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  • ddc:330  (149,982)
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  • 1
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    Amsterdam: Elsevier
    Publication Date: 2018-11-14
    Description: This study contributes to the understanding of long- and short-term determinants of cooperation among water users. We experimentally investigate the potential of water users’ self-governance in enhancing their contributions to a common pool as opposed to external regulation. Our focus is on the irrigated areas of Kazakhstan and Uzbekistan. Due to their Soviet past, these countries have a reputation for low bottom-up cooperation potential. Based on the different pre-Soviet irrigation traditions of the two study sites, we assess the effectiveness of short-term incentives compared to long term cultural factors of cooperation. History might matter, but we find it does not predetermine the success of current water decentralization in ancient as compared to relatively recently established irrigation sites. Our study reveals that external regulation, in fact, decreases farmers’ cooperation, whereas face-to-face communication increases it. This finding calls into question the top-down approach prevalent in current water policies of the region. Moreover, it suggests the viability of endogenous cooperation and hence encourages the implementation of truly self-governed water management policies in Central Asia. However, the substantial heterogeneity in individual contributions apparent at the village level also signals a warning that one-size-fits-all approaches to local cooperation are unlikely to succeed.
    Keywords: ddc:330 ; Water-management ; Self-governance ; Field experiment ; Cultural determinants ; Central Asia
    Language: English
    Type: doc-type:article
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  • 2
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    Cham: Springer Open
    Publication Date: 2018-11-30
    Description: This open access book looks at how a democracy can devolve into a post-factual state. The media is being flooded by populist narratives, fake news, conspiracy theories and make-believe. Misinformation is turning into a challenge for all of us, whether politicians, journalists, or citizens. In the age of information, attention is a prime asset and may be converted into money, power, and influence - sometimes at the cost of facts. The point is to obtain exposure on the air and in print media, and to generate traffic on social media platforms. With information in abundance and attention scarce, the competition is ever fiercer with truth all too often becoming the first victim. Reality Lost: Markets of Attention, Misinformation and Manipulation is an analysis by philosophers Vincent F. Hendricks and Mads Vestergaard of the nuts and bolts of the information market, the attention economy and media eco-system which may pave way to postfactual democracy. Here misleading narratives become the basis for political opinion formation, debate, and legislation. To curb this development and the threat it poses to democratic deliberation, political self-determination and freedom, it is necessary that we first grasp the mechanisms and structural conditions that cause it.
    Keywords: ddc:330
    Language: English
    Type: doc-type:book
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  • 3
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    Oldenburg: University of Oldenburg, Department of Economics
    Publication Date: 2018-04-28
    Description: This paper hypothesizes and empirically establishes the educational burden of the ADHD-related behavioral symptoms inattention and/or hyperactivity-impulsivity on aggregate cognitive achievement outcomes. We use a novel compilation of the 2- and 7-repeat allele variants of the human DRD4 exon III gene that candidate gene association studies have identified as an important biomarker in the etiology of childhood ADHD. The main results show a negative and statistically significant association between aggregate international student achievement test scores and the DRD4 exon III 2- and 7-repeat allele frequency measure in a cross-section of 81 countries. This finding is robust to the inclusion of additional country-specific historical, cultural, socioeconomic, biogeographic, health-related, educational, genetic, and diversity factors. Additional estimates suggest the predictive power of the country-level DRD4 exon III 2- and 7-repeat allele frequency measure on cross-country differences of estimated ADHD prevalence rates, confirming the reliability of the proposed biomarker for the measurement of ADHD-related behavioral symptoms in the general population.
    Keywords: E70 ; I10 ; I20 ; J24 ; ddc:330 ; Human Capital ; Cognitive Ability ; Cognitive Skills ; International Student Achievement Tests ; Education Production Function ; ADHD ; DRD4 Exon III ; Genetic Diversity
    Language: English
    Type: doc-type:workingPaper
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  • 4
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    Düsseldorf: Düsseldorf Institute for Competition Economics (DICE)
    Publication Date: 2018-04-29
    Description: This paper empirically explores the link between mass media coverage of migration and immigration worries. Using detailed data on media coverage in Germany, we show that the amount of media reports regarding migration issues is positively associated with concerns about immigration among the German population. The association is robust to the inclusion of time-variant individual control variables and individual fixed-effects. We employ media spillovers from the neighboring country of Switzerland, which occur due to referendum decisions on immigration as an instrumental variable to address endogeneity concerns. The IV estimates suggest that media coverage has a causal impact on immigration worries. Exploring heterogeneous effects between respondents, the results reveal that the link between media reports and immigration worries is particularly relevant for women and respondents active in the workforce.
