LAI) is often used to quantify plant production and evapotranspiration with terrestrial ecosystem models (TEMs). This study evaluated the LAI simulation in North America using a data assimilation technique and a process-based TEM as well as in situ and satellite data. We first optimized the parameters related to LAI in the TEM using a Markov Chain Monte Carlo method, and AmeriFlux site-level and regional LAI data from advanced very high-resolution radiometer. The parameterized model was then verified with the observed monthly LAI of major ecosystem types at site level. Simulated LAI was compared well with the observed data at sites of Harvard Forest ( R 2  = 0.96), University of Michigan Biological Station ( R 2  = 0.87), Howland Forest ( R 2  = 0.96), Morgan Monroe State Forest ( R 2  = 0.85), Shidler Tallgrass Prairie ( R 2  = 0.82), and Donaldson ( R 2  = 0.75). The root-mean-square error (RMSE) between modeled and satellite-based monthly LAI in North America is 1.4 m 2 /m 2 for the period of 1985–2010. The simulated average monthly LAI in recent three decades increased by (3 ± 0.5)% in the region, with 1.24, 1.46, and 2.21 m 2 /m 2 on average, in Alaska, Canada, and the conterminous United States, respectively, which is consistent with satellite data. The model performed well for wet tundra, boreal forest, temperate coniferous forests, temperate deciduous forests, grasslands, and xeric shrublands (RMSE 〈 1.5 m 2 /m 2 ), but not for alpine tundra and xeric woodlands (RMSE 〉 1.5 m 2 /m 2 ). Both the spring and fall LAI in the 2000s are higher than that in the 1980s in the region, suggesting that the leaf phenology has an earlier onset and later senescence in the 2000s. The average LAI increased in April and September by 0.03 and 0.24 m 2 /m 2 , respectively. This study provides a way to quantify LAI with ecosystem models, which will improve future carbon and water cycling studies.
    Electronic ISSN: 2150-8925
    Topics: Energy, Environment Protection, Nuclear Power Engineering
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  • 48
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    Wiley-Blackwell
    Publication Date: 2018-01-10
    Print ISSN: 0022-3042
    Electronic ISSN: 1471-4159
    Topics: Medicine
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  • 49
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    Wiley-Blackwell
    Publication Date: 2018-01-11
    Description: Key Points The overall rates of major upper abdominal cancer resections in octogenarians have increased over time. The number of major liver and pancreatic resections for cancer in this demographic has more than doubled from 2001 to 2011. This trend may be the result of an emboldened surgical approach within the context of increasingly favorable inpatient mortality rates from elective surgeries of the pancreas and liver.
    Print ISSN: 0007-9235
    Electronic ISSN: 1542-4863
    Topics: Medicine
    Published by Wiley-Blackwell on behalf of American Cancer Society.
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  • 50
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    Wiley-Blackwell
    Publication Date: 2018-01-11
    Description: No abstract is available for this article.
    Electronic ISSN: 2333-5084
    Topics: Geosciences , Physics
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  • 51
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    Wiley-Blackwell
    Publication Date: 2018-01-11
    Description: Fire is a dominant, and well-studied, structuring force in many temperate and semi-arid communities; yet, few studies have investigated the effects of fire on multi-trophic interactions. Here, we ask how fire-induced changes in flowering affect the abundance of bumble bee foragers ( Bombus vosnesenskii ) and whether differences in floral resource availability are due to changes in plant species composition or lengthened bloom of a consistent set of species within burned and unburned grasslands. Following fire, burned and unburned sites had similar early spring bee and floral abundances. However, after the early bloom, forager activity remained high only in burned sites, where floral abundance persisted for longer. Importantly, the increased floral abundance following fire was due to a lengthening of within-species flowering phenology, as burned areas later in the season retained floral abundance and composition similar to that of unburned areas early in the season. Furthermore, density of flower patches chosen by bumble bee foragers was significantly higher at burned sites, suggesting an increase in patch quality for foragers in post-fire communities. Our results suggest positive effects of fire for bumble bee foragers and forb communities in California grassland ecosystems in the year following disturbance, namely through differences in plant phenology and floral density. We conclude that fire-induced changes in flowering phenology can alter interspecific interactions and benefit pollinators.
    Electronic ISSN: 2150-8925
    Topics: Energy, Environment Protection, Nuclear Power Engineering
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  • 52
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    Wiley-Blackwell
    Publication Date: 2018-01-12
    Description: Using six flights observations in September 2015 over Hebei, China, this study shows a robust negative aerosol-cloud droplet effective radius (r e ) relationship for liquid clouds, which is different from previous studies that found positive aerosol-cloud r e relationship over east China using satellite observations. Total of 27 cloud samples were analyzed with the classification of clean and polluted conditions using lower and upper 1/3 rd aerosol concentration at 200 m below the cloud bases. By normalizing the profiles of cloud droplet r e , we found significant smaller values under polluted than under clean condition at most heights. Moreover, the averaged profiles of cloud LWC show larger values under polluted than clean conditions, indicating even stronger negative aerosol-cloud r e relationship if LWC is kept constant. The droplet size distributions further demonstrate that more droplets concentrate within smaller size ranges under polluted conditions. Quantitatively, the aerosol-cloud interaction is found around 0.10-0.19 for the study region.
    Electronic ISSN: 2333-5084
    Topics: Geosciences , Physics
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  • 53
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    Wiley-Blackwell
    Publication Date: 2018-01-12
    Description: The freshwater–marine transition that characterizes an estuarine system can provide multiple entry options for invading species, yet the relative importance of this gradient in determining the functional contribution of invading species has received little attention. The ecological consequences of species invasion are routinely evaluated within a freshwater versus marine context, even though many invasive species can inhabit a wide range of salinities. We investigate the functional consequences of different sizes of Corbicula fluminea —an invasive species able to adapt to a wide range of temperatures and salinity—across the freshwater–marine transition in the presence versus absence of warming. Specifically, we characterize how C. fluminea affect fluid and particle transport, important processes in mediating nutrient cycling (NH 4 -N, NO 3 -N, PO 4 -P). Results showed that sediment particle reworking (bioturbation) tends to be influenced by size and to a lesser extent, temperature and salinity; nutrient concentrations are influenced by different interactions between all variables (salinity, temperature, and size class). Our findings demonstrate the highly context-dependent nature of the ecosystem consequences of invasion and highlight the potential for species to simultaneously occupy multiple components of an ecosystem. Recognizing of this aspect of invasibility is fundamental to management and conservation efforts, particularly as freshwater and marine systems tend to be compartmentalized rather than be treated as a contiguous unit. We conclude that more comprehensive appreciation of the distribution of invasive species across adjacent habitats and different seasons is urgently needed to allow the true extent of biological introductions, and their ecological consequences, to be fully realized. The functional consequences of different sizes of Corbicula fluminea —an invasive species able to adapt to a wide range of temperatures and salinity—across the freshwater–marine transition in the presence versus absence of warming were investigated.
