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  • Engineering General  (9,884)
  • 1
    Electronic Resource
    Chichester : Wiley-Blackwell
    ISSN: 1069-8299
    Keywords: generalized Helmholtz equation ; shape sensitivity analysis ; shape optimization ; boundary element method ; Engineering ; Engineering General
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Mathematics , Technology
    Notes: The present paper deals with the shape design optimization of bodies subjected to a non-homogeneous Helmholtz equation. Using the adjoint variable method the material derivative of a general integral functional is obtained analytically. Boundary integral equations defined only on the boundary are derived using auxiliary fundamental solutions to be used in the boundary element method. Some constrained shape design optimization problems are solved by the proposed numerical procedure.
    Additional Material: 5 Ill.
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  • 2
    Electronic Resource
    Chichester : Wiley-Blackwell
    ISSN: 1069-8299
    Keywords: response reanalysis ; structural modifications ; matrix partitioning ; Sherman-Morrison formula ; Engineering ; Engineering General
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Mathematics , Technology
    Notes: The paper lays out an exact method, using the receptance strategy, to calculate the frequency response of a modified structure. A direct inversion of the modified impedance matrix is proposed, which reduces the computation time for successive calculations of an evolving design of the structure.
    Additional Material: 4 Ill.
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  • 3
    Electronic Resource
    Chichester : Wiley-Blackwell
    ISSN: 1069-8299
    Keywords: finite elements ; infinite elements ; mapping functions ; unbounded domains ; Engineering ; Engineering General
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Mathematics , Technology
    Notes: A few of the published three-dimensional Serendipity infinite element mapping functions have been discovered to be in error. The paper gives corrected versions of the defective mapping functions. The problems only relate to three-dimensional elements of the Serendipity type, when they extend to infinity in two or more directions. The new version of the mapping functions have been tested and appear to be robust.
    Additional Material: 3 Tab.
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  • 4
    Electronic Resource
    Chichester : Wiley-Blackwell
    ISSN: 1069-8299
    Keywords: homogenization ; boundary conditions ; periodicity ; finite element ; Engineering ; Engineering General
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Mathematics , Technology
    Notes: The numerical solution of homogenization equations by the finite element (FE) method is explained briefly. The issue of extracting boundary conditions from the periodicity assumption is addressed and a direct method utilizing symmetry is presented. Using this method, the computation of the elements of the constitutive matrix of a composite material is reduced to a very conventional boundary value problem with known forces and boundary conditions which can be carried out with any FE code. Two examples are presented.
    Additional Material: 15 Ill.
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  • 5
    Electronic Resource
    Chichester : Wiley-Blackwell
    ISSN: 1069-8299
    Keywords: obstacle problems ; quadratic programming ; finite element ; Engineering ; Engineering General
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Mathematics , Technology
    Notes: The numerical solution of problems involving frictionless contact between an elastic body and a rigid obstacle is considered. The elastic body may undergo small or large deformation. Finite element discretization and repetitive linearization lead to a sequence of quadratic programming (QP) problems for incremental displacement. The performances of several QP algorithms, including two new versions of a modified steepest descent algorithm, are compared in this context. Numerical examples include a string, a membrane and an Euler-Bernoulli beam, in contact with flat and non-flat rigid obstacles.
    Additional Material: 2 Ill.
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  • 6
    Electronic Resource
    Chichester : Wiley-Blackwell
    ISSN: 1069-8299
    Keywords: Engineering ; Engineering General
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Mathematics , Technology
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 7
    Electronic Resource
    Chichester : Wiley-Blackwell
    ISSN: 1069-8299
    Keywords: Engineering ; Engineering General
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Mathematics , Technology
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 8
    Electronic Resource
    Chichester : Wiley-Blackwell
    ISSN: 1069-8299
    Keywords: Engineering ; Engineering General
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Mathematics , Technology
    Notes: The authors study the shape optimization of a complex cracked shell under complex criteria. The shell is one of various cases of a turboshaft, and optimization criteria are associated to the cost, the technology, and above all the working conditions for the turboshaft. The optimization criteria involved are of course the weight of the structure, but also the plastic instability and critical stress intensity factor. All computations have been made with the Ansys finite element program in which an optimization module exists.
    Additional Material: 5 Ill.
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  • 9
    Electronic Resource
    Chichester : Wiley-Blackwell
    ISSN: 1069-8299
    Keywords: mesh generation ; adaptivity ; iterated fractal systems ; Engineering ; Engineering General
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Mathematics , Technology
    Notes: In the paper the author presents a novel point of view for the refinement and derefinement algorithms of triangular nested meshes using fractal concepts and iterated function systems (IFS). The fractal behaviour can be understood in the sense that these meshes feature a remarkable amplifying invariance under changes of magnification. Here we compare the meshes obtained by the combination of these algorithms with those presented by Bova and Carey (1992). Although both of the meshes are very similar, the current algorithms automatically build and manage sequences of nested irregular discretizations of the domain. The author illustrates here how the application of IFS families is equivalent to the use of an adaptive strategy that combines the refinement procedure with the derefinement one.
    Additional Material: 4 Ill.