    Keywords: L8 ; D7 ; F2 ; ddc:330 ; media ; migration ; news spillovers ; political attitudes
    Language: English
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  • 5
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    Rostock: Universität Rostock, Wirtschafts- und Sozialwissenschaftliche Fakultät, Institut für Volkswirtschaftslehre
    Publication Date: 2018-04-29
    Description: Seit dem Jahr 2012 erfolgte in mehreren europäischen Ländern nach und nach die Einführung des Video-on-Demand Anbieters Netflix. Parallel dazu gingen diese Länder durch die Verabschiedung verschiedener Gesetze verschärft gegen illegales Filesharing vor. Auf Grundlage der jährlichen Daten von acht europäischen Ländern im Zeitraum von 2000 bis 2015 und unter der Verwendung einer Difference in Differences Analyse ermittelt diese Arbeit einen signifikanten und positiven Effekt der Einführung von Netflix auf die Kinonachfrage. Das Vorgehen der Länder gegen Filesharing weist keinen signifikanten Einfluss auf.
    Description: Since 2012 the video on demand service Netflix has entered many European markets. Parallel to this development, many European countries introduced stricter laws against illegal file sharing. Using annual movie theater data for eight European countries from 2000 to 2015 a casual effect of these two quasi-natural experiments is estimated. We find that the introduction of Netflix actually increases the demand for movie theater tickets. Thus, Netflix may be seen as a complement to the movie theater experience. In contrast, the effect of stricter laws against file sharing has no significant effect on the movie theater demand, i.e. the stricter laws likely lack a strict enforcement.
    Keywords: L10 ; L82 ; ddc:330 ; Netflix ; Movie Theater Demand ; Video on Demand Services
    Language: German
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  • 6
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    Hamburg: Berenberg Bank und Hamburgisches WeltWirtschaftsInstitut (HWWI)
    Publication Date: 2018-04-29
    Description: [Einleitung] Die Welt erlebt momentan einen Konjunkturboom. Alle großen Wirtschaftsräume - die USA, Europa, Japan und China - können sich über kräftiges Wirtschaftswachstum freuen. Doch abseits der erfreulichen Momentaufnahme zeigt sich, dass sich die Welt derzeit tiefgreifend wandelt und sich auch in den kommenden Jahren weiter deutlich verändern wird. Das gesamtwirtschaftliche Umfeld ist deshalb auf mittlere und längere Sicht voller Ungewissheiten: Beginnt ein neues Zeitalter der wirtschaftlichen Abschottung? Welche Effekte haben die demografischen Umbrüche? Wie groß ist der Einfluss des Klimawandels und der daraus resultierenden umweltpolitischen Maßnahmen? Was sind die Folgen des digitalen Wandels für die Wirtschaft allgemein und ganz konkret für den Güterhandel? Diese Fragen betreffen große Teile der Wirtschaft und Gesellschaft. Die Schifffahrtsbranche ist von vielen dieser Zukunftsfragen direkt oder zumindest indirekt betroffen. Dabei stellen die ungewöhnlich stark ausgeprägten Ungewissheiten für den Schifffahrtssektor eine besondere Herausforderung dar, denn seit der globalen Finanz- und Wirtschaftskrise befindet sich die Schifffahrt in einem Konsolidierungsprozess und die bestehenden Überkapazitäten sind noch nicht abgebaut. Mit dieser Publikation möchten wir keine Prognose über die konkrete Entwicklung des Schifffahrtsmarktes abgeben. Wir möchten aber versuchen, den wirtschaftlichen Rahmen zu skizzieren, innerhalb dessen die Branche künftig Entscheidungen treffen muss. Dabei legen wir einen Schwerpunkt auf den digitalen Wandel. Unsere Analyse zeigt: Das Umfeld für die Schifffahrt in den kommenden Jahren wird sehr herausfordernd bleiben.