    Electronic ISSN: 2045-7758
    Topics: Biology
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  • 54
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    Wiley-Blackwell
    Publication Date: 2018-01-12
    Description: Color polymorphisms offer unique opportunities for testing the role of ecological adaptation and natural selection in the origin of species. However, the ecological conditions that facilitate the coexistence and speciation of color morphs in nature remain poorly understood. In this study, we investigate the ecological mechanisms maintaining the color polymorphism in the arc-eye hawkfish ( Paracirrhites arcatus ), which consists of two common morphs (pink white-striped [PWS] and melanistic [MEL]) and less common intermediates that all coexist on shallow coral reefs throughout the Indo-Pacific. Our approach was to test whether ecologically based disruptive selection on color could explain the maintenance of and possible incipient divergence between sympatric color morphs. We compared patterns of spatial distribution, abundance, habitat use and preference, and niche overlap among color morphs at nine sites along the leeward coast of Hawaii Island. We demonstrate that despite co-occurring at all sites, sympatric color morphs show significant niche divergence along a steep ecological gradient. Morph frequencies correlate strongly with a multivariate gradient in coral community and reef topography, which explained 81% of the variability in relative abundance of the two main color morphs. Melanistic morphs were more frequent in shallow, steep surge zones dominated by Pocillopora corals. In contrast, PWS morphs were more frequent in deeper, sub-surge zones with higher coral cover dominated by Porites corals. Niche overlap analyses highlight how the two main morphs are partitioned on opposite ends of this continuous ecological gradient, while phenotypic intermediates are mostly restricted to intermediate habitats. The strong correlation between phenotype and environment suggests that morphs have fitness advantages in their respective habitats. We speculate that disruptive natural selection on color pattern to increase crypsis in heterogeneous visual environments has led to divergence in habitat preferences. The resulting ecological isolation provides a plausible mechanism for the persistence of multiple coexisting color phenotypes in P. arcatus . If divergence in color also affects mate choice, the evolution of reproductive isolation is likely to be promoted.
    Electronic ISSN: 2150-8925
    Topics: Energy, Environment Protection, Nuclear Power Engineering
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  • 55
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    Wiley-Blackwell
    Publication Date: 2018-01-12
    Description: During the recent 50 years, in response to global warming, nearly all of the rivers in the arid region of northwest China have shown significant increasing trends in runoff. However, runoff in the Hotan River has shown a slight decreasing trend that corresponded to a rate of −0.18 × 10 8  m 3 /decade for the same period. Here, based on an analysis of runoff from mountain pass hydrologic stations and precipitation during 1960–2009, as well as measurements of upper-air temperature (UAT) from the Hotan sounding station (1960–2011) and MODIS land surface temperature (LST) of the mountainous area (2001–2011), we found that the annual runoff in the Hotan River was mainly determined (75%) by summer runoff. We also determined that the summer runoff was strongly associated (correlation coefficient: R  = 0.78, P  〈 0.001) with summer UAT at 500 hPa and mountain LST ( R  = 0.69, P  〈 0.001) during 1960–2009. Because the largest proportion of runoff in the Hotan River stems from glacial meltwater, we suggest that the decreasing trends exhibited by the UAT in the mid-lower troposphere and the LST within the mountainous area in summer are the main reasons why runoff shows a slight decreasing trend over the past half century. Location map in the study and mountainous area of Hotan River.
    Electronic ISSN: 1530-261X
    Topics: Geosciences , Physics
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  • 56
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    Wiley-Blackwell
    Publication Date: 2018-01-12
    Description: Despite the importance of coral microbiomes for holobiont persistence, the interactions among these are not well understood. In particular, knowledge of the co-occurrence and taxonomic importance of specific members of the microbial core, as well as patterns of specific mobile genetic elements (MGEs), is lacking. We used seawater and mucus samples collected from Mussismilia hispida colonies on two reefs located in Bahia, Brazil, to disentangle their associated bacterial communities, intertaxa correlations, and plasmid patterns. Proxies for two broad-host-range (BHR) plasmid groups, IncP-1β and PromA, were screened. Both groups were significantly (up to 252 and 100%, respectively) more abundant in coral mucus than in seawater. Notably, the PromA plasmid group was detected only in coral mucus samples. The core bacteriome of M. hispida  mucus was composed primarily of members of the Proteobacteria, followed by those of Firmicutes. Significant host specificity and co-occurrences among different groups of the dominant phyla (e.g., Bacillaceae and Pseudoalteromonadaceae and the genera Pseudomonas , Bacillus, and Vibrio ) were detected. These relationships were observed for both the most abundant phyla and the bacteriome core, in which most of the operational taxonomic units showed intertaxa correlations. The observed evidence of host-specific bacteriome and co-occurrence (and potential symbioses or niche space co-dominance) among the most dominant members indicates a taxonomic selection of members of the stable bacterial community. In parallel, host-specific plasmid patterns could also be, independently, related to the assembly of members of the coral microbiome. Significant host specificity and co-occurrences among different groups of the dominant phyla (e.g., Bacillaceae and Pseudoalteromonadaceae and the genera Pseudomonas, Bacillus, and Vibrio), and host-specific plasmids patterns were detected associated with Mussismilia hispida . This was true considering both the most abundant phyla and the bacteriome core, in which most of the operational taxonomic units presented intertaxa correlations. The observed evidence of host-specific bacteriome and co-occurrence (and potential symbioses or niche space codominance) among the most dominant members indicates a taxonomic selection of members of the stable bacterial community.