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  • 10
    Electronic Resource
    Chichester : Wiley-Blackwell
    ISSN: 1069-8299
    Keywords: Engineering ; Engineering General
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Mathematics , Technology
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  • 11
    Electronic Resource
    Chichester : Wiley-Blackwell
    ISSN: 1069-8299
    Keywords: solid-shell structure ; 3D solid element ; degenerated shell element ; DOF expanding ; multipoint constraint equations ; Engineering ; Engineering General
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Mathematics , Technology
    Notes: The paper presents a degree of freedom expanding method for dealing with the connections of 3D isoparametric solid elements and the degenerated shell elements. By introducing two degrees of freedom to describe the elongation in the normal direction of the shell node linked with solid elements, a series of multipoint constraint equations which provide proper connections of solid and shell nodes are raised. The method gives a complete solution to the problem of connection between 3D isoparametric solid elements and degenerated shell elements even for the thermal elasto-plastic problem. It can adapt to complex junctions and simplify programming. Numerical examples are also presented to demonstrate the accuracy and feasibility in thermal elasto-plastic analysis.
    Additional Material: 6 Ill.
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  • 12
    Electronic Resource
    Chichester : Wiley-Blackwell
    ISSN: 1069-8299
    Keywords: mesh generation ; Delaunay mesh ; Watsens method ; Engineering ; Engineering General
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Mathematics , Technology
    Notes: Automated mesh generation using a combined octree/Delaunay approach typically requires that rectangular elements be bounded by other rectangular elements which are not more that one division smaller (i.e. 1/8 the volume in 3D). This limitation is sometimes referred to as the 2 : 1 rule. This paper presents a modification which allows for any level of difference.
    Additional Material: 6 Ill.
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  • 13
    Electronic Resource
    Chichester : Wiley-Blackwell
    ISSN: 1069-8299
    Keywords: anisotropy ; finite elements ; layers ; Engineering ; Engineering General
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Mathematics , Technology
    Notes: A modification of the usual quadrangle (2D) and brick (3D) finite element for field problems is proposed. It allows the principal directions of the conductivity tensor (anisotropy directions) to be derived from the geometrical shape of the finite element and to change within it. An internal layering is assumed which is parallel to the boundary at two opposite faces (top and bottom) of the element. Without an explicit computation of angles the anisotropy directions are parallel and perpendicular to this layering. An application is the modelling of pore fluid flow in sedimentary basins.
    Additional Material: 4 Ill.
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  • 14
    Electronic Resource
    Chichester : Wiley-Blackwell
    ISSN: 1069-8299
    Keywords: Engineering ; Engineering General
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Mathematics , Technology
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 15
    Electronic Resource
    Chichester : Wiley-Blackwell
    ISSN: 1069-8299
    Keywords: Engineering ; Engineering General
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Mathematics , Technology
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  • 16
    Electronic Resource
    Chichester : Wiley-Blackwell
    ISSN: 1069-8299
    Keywords: vibration ; inverse eigenvalue problem ; modal analysis ; Engineering ; Engineering General
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Mathematics , Technology
    Notes: A method for determining mass and stiffness modifications to achieve desired natural frequencies is presented. The given data are modal testing results, which consist of a truncated set of natural frequencies and mode shapes. The difficulty arising from the incompleteness of data is overcome by solving an optimization problem rather than seeking an exact solution. The obtained modifications are optimal in a Rayleigh-Ritz sense. The case where the mass and stiffness matrices are interrelated is also considered. Numerical examples demonstrating the various results and the sensitivity of the problem to perturbations are presented.
    Additional Material: 1 Tab.
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  • 17
    Electronic Resource
    Chichester : Wiley-Blackwell
    ISSN: 1069-8299
    Keywords: continuous casting ; free boundary problem ; co-ordinate transformation ; solidification front ; non-orthogonal control volume ; temperature profile ; Engineering ; Engineering General
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Mathematics , Technology
    Notes: An efficient computational simulation scheme based on non-orthogonal control volume discretization and co-ordinate transformation techniques has been developed for solving the thermal transport phenomena, which involves tracking of the interface between solid and liquid phases (solidification front) and evaluation of the temperature profile during continuous casting operation. Conservation equations are reformulated in differential-integral form in terms of the transformed co-ordinates. All the terms arising from the non-orthogonality of the control volume have been retained in the numerical solution methodology, and a front tracking procedure has been formulated based on an iterative solution scheme. The formulation has been applied to solve the thermal transport phenomena in solidification processing of an A1-Mg alloy cylindrical ingot during continuous casting, which also includes axial conduction of heat. Theoretical evaluation of the solidification front and temperature distribution in the ingot are in good agreement with the experimentally measured data.
    Additional Material: 8 Ill.
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  • 18
    Electronic Resource
    Chichester : Wiley-Blackwell
    ISSN: 1069-8299
    Keywords: Engineering ; Engineering General
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Mathematics , Technology
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  • 19
    Electronic Resource
    Chichester : Wiley-Blackwell
    ISSN: 1069-8299
    Keywords: beam ; vibration ; trial functions ; Ritz method ; Engineering ; Engineering General
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Mathematics , Technology
    Notes: Free vibration of beams with intermediate point supports is studied by the classical Ritz method within the context of Euler beam theory. For the Ritz method, the displacement of a beam is approximated by a set of admissible trial functions which must satisfy the kinematic conditions at the ends and intermediate supports of the beam. To this end, a polynomial is superimposed on the conventional single-span beam vibration functions to form continuous-span or modified beam vibration functions. These modified beam functions are taken as the admissible trial functions for subsequent formulation. Stiffness and mass matrices are formulated using the conventional procedure and the resulting linear eigen-equation can be solved easily. A number of numerical examples are given to demonstrate the accuracy and efficiency of the present method.