    Keywords: ddc:330
    Language: German
    Type: doc-type:report
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  • 7
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    Hamburg: Berenberg Bank und Hamburgisches WeltWirtschaftsInstitut (HWWI)
    Publication Date: 2018-04-29
    Description: [Introduction] The world is currently experiencing an economic boom. All of the major economic areas - the USA, Europe, Japan and China - are seeing strong economic growth. But beyond current favourable conditions there are signs that the world is currently undergoing a fundamental transition and that it will continue to change significantly in the coming years. Consequently, the macroeconomic environment is subject to a great deal of uncertainty in the medium and longer term. Is this the start of a new era of economic isolation? What effects will the changing demographic patterns have? What will be the extent of the impact of climate change and the resulting environ mental policy measures? What are the consequences of the digital transformation for the economy in general and for the trade of goods in particular? These questions affect large sections of our economy and our society. The shipping industry is impacted directly or at least indirectly by many of these questions surrounding the future. The unusually high level of uncertainty for the shipping sector poses a special challenge in this context, particularly as shipping has been undergoing a process of consolidation since the global financial and economic crisis and the existing excess capacities have not yet been reduced. This publication does not constitute a forecast on our part regarding the specific development of the shipping market. Instead, we aim to outline the economic framework upon which the industry must base its future decisions. We focus here on the process of digital transformation, and our analysis shows that the environment for shipping will remain very challenging in the years ahead.
    Keywords: ddc:330
    Language: English
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  • 8
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    Maastricht: Global Labor Organization (GLO)
    Publication Date: 2018-04-29
    Description: Using a cohort approach, this paper examines educational attainment in Ghana and its potential determinants considering both educational attainment in the formal education system and participation in non-formal education in the form of adult literacy programs. The results indicate an overall substitution between formal and non-formal education across the generations, with participation in adult literacy programs decreasing as the formal education system expanded its coverage across space and time in Ghana. Individuals who completed any formal education were also much less likely to participate in adult literacy programs, by about 10 percentagepoints per year of formal education completed. Additionally, the generations subject to the declining education system during the 1970s were substantially disadvantaged, with the cohort that was roughly of primary school age at the time of the economic breakdown in 1983 and the first few years thereafter being the last of the disadvantaged cohorts—the “lost generations.” This is especially true for the particularly vulnerable group of individuals who never received any formal education, where the crisis cohort peaked in terms of adult literacy program participation relative to later (and earlier) cohorts, possibly in response to a decrease in the quality of the formal education system as well as increased competition from returning refugees. We perform a simple test for the declining quality of the formal education system in the 1970s and find evidence consistent with a decrease in the quality in the education system during the 1970s, followed by an increase in quality thereafter.
    Keywords: I210 ; J240 ; ddc:330 ; Human capital ; formal and non-formal education ; adult literacy programs ; cohort analysis ; Ghana
    Language: English
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  • 9
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    Düsseldorf: Düsseldorf Institute for Competition Economics (DICE)
    Publication Date: 2018-04-27
    Description: We study a Hotelling framework in which customers first pay a monopoly platform to enter the market before deciding between two competing services on opposite ends of a Hotelling line. This setup is common when modeling competition in Internet content provision. We find that standard taken-for-granted solution methods under full market coverage break down, and that in the unique full-coverage equilibrium, the competing service providers set substantially lower prices. Standard methods and prices are restored by giving service providers the first move.
    Keywords: D21 ; D43 ; L0 ; ddc:330 ; Hotelling Model ; First Mover Advantage ; Two-Sided Market
    Language: English
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  • 10
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    Düsseldorf: Düsseldorf Institute for Competition Economics (DICE)
    Publication Date: 2018-04-27
    Description: As the rise of populist and right-wing political movements is connected to extensive media coverage, the question arises whether media report more on political parties because of their success or if their success is caused by media reports. To tackle this question, we investigate how media coverage affects short- and long-term political preferences, namely party affiliation and voting intention. For our empirical analysis, we merge 14 years of human-coded data obtained from leading media in Germany with results of the comprehensive German Politbarometer survey from February 1998 through December 2012. To account for endogeneity, we employ instrumental variable estimations. In addition, we control for a multitude of (internal) personal characteristics, such as age, and gender, as well as for (external) macroeconomic variables, such as business climate, unemployment, and inflation. The results show that media coverage of a political party has a positive and significant effect on the shortterm voting intention for this party. When media outlets cover a political party more positively, the electorate has a greater tendency to vote for it. However, for long-term party affiliation, the effect vanishes. This is consistent with the economic theory. Long-term preferences are stable and, thus, contemporary events, such as media coverage, hardly affect supposedly stable preferences. However, in the long-term, party affiliation might also be affected.