    Electronic ISSN: 2045-7758
    Topics: Biology
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  • 57
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    Wiley-Blackwell
    Publication Date: 2018-01-12
    Description: Over the last 100 yr, anthropogenic stressors have decimated the assemblage of deepwater coregonines that once underpinned the food webs of the Laurentian Great Lakes. As a part of ongoing restoration efforts, fisheries managers are interested in reintroducing deepwater coregonines from remnant populations to reestablish historical food web connections. However, little is known about historical trophic position and niche partitioning among deepwater coregonines in the Great Lakes. We used nitrogen stable isotope analysis of amino acids to compare trophic position of museum-preserved (1920s) and present-day forage fishes in Lakes Michigan and Superior. In the 1920s, deepwater coregonines exhibited clear trophic niche partitioning, with trophic positions spanning a full trophic level. Additionally, species trophic positions were tightly conserved between lakes. In Lake Superior, trophic niche partitioning has been maintained over the last 100 yr, but trophic position has shifted downward by ~0.5 trophic level. The more dramatic species loss in Lake Michigan corresponds with a sharp reduction in trophic niche breadth over time. Our study reveals remarkable trophic niche breadth among deepwater coregonines prior to the major anthropogenic impacts on the Laurentian Great Lakes and provides a food web benchmark for restoring the historical trophic diversity of this iconic species flock.
    Electronic ISSN: 2150-8925
    Topics: Energy, Environment Protection, Nuclear Power Engineering
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  • 58
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    Wiley-Blackwell
    Publication Date: 2018-01-13
    Print ISSN: 0007-9235
    Electronic ISSN: 1542-4863
    Topics: Medicine
    Published by Wiley-Blackwell on behalf of American Cancer Society.
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  • 59
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    Wiley-Blackwell
    Publication Date: 2018-01-13
    Print ISSN: 0007-9235
    Electronic ISSN: 1542-4863
    Topics: Medicine
    Published by Wiley-Blackwell on behalf of American Cancer Society.
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  • 60
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    Wiley-Blackwell
    Publication Date: 2018-01-13
    Description: Inbreeding is widely hypothesized to shape mating systems and population persistence, but such effects will depend on which traits show inbreeding depression. Population and evolutionary consequences could be substantial if inbreeding decreases sperm performance and hence decreases male fertilization success and female fertility. However, the magnitude of inbreeding depression in sperm performance traits has rarely been estimated in wild populations experiencing natural variation in inbreeding. Further, the hypothesis that inbreeding could increase within-ejaculate variation in sperm traits and thereby further affect male fertilization success has not been explicitly tested. We used a wild pedigreed song sparrow ( Melospiza melodia ) population, where frequent extrapair copulations likely create strong postcopulatory competition for fertilization success, to quantify effects of male coefficient of inbreeding ( f ) on key sperm performance traits. We found no evidence of inbreeding depression in sperm motility, longevity, or velocity, and the within-ejaculate variance in sperm velocity did not increase with male f . Contrary to inferences from highly inbred captive and experimental populations, our results imply that moderate inbreeding will not necessarily constrain sperm performance in wild populations. Consequently, the widely observed individual-level and population-level inbreeding depression in male and female fitness may not stem from reduced sperm performance in inbred males. In a natural population of song sparrows, we detected no deleterious effects of inbreeding on sperm performance. Our study suggests that inbreeding depression in male gametic performance might not be a primary driver of inbreeding depression in male or female fitness in wild populations.
    Electronic ISSN: 2045-7758
    Topics: Biology
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  • 61
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    Wiley-Blackwell
    Publication Date: 2018-01-13
    Description: Phenotypic and genetic variation are present in all species, but lineages differ in how variation is partitioned among populations. Examining phenotypic clustering and genetic structure within a phylogeographic framework can clarify which biological processes have contributed to extant biodiversity in a given lineage. Here, we investigate genetic and phenotypic variation among populations and subspecies within a Neotropical songbird complex, the White-collared Seedeater ( Sporophila torqueola ) of Central America and Mexico. We combine measurements of morphology and plumage patterning with thousands of nuclear loci derived from ultraconserved elements (UCEs) and mitochondrial DNA to evaluate population differentiation. We find deep levels of molecular divergence between two S. torqueola lineages that are phenotypically diagnosable: One corresponds to S. t. torqueola along the Pacific coast of Mexico, and the other includes S. t. morelleti and S. t. sharpei from the Gulf Coast of Mexico and Central America. Surprisingly, these two lineages are strongly differentiated in both nuclear and mitochondrial markers, and each is more closely related to other Sporophila species than to one another. We infer low levels of gene flow between these two groups based on demographic models, suggesting multiple independent evolutionary lineages within S. torqueola have been obscured by coarse-scale similarity in plumage patterning. These findings improve our understanding of the biogeographic history of this lineage, which includes multiple dispersal events out of South America and across the Isthmus of Tehuantepec into Mesoamerica. Finally, the phenotypic and genetic distinctiveness of the range-restricted S. t. torqueola highlights the Pacific Coast of Mexico as an important region of endemism and conservation priority. We examined phenotypic and genomic differentiation within a widespread Neotropical songbird. We found deep molecular divergence between two subspecies groups: One restricted to western Mexico, and the other in eastern Mexico and Central America. We find that these two lineages are not sister species, suggesting a revised biogeographic history of repeated dispersal out of South America and hidden endemism in western Mexico.
    Electronic ISSN: 2045-7758
    Topics: Biology
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  • 62
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    Wiley-Blackwell
    Publication Date: 2018-01-13
    Description: Evolutionary radiations are responsible for much of Earth's diversity, yet the causes of these radiations are often elusive. Determining the relative roles of adaptation and geographic isolation in diversification is vital to understanding the causes of any radiation, and whether a radiation may be labeled as “adaptive” or not. Across many groups of plants, trait–climate relationships suggest that traits are an important indicator of how plants adapt to different climates. In particular, analyses of plant functional traits in global databases suggest that there is an “economics spectrum” along which combinations of functional traits covary along a fast–slow continuum. We examine evolutionary associations among traits and between trait and climate variables on a strongly supported phylogeny in the iconic plant genus Protea to identify correlated evolution of functional traits and the climatic-niches that species occupy. Results indicate that trait diversification in Protea has climate associations along two axes of variation: correlated evolution of plant size with temperature and leaf investment with rainfall. Evidence suggests that traits and climatic-niches evolve in similar ways, although some of these associations are inconsistent with global patterns on a broader phylogenetic scale. When combined with previous experimental work suggesting that trait–climate associations are adaptive in Protea , the results presented here suggest that trait diversification in this radiation is adaptive. Trait-climate associations are often indicators for the role of adaptation of plants to the abiotic environments which they occupy. The morphologically diverse and species-rich genus Protea is an iconic plant radiation centered in the climatically heterogeneous Cape Floristic Region. Examination of present day and evolutionary associations between traits and climate variables on a strongly supported phylogeny indicates that diversification in Protea has correlated evolution along two distinct axes of variation, with correlated evolution of plant size with temperature and leaf investment with rainfall.