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  • 20
    Electronic Resource
    Chichester : Wiley-Blackwell
    ISSN: 1069-8299
    Keywords: Engineering ; Engineering General
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Mathematics , Technology
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  • 21
    Electronic Resource
    Chichester : Wiley-Blackwell
    ISSN: 1069-8299
    Keywords: Engineering ; Engineering General
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Mathematics , Technology
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  • 22
    Electronic Resource
    Chichester : Wiley-Blackwell
    ISSN: 1069-8299
    Keywords: higher-order beam element ; best-fit stress prediction ; a priori error analysis ; Engineering ; Engineering General
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Mathematics , Technology
    Notes: It is known that finite elements try to capture stresses within each discretized local region in a ‘best-fit’ sense. In the paper we examine the performance of a beam element based on a higher-order shear deformation theory and show that the best-fit paradigm accounts for the manner in which through-the-thickness displacement and stresses are modelled. An a priori prediction derived from the paradigm is confirmed by a carefully chosen numerical experiment. This provides a measure of the quality of approximation as well as another ‘falsification’ of the best-fit paradigm.
    Additional Material: 1 Ill.
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  • 23
    Electronic Resource
    Chichester : Wiley-Blackwell
    ISSN: 1069-8299
    Keywords: finite element method ; mesh refinement ; adaptivity ; singularities near edges ; Engineering ; Engineering General
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Mathematics , Technology
    Notes: This paper is concerned with several refinement techniques of finite element meshes for treating elliptic boundary value problems in domains with re-entrant edges and corners. A priori mesh grading is explained, and it is combined with the well-known adaptive finite element method. For two representative examples the numerically determined error norms are recorded, and the different strategies are compared.
    Additional Material: 7 Ill.
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  • 24
    Electronic Resource
    Chichester : Wiley-Blackwell
    ISSN: 1069-8299
    Keywords: two-phase flow ; solute transport ; interphase exchange ; porous media ; finite element ; Engineering ; Engineering General
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Mathematics , Technology
    Notes: The development of a numerical method for modelling two-phase flows and solute transport, particularly with interphase exchange in porous media, is presented. The governing equations are derived to describe two immiscible and compressible fluids flows such as water-air and two-phase solute transport with interphase exchange. Technically, the standard finite element method and a strongly implicit procedure are employed to solve the fully coupled governing equations. Pressures of two-phase fluids and solute concentrations in two-phase fluids are taken as the primary unknown variables, and the discretized equations are solved by a direct type of solver. Application examples are shown to confirm the applicability of the numerical method.
    Additional Material: 9 Ill.
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  • 25
    Electronic Resource
    Chichester : Wiley-Blackwell
    ISSN: 1069-8299
    Keywords: Engineering ; Engineering General
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Mathematics , Technology
    Notes: Three different solution methods for the finite-volume discretized incompressible Navier-Stokes equations have been tested: segregated approaches, built around coupling methods such as SIMPLE, SIMPLER and PISO plus a line Gauss-Seidel linear solver; coupled methods, incorporating a penalty formulation to eliminate zero diagonal elements in the coefficient matrices, plus preconditioned GMRES as a linear solver;- and a FAS-full multigrid algorithm accelerating a classical segregated method based upon SIMPLE and the line Gauss-Seidel solver. Results demonstrate that the coupled method compares favourably to the segregated technique at small grid sizes but becomes too expensive for large problems. The FAS-full multigrid algorithm outperforms the other two methods when large numbers of nodes are employed in the simulation.
    Additional Material: 10 Ill.
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  • 26
    Electronic Resource
    Chichester : Wiley-Blackwell
    ISSN: 1069-8299
    Keywords: numerical analysis ; fast direct method ; elliptic problems ; finite difference methods ; eigenvalue problems ; harmonic ; biharmonic ; Engineering ; Engineering General
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Mathematics , Technology
    Notes: A high accuracy finite difference scheme has been developed for solving some elliptic problems which appear in engineering and applied sciences. These include Laplace, Poisson, Helmholtz and related equations. The second- and fourth-order problems dealing with vibration of membranes and plates have also been examined. Numerically, the problem reduces to a block tridiagonal system which can be solved by suitably modifying the fast direct method developed by Hockney. Comparison has been made with results obtained from some alternative numerical methods or analytical methods whenever available
    Additional Material: 3 Ill.
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  • 27
    Electronic Resource
    Chichester : Wiley-Blackwell
    ISSN: 1069-8299
    Keywords: viscoelastic flows ; sphere ; annular flow ; adaptive meshing ; finite elements ; error analysis ; Engineering ; Engineering General
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Mathematics , Technology
    Notes: This work describes the implementation of an adaptive procedure for viscoelastic flows. Finite element simulations are conducted using a Taylor-Galerkin/pressure correction scheme. The constitutive equations considered are those for an Oldroyd-B and a Phan-Thien/Tanner model. The adaptive meshing technique is h-refined by grid remeshing, based on a Delaunay procedure. Results are presented for two benchmark problems, namely flow past a sphere in a cylindrical tube and flow in an annular converging tube. It is concluded from the results that the use of an adaptive procedure with mesh regeneration enables an optimized mesh to be devised and a predicted accuracy to be attained.
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  • 28
    Electronic Resource
    Chichester : Wiley-Blackwell
    ISSN: 1069-8299
    Keywords: temperature field ; heat source ; IBEM ; Engineering ; Engineering General
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Mathematics , Technology
    Notes: The fundamental solution of the temperature field in an infinite three-dimensional body under the periodic unit thermal source is given in the present paper. According to the indirect boundary element method (IBEM) with fictitious heat sources, the problem of 3-D periodic heat conduction in a finite body is solved. By use of a quadratic inharmonic element, the problem of the corner region and the indetermination of the normal direction at boundary points can be solved in the numerical process. The validity of the present method is checked with two examples of which analytical solutions exist. It offers a useful method for the actual simulated calculation of the 3-D temperature field in engineering.