    Electronic ISSN: 2045-7758
    Topics: Biology
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  • 63
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    Wiley-Blackwell
    Publication Date: 2018-01-14
    Description: Mating systems have broad impacts on how sexual selection and mate choice operate within a species, but studies of mating behavior in the laboratory may not reflect how these processes occur in the wild. Here, we examined the mating behavior of the neotropical butterfly Heliconius erato in the field by releasing larvae and virgin females and observing how they mated. H. erato is considered a pupal-mating species (i.e., males mate with females as they emerge from the pupal case). However, we observed only two teneral mating events, and experimentally released virgins were almost all mated upon recapture. Our study confirms the presence of some pupal-mating behavior in H. erato , but suggests that adult mating is likely the prevalent mating strategy in this species. These findings have important implications for the role of color pattern and female mate choice in the generation of reproductive isolation in this diverse genus. Heliconius erato is thought to be one of a few species of butterfly which display an unusual mating system known as pupal mating: males wait on the developing pupae of females and mate with them upon emergence. Using experiments and observations with natural populations, we find that while H. erato do engage in pupal mating in the wild, it is rare: adult-mating is likely the prevalent mode of mating. Our finding that most couplings occur between adults suggests that color pattern is likely an important factor driving assortative mating and speciation in this adaptively radiating species.
    Electronic ISSN: 2045-7758
    Topics: Biology
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  • 64
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    Wiley-Blackwell
    Publication Date: 2018-01-14
    Description: Environmental differences influence the evolutionary divergence of mating signals through selection acting either directly on signal transmission (“sensory drive”) or because morphological adaptation to different foraging niches causes divergence in “magic traits” associated with signal production, thus indirectly driving signal evolution. Sensory drive and magic traits both contribute to variation in signal structure, yet we have limited understanding of the relative role of these direct and indirect processes during signal evolution. Using phylogenetic analyses across 276 species of ovenbirds (Aves: Furnariidae), we compared the extent to which song evolution was related to the direct influence of habitat characteristics and the indirect effect of body size and beak size, two potential magic traits in birds. We find that indirect ecological selection, via diversification in putative magic traits, explains variation in temporal, spectral, and performance features of song. Body size influences song frequency, whereas beak size limits temporal and performance components of song. In comparison, direct ecological selection has weaker and more limited effects on song structure. Our results illustrate the importance of considering multiple deterministic processes in the evolution of mating signals. Sensory drive and magic traits both contribute to variation in acoustic signal structure, yet we have limited understanding of the relative role of these direct and indirect processes during signal evolution. Using phylogenetic analyses across 276 species of ovenbirds (Aves: Furnariidae), we compared the extent to which song evolution was related to the direct influence of habitat characteristics and the indirect effect of body size and beak size, two potential magic traits in birds. We find that indirect ecological selection, via diversification in putative magic traits, explains variation in temporal, spectral, and performance features of song, whereas direct ecological selection has weaker and more limited effects on song structure.
    Electronic ISSN: 2045-7758
    Topics: Biology
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  • 65
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    Wiley-Blackwell
    Publication Date: 2018-01-17
    Description: The clear evidence of the accumulating impacts of anthropogenic actions on the Earth system is driving researchers to look to historical data as a resource for understanding the present and predicting the future. In the conservation science literature, using historical sources usually refers to data mining ‘the past’ using the scientific methods of historical ecology. This paper considers the often overlooked methodological challenges of sourcing and interpreting historical data. A schema is provided for conservation scientists, summarising the kinds of questions and metadata required to work rigorously with historical data. This will improve the accuracy of the data we use to construct trends to inform our understanding of the conservation status of particular species and ecosystems. It will also deepen our understanding of the interplays of factors influencing policy and management in particular social-ecological contexts. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved
    Print ISSN: 1755-263X
    Electronic ISSN: 1755-263X
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  • 66
    Publication Date: 2018-01-17
    Description: Targeting phylogenetic diversity (PD) in systematic conservation planning is an efficient way to minimize losses across the Tree of Life. Considering representation of genetic diversity below and above species level, also allows robust analyses within systems where taxonomy is in flux. We use dense sampling of phylogeographic diversity for eleven lizard genera, to demonstrate how PD can be applied to a policy-ready conservation planning problem. Our analysis bypasses named taxa, using genetic data directly to inform conservation decisions. We highlight areas that should be prioritised for ecological management, and also areas that would provide the greatest benefit if added to the multi-sector conservation estate. We provide a rigorous and effective approach to represent the spectrum of genetic and species diversity in conservation planning. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved
    Print ISSN: 1755-263X
    Electronic ISSN: 1755-263X
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  • 67
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    Wiley-Blackwell
    Publication Date: 2018-01-17
    Description: Plant ecologists require spatial information on functional soil properties but are often faced with soil classifications that are not directly interpretable or useful for statistical models. Sand and clay content are important soil properties because they indicate soil water-holding capacity and nutrient content, yet these data are not available for much of the landscape. Remotely sensed soil radiometric data offer promise for developing statistical models of functional soil properties applicable over large areas. Here, we build models linking radiometric data for an area of 40,000 km 2 with soil physicochemical data collected over a period of 30 years and demonstrate a strong relationship between gamma radiometric potassium ( 40 K), thorium (²³²Th), and soil sand and clay content. Our models showed predictive performance of 43% with internal cross-validation (to held-out data) and ~30% for external validation to an independent test dataset. This work contributes to broader availability and uptake of remote sensing products for explaining patterns in plant distribution and performance across landscapes. Soil texture and chemistry significantly explained deviation in remote-sensed gamma-radiometric Th and K. Percent sand and clay particles in A Horizon were the most influential variables. Gamma-radiometric Th and and K, with environmental data, moderately predicted sand and clay %.