    Additional Material: 7 Ill.
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  • 29
    Electronic Resource
    Chichester : Wiley-Blackwell
    ISSN: 1069-8299
    Keywords: stress-strain relationship ; monotonic loading ; failure stress ; failure strain ; initial modulus ; Engineering ; Engineering General
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Mathematics , Technology
    Notes: A function containing four parameters allowing close approximation of experimental stress-strain relationships is presented. The parameters are easily determined from corresponding conditions at the ends and inside of the total interval of the strain variation from zero stain up to failure stain. The family of curves obtained covers an area on the stress-strain plane where any acceptable stress-strain curve can pass. The softening behaviour of soils can also be taken into consideration.
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  • 30
    Electronic Resource
    Chichester : Wiley-Blackwell
    ISSN: 1069-8299
    Keywords: superconvergence ; isoparametric bilinear finite elements ; Engineering ; Engineering General
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Mathematics , Technology
    Notes: In this paper the superconvergence property of isoparametric bilinear finite elements is considered. A new superconvergence recovery method for isoparametric bilinear finite elements is discovered on the four vertices and the four midpoints of the edges of the elements for piecewise strongly regular quadrilateral subdivisions.
    Additional Material: 4 Ill.
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  • 31
    Electronic Resource
    Chichester : Wiley-Blackwell
    ISSN: 1069-8299
    Keywords: interfaces ; sliding ; contact ; impact ; Engineering ; Engineering General
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Mathematics , Technology
    Notes: This paper presents an automatic sliding interface algorithm for intense impulsive loading computations due to high velocity impact and explosive detonation. This algorithm allows the user to perform computations involving complex sliding interfaces without having to predetermine the sliding interfaces; everything is automated. The interface determination algorithm, the searching algorithm and the contact algorithm are included.
    Additional Material: 7 Ill.
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  • 32
    Electronic Resource
    Chichester : Wiley-Blackwell
    ISSN: 1069-8299
    Keywords: Engineering ; Engineering General
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Mathematics , Technology
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  • 33
    Electronic Resource
    New York, NY [u.a.] : Wiley-Blackwell
    ISSN: 1070-5325
    Keywords: preconditioning saddle-point problems ; eigenvalue estimation ; mixed finite element method ; minimum residual method ; second-order elliptic problems ; Engineering ; Engineering General
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Mathematics
    Notes: We consider saddle-point problems that typically arise from the mixed finite element discretization of second-order elliptic problems. By proper equivalent algebraic operations the considered saddle-point problem is transformed to another saddle-point problem. The resulting problem can then be efficiently preconditioned by a block-diagonal matrix or by a factored block-matrix (the blocks correspond to the velocity and pressure, respectively). Both preconditioners have a block on the main diagonal that corresponds to the bilinear form(δ is a positive parameter) and a second block that is equal to a constant times the identity operator. We derive uniform bounds for the negative and positive eigenvalues of the preconditioned operator. Then any known preconditioner for the above bilinear form can be applied. We also show some numerical experiments that illustrate the convergence properties of the proposed technique.
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  • 34
    Electronic Resource
    New York, NY [u.a.] : Wiley-Blackwell
    ISSN: 1070-5325
    Keywords: first-order PDEs ; iterative methods ; preconditioners ; Toeplitz ; Engineering ; Engineering General
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Mathematics
    Notes: Preconditioners to nonsymmetric, nondiagonally dominant systems of equations are constructed and examined numerically. The preconditioners are based on a Toeplitz approach with a certain symmetry that we define. The inversion of the preconditioners is defined through a Fast Modified Sine Transform. As a model problem we study the systems of equations arising from a implicit time-discretization with a large time-step of a scalar hyperbolic PDE.
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  • 35
    Electronic Resource
    New York, NY [u.a.] : Wiley-Blackwell
    ISSN: 1070-5325
    Keywords: Toeplitz least squares problems ; circulant preconditioned conjugate gradient method ; deconvolution ; image restoration ; atmospheric imaging ; medical imaging ; Engineering ; Engineering General
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Mathematics
    Notes: In this paper, we propose a method to generalize Strang's circulant preconditioner for arbitrary n-by-n matrices An. The th column of our circulant preconditioner Sn is equal to the th column of the given matrix An. Thus if An is a square Toeplitz matrix, then Sn is just the Strang circulant preconditioner. When Sn is not Hermitian, our circulant preconditioner can be defined as . This construction is similar to the forward-backward projection method used in constructing preconditioners for tomographic inversion problems in medical imaging. We show that if the matrix An has decaying coefficients away from the main diagonal, then is a good preconditioner for An. Comparisons of our preconditioner with other circulant-based preconditioners are carried out for some 1-D Toeplitz least squares problems: min ∥ b - Ax∥2. Preliminary numerical results show that our preconditioner performs quite well, in comparison to other circulant preconditioners. Promising test results are also reported for a 2-D deconvolution problem arising in ground-based atmospheric imaging.
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  • 36
    Electronic Resource
    New York, NY [u.a.] : Wiley-Blackwell
    ISSN: 1070-5325
    Keywords: boundary value problem ; boundary element method ; preconditioning ; iterative method ; fast Fourier transform ; parallel algorithm ; Engineering ; Engineering General
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Mathematics
    Notes: The parallel version of precondition iterative techniques is developed for matrices arising from the panel boundary element method for three-dimensional simple connected domains with Dirichlet boundary conditions. Results were obtained on an nCube-2 parallel computer showing that preconditioned iterative methods are very well suited also in three-dimensional cases for implementation on an MIMD computer and that they are much more efficient than usual direct solution techniques.
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  • 37
    Electronic Resource
    New York, NY [u.a.] : Wiley-Blackwell
    ISSN: 1070-5325
    Keywords: Engineering ; Engineering General
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Mathematics
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  • 38
    Electronic Resource
    New York, NY [u.a.] : Wiley-Blackwell
    ISSN: 1070-5325
    Keywords: Engineering ; Engineering General
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Mathematics
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  • 39
    Electronic Resource
    New York, NY [u.a.] : Wiley-Blackwell
    ISSN: 1070-5325
    Keywords: boundary integral operators ; domain decomposition ; interface operators ; fast elliptic problem solvers ; parallel algorithms ; preconditioning ; Engineering ; Engineering General
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Mathematics
    Notes: In this paper a method for fast computations with the inverse to weakly singular, hypersingular and double layer potential boundary integral operators associated with the Laplacian on Lipschitz domains is proposed and analyzed. It is based on the representation formulae suggested for above-mentioned boundary operations in terms of the Poincare-Steklov interface mappings generated by the special decompositions of the interior and exterior domains. Computations with the discrete counterparts of these formulae can be efficiently performed by iterative substructuring algorithms provided some asymptotically optimal techniques for treatment of interface operators on subdomain boundaries. For both two- and three-dimensional cases the computation cost and memory needs are of the order O(N logp N) and O(N log2 N), respectively, with 1 ≤ p ≤ 3, where N is the number of degrees of freedom on the boundary under consideration (some kinds of polygons and polyhedra). The proposed algorithms are well suited for serial and parallel computations.
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  • 40
    Electronic Resource
    New York, NY [u.a.] : Wiley-Blackwell
    ISSN: 1070-5325
    Keywords: iterative methods ; linear systems ; multisplittings ; overlap ; parallel algorithms ; Engineering ; Engineering General
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Mathematics
    Notes: Parallel two-stage multisplitting methods with overlap for the solution of linear systems of algebraic equations are studied. It is shown that, under certain hypotheses, the method with overlap is asymptotically faster than that without overlap. Experiments illustrating this phenomenon are presented.
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  • 41
    Electronic Resource
    New York, NY [u.a.] : Wiley-Blackwell
    ISSN: 1070-5325
    Keywords: diagonally dominant matrix ; determinant ; norm ; Engineering ; Engineering General
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Mathematics
    Notes: A property of strictly diagonally dominant matrices and a generalization of a Varga's bound for ∥ A-1∥∞ to the case ∥ A-1B∥∞ are given and the two-sided bounds for the determinants of strictly diagonally dominant matrices are derived
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  • 42
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    New York, NY [u.a.] : Wiley-Blackwell
    ISSN: 1070-5325
    Keywords: orthogonalization ; QR factorization ; polar decomposition ; subspace tracking ; error analysis ; Engineering ; Engineering General
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Mathematics
    Notes: We consider the problem of computing Uk = QkUk-1(where U0 is given) in finite precision (εM = machine precision) where U0 and theQi are known to be unitary. The problem is that Ûk, the computed product may not be unitary, so one applies an O(n2) orthogonalizing step after each multiplication to(a) prevent Ûk from drifing too far from the set of untary matrices(b) prevent Ûk from drifting too far from Uk the true product.Our main results are1. Scaling the rows to have unit length after each multiplication (the cheaptest of the algorithms considered) is usually as good as any other method with respect to either of the criteria (a) or (b).2. A new orthogonalization algorithm that guarantees the distance of Ûk (k = 1, 2, …) to the set of unitary matrices is bounded by n3.5εM for any choice of Qi.
    Additional Material: 4 Ill.
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  • 43
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    New York, NY [u.a.] : Wiley-Blackwell
    ISSN: 1070-5325
    Keywords: Engineering ; Engineering General
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Mathematics
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  • 44
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    New York, NY [u.a.] : Wiley-Blackwell
    ISSN: 1070-5325
    Keywords: smoothing property ; multigrid method ; semi-iterative smoother ; Engineering ; Engineering General
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Mathematics
    Notes: In this paper we present an extension of Reusken's Lemma about the smoothing property of a multigrid method for solving non-symmetric linear systems of equations. One of the consequences of this extended lemma is the verification of the smoothing property for all damping factors οε(0, 1). Additionally, a semi-iterative smoother is constructed which gives, in some sense, optimal smoothing rate estimates.
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  • 45
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    New York, NY [u.a.] : Wiley-Blackwell
    ISSN: 1070-5325
    Keywords: elasticity ; finite-element ; multilevel ; a posteriori error estimation ; Engineering ; Engineering General
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Mathematics
    Notes: The constant γ in the strengthened Cauchy-Buniakowski-Schwarz (C.B.S.) inequality plays a crucial role in the convergence rate of multilevel iterative methods as well as in the efficiency of a posteriori error estimators, that is in the framework of finite element approximations of SPD problems.We consider the approximation of the 2D elasticity problem by the Courant element. Concerning multilevel convergence rate, that is the γ corresponding to nested general triangular meshes of size h and 2h, we have proved that γ2≤ 3/4$ uniformly on the mesh and the Poisson ratio. Concerning error estimator, that is the γ corresponding to quadratic and linear approximations on the same mesh, numerical computations have shown that the exact γ for a reference element deteriorates that is goes to one, when the Poisson ratio tends to 1/2
    Additional Material: 1 Ill.