    Electronic ISSN: 2045-7758
    Topics: Biology
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  • 68
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    Wiley-Blackwell
    Publication Date: 2018-01-17
    Description: The response of tropical forests to global warming is one of the largest uncertainties in predicting the future carbon balance of Earth. To determine the likely effects of elevated temperatures on tropical forest understory plants and soils, as well as other ecosystems, an infrared (IR) heater system was developed to provide in situ warming for the Tropical Responses to Altered Climate Experiment (TRACE) in the Luquillo Experimental Forest in Puerto Rico. Three replicate heated 4-m-diameter plots were warmed to maintain a 4°C increase in understory vegetation compared to three unheated control plots, as sensed by IR thermometers. The equipment was larger than any used previously and was subjected to challenges different from those of many temperate ecosystem warming systems, including frequent power surges and outages, high humidity, heavy rains, hurricanes, saturated clayey soils, and steep slopes. The system was able to maintain the target 4.0°C increase in hourly average vegetation temperatures to within ± 0.1°C. The vegetation was heterogeneous and on a 21° slope, which decreased uniformity of the warming treatment on the plots; yet, the green leaves were fairly uniformly warmed, and there was little difference among 0–10 cm depth soil temperatures at the plot centers, edges, and midway between. Soil temperatures at the 40–50 cm depth increased about 3°C compared to the controls after a month of warming. As expected, the soil in the heated plots dried faster than that of the control plots, but the average soil moisture remained adequate for the plants. The TRACE heating system produced an adequately uniform warming precisely controlled down to at least 50-cm soil depth, thereby creating a treatment that allows for assessing mechanistic responses of tropical plants and soil to warming, with applicability to other ecosystems. No physical obstacles to scaling the approach to taller vegetation (i.e., trees) and larger plots were observed. An infrared heater system was designed, installed, and tested over tropical forest understory vegetation in Puerto Rico. Larger plots and a higher degree of warming required using 4–8 times larger equipment than used for this application before, and the location involved challenges from power surges and outages, high humidity, steep slope, weak soils, and hurricanes. The system maintained the target 4°C rise in temperature of the heated plots above that of the controls when power was available, the uniformity of the treatment was satisfactory, and significant soil warming of 2.6°C on average to a depth of 50 cm was achieved with minimal soil drying.
    Electronic ISSN: 2045-7758
    Topics: Biology
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  • 69
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    Wiley-Blackwell
    Publication Date: 2018-01-17
    Description: Fluctuations in marine populations often relate to the supply of recruits by oceanic currents. Variation in these currents is typically driven by large-scale changes in climate, in particular ENSO (El Nino Southern Oscillation). The dependence on large-scale climatic changes may, however, be modified by early life history traits of marine taxa. Based on eight years of annual surveys, along 150 km of coastline, we examined how ENSO influenced abundance of juvenile fish, coral spat, and canopy-forming macroalgae. We then investigated what traits make populations of some fish families more reliant on the ENSO relationship than others. Abundance of juvenile fish and coral recruits was generally positively correlated with the Southern Oscillation Index (SOI), higher densities recorded during La Niña years, when the ENSO-influenced Leeuwin Current is stronger and sea surface temperature higher. The relationship is typically positive and stronger among fish families with shorter pelagic larval durations and stronger swimming abilities. The relationship is also stronger at sites on the coral back reef, although the strongest of all relationships were among the lethrinids ( r  = .9), siganids ( r  = .9), and mullids ( r  = .8), which recruit to macroalgal meadows in the lagoon. ENSO effects on habitat seem to moderate SOI–juvenile abundance relationship. Macroalgal canopies are higher during La Niña years, providing more favorable habitat for juvenile fish and strengthening the SOI effect on juvenile abundance. Conversely, loss of coral following a La Niña-related heat wave may have compromised postsettlement survival of coral dependent species, weakening the influence of SOI on their abundance. This assessment of ENSO effects on tropical fish and habitat-forming biota and how it is mediated by functional ecology improves our ability to predict and manage changes in the replenishment of marine populations. Abundance of juvenile fish and coral recruits was generally positively correlated with the Southern Oscillation Index (SOI), with higher densities recorded during La Niña years. The relationship is typically positive and stronger among fish families with shorter pelagic larval durations and stronger swimming abilities. ENSO effects on habitat seem to moderate SOI–juvenile abundance relationship.
    Electronic ISSN: 2045-7758
    Topics: Biology
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  • 70
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    Wiley-Blackwell
    Publication Date: 2018-01-17
    Description: The importance and prevalence of phylogenetic tracking between hosts and dependent organisms caused by co-evolution and shifting between closely related host species have been debated for decades. Most studies of phylogenetic tracking among phytophagous insects and their host plants have been limited to insects feeding on a narrow range of host species. However, narrow host ranges can confound phylogenetic tracking (phylogenetic tracking hypothesis) with host shifting between hosts of intermediate relationship (intermediate hypothesis). Here, we investigated the evolutionary history of the Enchenopa binotata complex of treehoppers. Each species in this complex has high host fidelity, but the entire complex uses hosts across eight plant orders. The phylogenies of E. binotata were reconstructed to evaluate whether (1) tracking host phylogeny; or (2) shifting between intermediately related host plants better explains the evolutionary history of E. binotata . Our results suggest that E. binotata primarily shifted between both distant and intermediate host plants regardless of host phylogeny and less frequently tracked the phylogeny of their hosts. These findings indicate that phytophagous insects with high host fidelity, such as E. binotata , are capable of adaptation not only to closely related host plants but also to novel hosts, likely with diverse phenology and defense mechanisms. Although with high host fidelity and a wide range of host usage (across eight host orders), we found that host shifting, regardless of the host plant relationship, played a more important role than coevolution with hosts in the evolutionary history of Enchenopa binotata treehoppers. This result is fascinating it is not only unsupportive to coevolution between plant–insect relationship, but is also unsupportive to intermediate hypothesis for host shifting.