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  • 46
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    New York, NY [u.a.] : Wiley-Blackwell
    ISSN: 1070-5325
    Keywords: Engineering ; Engineering General
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Mathematics
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  • 47
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    New York, NY [u.a.] : Wiley-Blackwell
    ISSN: 1070-5325
    Keywords: orthotropic partial differential equation ; preconditioned conjugate gradient method ; parallel algorithm ; Engineering ; Engineering General
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Mathematics
    Notes: Finite element meshes and node-numberings suitable for parallel solution with equally loaded processors are presented for linear orthotropic elliptic partial differential equations. These problems are of great importance, for instance in the oil and airfoil industries. The linear systems of equations are solved by the conjugate gradient method preconditioned by modified incomplete factorization, MIC. The basic method presented, is based on fronts of uncoupled nodes and unlike earlier methods it has the advantage of no requirement of a specific orientation of the mesh. This method is however, in general, restricted to small degree of anisotropy in the differential equation. Another method, which does not suffer from this limitation, uses rotation of the differential equation and spectral equivalence. The rotation is made in such a way that in the new co-ordinate system, the basic method is applicable. The spectral equivalence property is used for estimation of the condition number of the preconditioned system. Both methods are suitable for implementation on parallel computers. The computer architecture could be single instruction multiple data (SIMD) as well as multiple instruction multiple data (MIMD) with shared or distributed memory. Implementation of the basic method on a shared memory parallel computer shows a significant improvement by use of the MIC method compared with the diagonal scaling preconditioning method.
    Additional Material: 13 Ill.
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  • 48
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    New York, NY [u.a.] : Wiley-Blackwell
    ISSN: 1070-5325
    Keywords: elliptic equations ; multilevel methods ; finite element ; Engineering ; Engineering General
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Mathematics
    Notes: New uniform estimates for multigrid algorithms are established for certain non-symmetric indefinite problems. In particular, we are concerned with the simple additive algorithm and multigrid (V(1,0)-cycle) algorithms given in [5]. We prove, without full elliptic regularity assumption, that these algorithms have uniform reduction per iteration, independent of the finest mesh size and number of refinement levels, provided that the coarsest mesh size is sufficiently small.
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  • 49
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    New York, NY [u.a.] : Wiley-Blackwell
    ISSN: 1070-5325
    Keywords: sparse matrix ; iterative methods ; preconditioning ; graph partitioning ; domain decomposition ; Engineering ; Engineering General
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Mathematics
    Notes: Domain decomposition methods for finite element problems using a partition based on the underlying finite element mesh have been extensively studied. In this paper, we discuss algebraic extensions of the class of overlapping domain decomposition algorithms for general sparse matrices. The subproblems are created with an overlapping partition of the graph corresponding to the sparsity structure of the matrix. These algebraic domain decomposition methods are especially useful for unstructured mesh problems. We also discuss some difficulties encountered in the algebraic extension, particularly the issues related to the coarse solver.
    Additional Material: 4 Ill.
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  • 50
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    New York, NY [u.a.] : Wiley-Blackwell
    ISSN: 1070-5325
    Keywords: non-linear equations ; global convergence ; Lagrangians ; non-linear programming ; Lagrangian globalization ; detour potentials ; homotopy methods ; Engineering ; Engineering General
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Mathematics
    Notes: The Lagrangian globalization (LG) method for non-linear equation-solving proposed in [10] is developed through theoretical analysis, the formulation of a particular LG algorithm, and a numerical illustration. New merit functions (termed detour potentials) for non-linear equation-solving, which broaden the LG concept, are also defined.
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  • 51
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    New York, NY [u.a.] : Wiley-Blackwell
    ISSN: 1070-5325
    Keywords: Engineering ; Engineering General
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Mathematics
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  • 52
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    New York, NY [u.a.] : Wiley-Blackwell
    ISSN: 1070-5325
    Keywords: Engineering ; Engineering General
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Mathematics
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  • 53
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    New York, NY [u.a.] : Wiley-Blackwell
    ISSN: 1070-5325
    Keywords: information ; latent semantic indexing ; low-rank ; orthogonal ; matrices ; metrieval ; singular value decomposition ; sparse ; ULV and URV decompositions ; updating ; Engineering ; Engineering General
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Mathematics
    Notes: Current methods to index and retrieve documents from databases usually depend on a lexical match between query terms and keywords extracted from documents in a database. These methods can produce incomplete or irrelevant results due to the use of synonyms and polysemus words. The association of terms with documents (or implicit semantic structure) can be derived using large sparse {\it term-by-document} matrices. In fact, both terms and documents can be matched with user queries using representations in k-space (where 100 ≤ k ≤ 200) derived from k of the largest approximate singular vectors of these term-by-document matrices. This completely automated approach called latent semantic indexing or LSI, uses subspaces spanned by the approximate singular vectors to encode important associative relationships between terms and documents in k-space. Using LSI, two or more documents may be closeto each other in k-space (and hence meaning) yet share no common terms. The focus of this work is to demonstrate the computational advantages of exploiting low-rank orthogonal decompositions such as the ULV (or URV) as opposed to the truncated singular value decomposition (SVD) for the construction of initial and updated rank-k subspaces arising from LSI applications.
    Additional Material: 11 Ill.