    Electronic ISSN: 2045-7758
    Topics: Biology
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  • 71
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    Wiley-Blackwell
    Publication Date: 2018-01-17
    Description: Translocations have become an increasingly valuable tool for conservation in recent years, but assessing the successfulness of translocations and identifying factors that contribute to their success continue to challenge biologists. As a unique class of translocation, population reinforcements have received relatively little attention despite representing a substantial portion of translocation programs. Here, we conducted population viability analyses to quantify the effects of 216 reinforcement scenarios on the long-term viability of four populations of Greater Prairie-Chickens ( Tympanuchus cupido pinnatus ) in Wisconsin, USA, and used multiple linear regression to identify factors that had the greatest relative influence on population viability. We considered reinforcements from outside of the study area in addition to translocations among Wisconsin populations. We observed the largest decreases in site-specific extinction probability and the largest increases in the number of sites persisting for 50 years when more vulnerable populations were targeted for reinforcement. Conversely, reinforcing the most stable sites caused the greatest reduction in regional extinction probability. We found that the number of translocated hens was a comparatively poor predictor of changes in long-term population viability, whereas the earlier onset of reinforcement was consistently associated with the greatest increases in viability. Our results highlight the value of evaluating alternative reinforcement strategies a priori and considering the effects of reinforcement on metrics of long-term population persistence. We used a combination of population viability analysis and linear regression techniques to compare 216 reinforcement scenarios for four populations of the threatened Greater Prairie-Chicken ( Tympanuchus cupido pinnatus ) in central Wisconsin, USA. We considered three different metrics of long-term population viability and identified factors that were most strongly associated with population persistence. Early onset of reinforcement efforts was a much stronger predictor of long-term translocation success than release cohort size.
    Electronic ISSN: 2045-7758
    Topics: Biology
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  • 72
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    Wiley-Blackwell
    Publication Date: 2018-01-17
    Description: Salmon–bear ecosystems that historically existed throughout most of the northern temperate and boreal regions of planet earth now persist only in the North Pacific. Extensive research on salmon–bear interactions has focused on the role that bears ( Ursus arctos and U. americanus ) play in provisioning terrestrial systems with marine-derived nutrients, but little attention has been paid to how the much higher bear population densities in salmon-bearing ecosystems then affect ecological communities. Salmon-supported brown bears secondarily consume large quantities of fruit and may thus serve as important seed dispersers, but the relative seed dispersal services provided by bears and birds are unknown. We sought to (1) quantify the number of seeds dispersed by bears relative to birds, and (2) by brown bears relative to black bears, and to (3) assess whether the two sympatric bears temporally partition berry resources as a result of competitively dominant brown bears switching to feed on salmon, thus opening niche space for black bears. We used a combination of motion-triggered camera traps and environmental DNA (eDNA) from residual saliva to quantify the roles of birds, black bears, and brown bears as seed dispersers of devil's club ( Oplopanax horridus ), the dominant understory shrub at our field site in northern southeast Alaska. Brown bears were the numerically dominant seed dispersers, particularly before salmon became widely available, after which black bears became common seed dispersers, likely due to alleviation of interference competition. Birds accounted for only a small fraction of seed dispersal. This is the first demonstration of a temperate plant being primarily dispersed by mammalian gut passage. Our results suggest that bears are uniquely important seed dispersers, which may influence plant community composition in salmon-bearing ecosystems.
    Electronic ISSN: 2150-8925
    Topics: Energy, Environment Protection, Nuclear Power Engineering
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  • 73
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    Wiley-Blackwell
    Publication Date: 2018-01-18
    Description: Current methods in conservation planning for promoting the persistence of biodiversity typically focus on either representing species geographic distributions or maintaining connectivity between reserves, but rarely both, and take a focal species, rather than a multi-species, approach. Here, we link prioritisation methods with population models to explore the impact of integrating both representation and connectivity into conservation planning for species persistence. Using data on 288 Mediterranean fish species with varying conservation requirements, we show that: (i) considering both representation and connectivity objectives provides the best strategy for enhanced biodiversity persistence; and (ii) connectivity objectives were fundamental to enhancing persistence of small-ranged species, which are most in need of conservation, while the representation objective benefited only wide-ranging species. Our approach provides a more comprehensive appraisal of planning applications than approaches focusing on either representation or connectivity, and will hopefully contribute to build more effective reserve networks for the persistence of biodiversity. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved
    Print ISSN: 1755-263X
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  • 74
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    Wiley-Blackwell
    Publication Date: 2018-01-23
    Description: Low clouds strongly impact the radiation budget of the climate system, but their simulation in most GCMs has remained a challenge, especially over the subtropical stratocumulus region. Assuming a Gaussian distribution for the subgrid-scale total water and liquid water potential temperature, a new statistical cloud scheme is proposed and tested in NCAR Community Atmospheric Model version 5 (CAM5). The subgrid-scale variance is diagnosed from the turbulent and shallow convective processes in CAM5. The approach is able to maintain the consistency between cloud fraction and cloud condensate and thus alleviates the adjustment needed in the default relative humidity based cloud fraction scheme. Short-term forecast simulations indicate that low cloud fraction and liquid water content, including their diurnal cycle, are improved due to a proper consideration of subgrid-scale variance over the southeastern Pacific Ocean region. Compared with the default cloud scheme, the new approach produced the mean climate reasonably well with improved shortwave cloud forcing (SWCF) due to more reasonable low cloud fraction and liquid water path over regions with predominant low clouds. Meanwhile, the SWCF bias over the tropical land regions is also alleviated. Furthermore, the simulated marine boundary layer clouds with the new approach extend further offshore and agree better with observations. The new approach is able to obtain the top of atmosphere (TOA) radiation balance with a slightly alleviated double ITCZ problem in preliminary coupled simulations. This study implies that a close coupling of cloud processes with other subgrid-scale physical processes is a promising approach to improve cloud simulations.