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  • 54
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    New York, NY [u.a.] : Wiley-Blackwell
    ISSN: 1070-5325
    Keywords: iterative methods ; GMRES ; Krylov methods ; incomplete orthogonalization ; quasi-minimization ; Engineering ; Engineering General
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Mathematics
    Notes: We describe a Krylov subspace technique, based on incomplete orthogonalization of the Krylov vectors, which can be considered as a truncated version of GMRES. Unlike GMRES(m), the restarted version of GMRES, the new method does not require restarting. Like GMRES, it does not break down. Numerical experiments show that DQGMRES(k) often performs as well as the restarted GMRES using a subspace of dimension m=2k. In addition, the algorithm is flexible to variable preconditioning, i.e., it can accommodate variations in the preconditioner at every step. In particular, this feature allows the use of any iterative solver as a right-preconditioner for DQGMRES(k). This inner-outer iterative combination often results in a robust approach for solving indefinite non-Hermitian linear systems.
    Additional Material: 9 Tab.
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  • 55
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    New York, NY [u.a.] : Wiley-Blackwell
    ISSN: 1070-5325
    Keywords: conjugate gradient method ; preconditioning ; two-level method ; Engineering ; Engineering General
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Mathematics
    Notes: The presented paper contains a suggestion and an analysis of a two-level preconditioner appropriate for unstructured meshes. The convergence analysis is done for H1-equivalent forms in the two-dimensional case; ways for generalization are discussed, too. The efficiency is demonstrated by numerical experiments.
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  • 56
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    New York, NY [u.a.] : Wiley-Blackwell
    ISSN: 1070-5325
    Keywords: Engineering ; Engineering General
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Mathematics
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  • 57
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    New York, NY [u.a.] : Wiley-Blackwell
    ISSN: 1070-5325
    Keywords: sparse QR factorization ; multifrontal method ; parallelism ; Engineering ; Engineering General
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Mathematics
    Notes: We describe the design and implementation of a parallel QR decomposition algorithm for a large sparse matrix A. The algorithm is based on the multifrontal approach and makes use of Householder transformations. The tasks are distributed among processors according to an assembly tree which is built from the symbolic factorization of the matrix ATA.We first address uniprocessor issues and then discuss the multiprocessor implementation of the method. We consider the parallelization of both the factorization phase and the solve phase. We use relaxation of the sparsity structure of both the original matrix and the frontal matrices to improve the performance. We show that, in this case, the use of Level 3 BLAS can lead to very significant gains in performance. We use the eight processor Alliant˜FX/80 at CERFACS to illustrate our discussion.
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  • 58
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    New York, NY [u.a.] : Wiley-Blackwell
    ISSN: 1070-5325
    Keywords: Engineering ; Engineering General
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Mathematics
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  • 59
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    New York, NY [u.a.] : Wiley-Blackwell
    ISSN: 1070-5325
    Keywords: multilevel preconditioning ; Krylov subspace methods ; GMRES, nonsymmetric elliptic problems ; Engineering ; Engineering General
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Mathematics
    Notes: The subject of this paper is to study the performance of multilevel preconditioning for nonsymmetric elliptic boundary value problems. In particular, a minimal residual method with respect to an appropriately scaled norm, measuring the size of the residual projections on all levels, is studied. This norm, induced by the multilevel splitting, is also the basis for a proper stopping criterion. Our analysis shows that the convergence rate of this minimal residual method using the multilevel preconditioner by Bramble, pasciak and Xu is bounded independently of the mesh-size. However, the convergence rate deteriorates with increasing size of the skew-symmetric part. Our numerical results show that by incorporating this into a multilevel cycle starting on the coarsest level, one can save fine-level-iterations and, therefore, computational work.
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  • 60
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    New York, NY [u.a.] : Wiley-Blackwell
    ISSN: 1070-5325
    Keywords: multigrid ; incomplete Gaussian elimination ; Engineering ; Engineering General
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Mathematics
    Notes: In this paper we introduce and analyse a new Schur complement approximation based on incomplete Gaussian elimination. The approximate Schur complement is used to develop a multigrid method. This multigrid method has an algorithmic structure that is very similar to the algorithmic structure of classical multigrid methods. The resulting method is almost purely algebraic and has interesting properties with respect to variation in problem parameters.
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  • 61
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    New York, NY [u.a.] : Wiley-Blackwell
    ISSN: 1070-5325
    Keywords: finite difference discretization ; fast adaptive composite grid method ; convergence rate ; Engineering ; Engineering General
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Mathematics
    Notes: The fast adaptive composite grid (FAC) method is an iterative method for solving discrete boundary value problems on composite grids. McCormick introduced the method in [8] and considered the convergence behaviour for discrete problems resulting from finite volume element discretization on composite grids. In this paper we consider discrete problems resulting from finite difference discretization on composite grids. We distinguish between two obvious discretization approaches at the grid points on the interfaces between fine and coarse subgrids. The FAC method for solving such discrete problems is described. In the FAC method several intergrid transfer operators appear. We study how the convergence behaviour depends on these intergrid transfer operators. Based on theoretical insights, (quasi-)optimal intergrid transfer operators are derived. Numerical results illustrate the fast convergence of the FAC method using these intergrid transfer operators.