    Electronic ISSN: 1942-2466
    Topics: Geography , Geosciences
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  • 75
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    Wiley-Blackwell
    Publication Date: 2018-01-23
    Description: A recent study revealed that corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH) in the cerebral cortex (CTX) plays a regulatory role in emotional behaviors in rodents. Given the functional interaction between brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) and the CRH-signaling pathway in the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis, we hypothesized that BDNF may regulate gene expression of CRH and its related molecules in the CTX. Findings of real-time quantitative PCR (RT-qPCR) indicated that stimulation of cultured rat cortical neurons with BDNF led to marked elevations in the mRNA levels of CRH and CRH-binding protein (CRH-BP). The BDNF-induced upregulation of CRH-BP mRNA was attenuated by inhibitors of tyrosine receptor kinase (Trk) and MEK, but not by an inhibitor for PI3K and PLCγ. The upregulation was partially blocked by an inhibitor of lysine-specific demethylase (KDM) 6B. Fluorescent imaging identified the vesicular pattern of pH-sensitive green fluorescent protein-fused CRH-BP (CRH-BP-pHluorin), which co-localized with mCherry-tagged BDNF in cortical neurons. In addition, live-cell imaging detected drastic increases of pHluorin fluorescence in neurites upon membrane depolarization. Finally, we confirmed that tetrodotoxin (TTX) partially attenuated the BDNF-induced upregulation of CRH-BP mRNA, but not that of the protein. These observations indicate the following: In cortical neurons, BDNF led to gene expression of CRH-BP and CRH. TrkB, MEK, presumably ERK, and KDM6B are involved in the BDNF-induced gene expression of CRH-BP, and BDNF is able to induce the upregulation in a neuronal activity-independent manner. It is suggested that CRH-BP is stored into BDNF-containing secretory granules in cortical neurons, and is secreted in response to membrane depolarization. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
    Print ISSN: 0022-3042
    Electronic ISSN: 1471-4159
    Topics: Medicine
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  • 76
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    Wiley-Blackwell
    Publication Date: 2018-01-24
    Description: A key question in speciation research is how ecological and sexual divergence arise and interact. We tested the hypothesis that mate choice causes local adaptation and ecological divergence using the rationale that the performance~signal trait relationship should parallel the attractiveness~signal trait relationship. We used female fecundity as a measure of ecological performance. We used a species in the Enchenopa binotata treehopper complex, wherein speciation involves adaptation to novel environments and divergence in sexual communication. We used a full-sibling, split-family rearing design to estimate genetic correlations ( r G ) between fecundity and signal traits, and compared those relationships against population-level mate preferences for the signal traits. Animal model estimates for r G between female fecundity and male signal traits overlapped zero—rejecting the hypothesis—but could reflect sample size limitations. The magnitude of r G correlated with the strength of the mate preferences for the corresponding signal traits, especially for signal frequency, which has the strongest mate preference and the most divergence in the complex. However, signal frequencies favored by the population-level mate preference are not associated with high fecundity. Therefore, mate preferences do not appear to have been selected to favor high-performance genotypes. Our findings suggest that ecological and sexual divergence may arise separately, but reinforce each other, during speciation. We tested the hypothesis that mate choice causes local adaptation and ecological divergence using the rationale that the performance~signal trait relationship should parallel the attractiveness~signal trait relationship using a species in the Enchenopa binotata treehopper species complex. We used a full-sibling, split-family rearing design to estimate genetic correlations ( r G ) between fecundity and signal traits, and compared those relationships against population-level mate preferences for the signal traits. Mate preferences do not appear to have been selected to favor high-performance genotypes.
    Electronic ISSN: 2045-7758
    Topics: Biology
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  • 77
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    Wiley-Blackwell
    Publication Date: 2018-01-24
    Description: The blood vasculature is an organ pervading all other organs (almost). During vascular development, cell–cell signaling by extracellular ligands and cell surface receptors ensure that new vessels sprout into non-vascularized regions and simultaneously acquire organ-specific specializations and adaptations that match the local physiological needs. The vessels thereby specialize in their permeability, molecular transport between blood and tissue, and ability to regulate blood flow on demand. Over the past decades, we have learnt about the generic cell–cell signaling mechanisms governing angiogenic sprouting, mural cell recruitment, and vascular remodeling, and we have obtained the first insights into signals that induce and maintain vascular organotypicity. However, intra-organ vascular diversity and arterio-venous hierarchies complicate the molecular characterization of the vasculature's cellular building blocks. Single-cell RNA sequencing provides a way forward, as it allows elucidation at a genome-wide and quantitative level of the transcriptional diversity occurring within the same cell types at different anatomical positions and levels of arterio-venous hierarchy in the organs. In this Louis-Jeantet Prize Winner: Commentary , I give a brief overview of vascular development and how recent advances in the field pave the way for more systematic efforts to explore vascular functions in health and disease. The 2017 Louis-Jeantet Prize for Medicine winner Christer Betsholtz provides an interesting account of his work in vascular biology, in particular the characterisation of pericytes and their role in vascular development and permeability.
    Print ISSN: 1757-4676
    Electronic ISSN: 1757-4684
    Topics: Medicine
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  • 78
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    Wiley-Blackwell
    Publication Date: 2018-01-25
    Description: Analysis of genetic variation can provide insights into ecological and evolutionary diversification which, for commercially harvested species, can also be relevant to the implementation of spatial management strategies and sustainability. In comparison with other marine biodiversity hot spots, there has been less genetic research on the fauna of the southwest Indian Ocean (SWIO). This is epitomized by the lack of information for lethrinid fish, which support socioeconomically important fisheries in the region. This study combines comparative phylogeographic and population genetic analyses with ecological niche modeling to investigate historical and contemporary population dynamics of two species of emperor fish ( Lethrinus mahsena and Lethrinus harak ) across the SWIO. Both species shared similarly shallow phylogeographic patterns and modeled historical (LGM) habitat occupancies. For both species, allele frequency and kinship analyses of microsatellite variation revealed highly significant structure with no clear geographical pattern and nonrandom genetic relatedness among individuals within samples. The genetic patterns for both species indicate recurrent processes within the region that prevent genetic mixing, at least on timescales of interest to fishery managers, and the potential roles of recruitment variability and population isolation are discussed in light of biological and environmental information. This consistency in both historical and recurrent population processes indicates that the use of model species may be valuable in management initiatives with finite resources to predict population structure, at least in cases wherein biogeographic and ecological differences between taxa are minimized. Paradoxically, mtDNA sequencing and microsatellite analysis of samples from the Seychelles revealed a potential cryptic species occurring in sympatry with, and seemingly morphologically identical to, L. mahsena . BLAST results point to the likely misidentification of species and incongruence between voucher specimens, DNA barcodes, and taxonomy within the group, which highlights the utility and necessity of genetic approaches to characterize baseline biodiversity in the region before such model-based methods are employed. Here we present a combined comparative phylogeographic, population genetic, and ecological niche model investigation of two emperor fish species ( Lethrinus mahsena and L. harak ) in the southwest Indian Ocean. Both species displayed consistencies in genetic patterns that highlight the potential use of model species in fisheries management; mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) sequencing revealed shallow phylogeographic structuring, whereas microsatellite variation yielded highly significant structure with limited geographic pattern, suggesting processes that inhibit genetic mixing within the SWIO. Furthermore, mtDNA sequencing and microsatellite analysis of samples from the Seychelles revealed a potential cryptic species occurring in sympatry with, and seemingly morphologically identical to, L. mahsena .
    Electronic ISSN: 2045-7758
    Topics: Biology
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  • 79
    Publication Date: 2018-01-25
    Description: Key developments have been made to the NCAR Whole Atmosphere Community Climate Model with thermosphere and ionosphere extension (WACCM-X). Among them the most important are the self-consistent solution of global electrodynamics, and transport of O + in the F-region. Other ionosphere developments include time-dependent solution of electron/ion temperatures, metastable O + chemistry, and high-cadence solar EUV capability. Additional developments of the thermospheric components are improvements to the momentum and energy equation solvers to account for variable mean molecular mass and specific heat, a new divergence damping scheme, and cooling by O( 3 P) fine structure. Simulations using this new version of WACCM-X (2.0) have been carried out for solar maximum and minimum conditions. Thermospheric composition, density, and temperatures are in general agreement with measurements and empirical models, including the equatorial mass density anomaly and the midnight density maximum. The amplitudes and seasonal variations of atmospheric tides in the mesosphere and lower thermosphere are in good agreement with observations. Although global mean thermospheric densities are comparable with observations of the annual variation, they lack a clear semi-annual variation. In the ionosphere, the low-latitude E×B drifts agree well with observations in their magnitudes, local time dependence, seasonal, and solar activity variations. The pre-reversal enhancement in the equatorial region, which is associated with ionospheric irregularities, displays patterns of longitudinal and seasonal variation that are similar to observations. Ionospheric density from the model simulations reproduces the equatorial ionosphere anomaly structures, and is in general agreement with observations. The model simulations also capture important ionospheric features during storms.
    Electronic ISSN: 1942-2466
    Topics: Geography , Geosciences
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    Wiley-Blackwell
    Publication Date: 2018-01-26
    Description: The ability of perennial species to adapt their phenology to present and future temperature conditions is important for their ability to retain high fitness compared to other competing plant species, pests, and pathogens. Many transplanting studies with forest tree species have previously reported substantial genetic differentiation among populations within their native range. However, the question of “how local is local” is still highly debated in conservation biology because studies on genetic patterns of variation within and among populations at the local scale are limited and scattered. In this study, we compare the level of genetic differentiation among populations of six different perennial plant species based on their variation in spring flushing. We assess the level of additive genetic variation present within the local population. For all six species, we find significant differentiation among populations from sites with mean annual temperature ranging between 7.4°C and 8.4°C. The observed variation can only be partly explained by the climate at the site of origin. Most clear relationship between early flushing and higher average spring temperature is observed for the three wind-pollinated species in the study, while the relations are much less clear for the three insect-pollinated species. This supports that pollination system can influence the balance between genetic drift and natural selection and thereby influence the level of local adaptation in long-lived species. On the positive side, we find that the native populations of woody plant species have maintained high levels of additive genetic variation in spring phenology, although this also differs substantially among the six studied species. Our results on quantitative genetic analysis in common garden trials of native woody perennials show high genetic differentiation in spring phenology within and among closely located populations. This suggests that woody species have the inherent capacity to locally adapt at a very fine scale.
    Electronic ISSN: 2045-7758
    Topics: Biology
    Published by Wiley-Blackwell
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  • 81
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    Wiley-Blackwell
    Publication Date: 2018-01-26
    Description: The southern blue-ringed octopus, Hapalochlaena maculosa (Hoyle, 1883) lacks a planktonic dispersal phase, yet ranges across Australia's southern coastline. This species’ brief and holobenthic life history suggests gene flow might be limited, leaving distant populations prone to strong genetic divergence. This study used 17,523 genome-wide SNP loci to investigate genetic structuring and local adaptation patterns of H. maculosa among eight sampling sites along its reported range. Within sites, interrelatedness was very high, consistent with the limited dispersal of this taxon. However, inbreeding coefficients were proportionally lower among sites where substructuring was not detected, suggesting H. maculosa might possess a mechanism for inbreeding avoidance. Genetic divergence was extremely high among all sites, with the greatest divergence observed between both ends of the distribution, Fremantle, WA, and Stanley, TAS. Genetic distances closely followed an isolation by geographic distance pattern. Outlier analyses revealed distinct selection signatures at all sites, with the strongest divergence reported between Fremantle and the other Western Australian sites. Phylogenetic reconstructions using the described sister taxon H. fasciata (Hoyle, 1886) further supported that the genetic divergence between distal H. maculosa sites in this study was equivalent to that of between established heterospecifics within this genus. However, it is advocated that taxonomic delineations within this species should be made with caution. These data indicate that H. maculosa forms a clinal species pattern across its geographic range, with gene flow present through allele sharing between adjacent populations. Morphological investigations are recommended for a robust resolution of the taxonomic identity and ecotype boundaries of this species. The southern blue-ringed octopus, Hapalochlaena macula has a brief, holobenthic life history yet ranges across heterogenous habitats along Australia's southern coastline. We used 17,523 genome-wide SNP loci to investigate genetic structuring and local adaptation patterns of this species among eight sampling sites along its reported distribution. Findings indicated that limited gene flow and variation in selective pressures lead a clinal species pattern in H. maculosa , with genetic divergence between distal populations being consistent to that of heterospecifics of the same genus.
    Electronic ISSN: 2045-7758
    Topics: Biology