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  • 62
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    New York, NY [u.a.] : Wiley-Blackwell
    ISSN: 1070-5325
    Keywords: iterative methods ; linear systems ; singular matrices ; block methods ; multisplitting ; two-stage ; non-stationary ; Markov chains ; Engineering ; Engineering General
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Mathematics
    Notes: The use of block two-stage methods for the iterative solution of consistent singular linear systems is studied. In these methods, suitable for parallel computations, different blocks, i.e., smaller linear systems, can be solved concurrently by different processors. Each of these smaller systems are solved by an (inner) iterative method. Hypotheses are provided for the convergence of non-stationary methods, i.e., when the number of inner iterations may vary from block to block and from one outer iteration to another. It is shown that the iteration matrix corresponding to one step of the block method is convergent, i.e., that its powers converge to a limit matrix. A theorem on the convergence of the infinite product of matrices with the same eigenspace corresponding to the eigenvalue 1 is proved, and later used as a tool in the convergence analysis of the block method. The methods studied can be used to solve any consistent singular system, including discretizations of certain differential equations. They can also be used to find stationary probability distribution of Markov chains. This last application is considered in detail.
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  • 63
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    New York, NY [u.a.] : Wiley-Blackwell
    ISSN: 1070-5325
    Keywords: mixed method ; nonconforming method ; multilevel preconditioner ; condition number ; second order elliptic problem ; Engineering ; Engineering General
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Mathematics
    Notes: A new approach for constructing algebraic multilevel preconditioners for mixed finite element methods for second order elliptic problems with tensor coefficients on general geometry is proposed. The linear system arising from the mixed methods is first algebraically condensed to a symmetric, positive definite system for Lagrange multipliers, which corresponds to a linear system generated by standard nonconforming finite element methods. Algebraic multilevel preconditioners for this system are then constructed based on a triangulation of the domain into tetrahedral substructures. Explicit estimates of condition numbers and simple computational schemes are established for the constructed preconditioners. Finally, numerical results for the mixed finite element methods are presented to illustrate the present theory.
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  • 64
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    New York, NY [u.a.] : Wiley-Blackwell
    ISSN: 1070-5325
    Keywords: Engineering ; Engineering General
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Mathematics
    Notes: No Abstract
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  • 65
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    New York, NY [u.a.] : Wiley-Blackwell
    ISSN: 1070-5325
    Keywords: Engineering ; Engineering General
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Mathematics
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  • 66
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    New York, NY [u.a.] : Wiley-Blackwell
    ISSN: 1070-5325
    Keywords: Engineering ; Engineering General
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Mathematics
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  • 67
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    New York, NY [u.a.] : Wiley-Blackwell
    ISSN: 1070-5325
    Keywords: alternating projection method ; Dykstra's algorithm ; patterned matrix ; constrained least-squares ; Engineering ; Engineering General
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Mathematics
    Notes: We apply Dykstra's alternating projection algorithm to the constrained least-squares matrix problem that arises naturally in statistics and mathematical economics. In particular, we are concerned with the problem of finding the closest symmetric positive definite bounded and patterned matrix, in the Frobenius norm, to a given matrix. In this work, we state the problem as the minimization of a convex function over the intersection of a finite collection of closed and convex sets in the vector space of square matrices.We present iterative schemes that exploit the geometry of the problem, and for which we establish convergence to the unique solution. Finally, we present preliminary numberical results to illustrate the performance of the proposed iterative methods.
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  • 68
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    New York, NY [u.a.] : Wiley-Blackwell
    ISSN: 1070-5325
    Keywords: conjugate gradients ; biconjugate gradients ; conjugate directions ; non-symmetric linear systems ; Engineering ; Engineering General
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Mathematics
    Notes: In this paper three basic conjugate direction methods for solving non-symmetric linear systems are described and compared. All three have entirely different basic structures and, consequently, completely different characteristics. The motivation for this work is the comparative assessment of the methods in order to decide which of the three is the most suitable for further development.
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  • 69
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    New York, NY [u.a.] : Wiley-Blackwell
    ISSN: 1070-5325
    Keywords: unsymmetric ; Krylov subspace ; IOM(q) ; FOM ; truncated ; basis vector ; orthonormality ; convergence ; restarted ; Engineering ; Engineering General
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Mathematics
    Notes: The incomplete orthogonalization method (IOM(q)), a truncated version of the full orthogonalization method (FOM) proposed by Saad, has been used for solving large unsymmetric linear systems. However, no convergence analysis has been given. In this paper, IOM(q) is analysed in detail from a theoretical point of view. A number of important results are derived showing how the departure of the matrix A from symmetric affects the basis vectors generated by IOM(q), and some relationships between the residuals for IOM(q) and FOM are established. The results show that IOM(q) behaves much like FOM once the basis vectors generated by it are well conditioned. However, it is proved that IOM(q) may generate an ill-conditioned basis for a general unsymmetric matrix such that IOM(q) may fail to converge or at least cannot behave like FOM. Owing to the mathematical equivalence between IOM(q) and the truncated ORTHORES(q) developed by Young and Jea, insights are given into the convergence of the latter. A possible strategy is proposed for choosing the parameter q involved in IOM(q). Numerical experiments are reported to show convergence behaviour of IOM(q) and of its restarted version.
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  • 70
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    New York, NY [u.a.] : Wiley-Blackwell
    ISSN: 1070-5325
    Keywords: regularization ; I-norm ; discontinuous solutions ; Engineering ; Engineering General
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Mathematics
    Notes: In certain inverse problems it is useful to be able to compute solutions which are, in some sense, as simple as possible. For example,k one may wish to compute solutions which are piecewise constant and with as few discontinuities as possible. Such solutions are suited to describe models, e.g., geological layers, where the coarse structure is more important than the fine structure. A natural generalization of piecewise constant functions is piecewise polynomial solutions. In this paper we present a new algorithm which is capable of computing solutions that are piecewise polynomials, without having to specify a priori the positions of the break points between the polynomial pieces.
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