    Keywords: C43 ; D72 ; ddc:330 ; political preferences ; voting intention ; media impact
    Language: English
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  • 11
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    Frankfurt am Main: SAFE - Sustainable Architecture for Finance in Europe
    Publication Date: 2018-04-27
    Description: In contrast to the popularity of financial education interventions worldwide, studies on the economic effects of those interventions report mixed results. With a focus on the effect on disadvantaged groups, we review both the theoretical and empirical findings in order to understand why this discrepancy exists. The survey first highlights that it is necessary to distinguish between the concepts of, and the relationships between, financial education, financial literacy and financial behavior to identify the true effects of financial education. The review addresses possible biases caused by third factors such as numeracy. Next, we review theories on financial literacy which make clear that the effect of financial education interventions is heterogeneous across the population. Last, we look closely at main empirical studies on financial education targeted at the migrants/immigrants, the low-income earners and the young, and compare their methodologies. There seems to be a positive effect on short-term financial knowledge and awareness of the young, but there is no proven evidence on long-term behavior after being grown up. Studies on financial behavior of migrants and immigrants show almost no effect of financial education.
    Keywords: G28 ; G41 ; I24 ; I25 ; I28 ; ddc:330 ; Financial Education ; Financial Literacy ; Inequality ; Program Evaluation
    Language: English
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  • 12
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    Berlin: De Gruyter | ZBW - Deutsche Zentralbibliothek für Wirtschaftswissenschaften, Leibniz-Informationszentrum Wirtschaft Kiel, Hamburg
    Publication Date: 2018-04-30
    Description: This paper explores the e ffects of fi scal policy in an economy based on indirect taxes, and one that is constrained to taxing all (labor and capital) income at the same rate. The focus of the paper is on the relative importance of consumption vs. income taxation, as well as on the provision of utility-enhancing public services. To this end, a Real-Business-Cycle model, calibrated to Bulgarian data (1999-2014), was set up with a richer public finance side. Bulgarian economy was chosen as a case study due to its major dependence on consumption taxation as a source of tax revenue. To illustrate the e ffects of fiscal policy, two regimes were compared and contrasted to one another - exogenous vs. optimal (Ramsey) policy case. The main fi ndings from the computational experiments performed are: (i) The optimal steady-state (capital and labor income) tax rate is zero, as it is the most distortionary tax to use; (ii) The optimal steady-state consumption tax (the only source of revenue) has to almost double to finance the optimally-set level of government purchases.
    Keywords: D58 ; ddc:330 ; consumption tax ; income tax ; general equilibrium ; fiscal policy
    Language: English
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  • 13
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    Prague: Institute of Economic Studies, Faculty of Social Sciences, Charles University | ZBW - Deutsche Zentralbibliothek für Wirtschaftswissenschaften, Leibniz-Informationszentrum Wirtschaft Kiel, Hamburg
    Publication Date: 2018-04-30
    Description: This paper explores the effects of fiscal policy in the presence of a VAT evasion channel, and then compares and contrasts two regimes - the exogenous vs. optimal policy case. To this end, a dynamic general-equilibrium model, calibrated to Bulgarian data (1999-2014), is augmented with a government sector. The main findings from the computational experiments performed in the paper are: (i) The optimal steady-state income tax rate is zero; (ii) The benevolent Ramsey planner provides the optimal amount of the valuable public services, which are now three times lower; (iii) The size of the grey sector is twice lower; (iv) optimal steady-state consumption tax needed to finance the optimal level of government spending is twice lower, as compared to the exogenous policy case.
    Description: Forthcoming
    Keywords: D58 ; E26 ; H26 ; ddc:330 ; consumption tax ; income tax ; VAT evasion ; general equilibrium ; fiscal policy ; Bulgaria
    Language: English
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  • 14
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    Kiel und Hamburg: ZBW - Deutsche Zentralbibliothek für Wirtschaftswissenschaften, Leibniz-Informationszentrum Wirtschaft
    Publication Date: 2018-04-30
    Description: This paper aims to elucidate the connectedness between major forex currencies and cryptocurrencies using the quantile cross-spectral approach recently proposed by Baruník and Kley (2015). The sample covers six forex currencies and six cryptocurrencies over the period of 1 September 2015 to 29 December 2017. Compared with the results obtained from standard correlations and detrended moving-average cross-correlation analysis (DMCA), the quantile cross-spectral approach provides richer information on the dependence structure across different quantiles and frequencies. The most interesting result is that the intra-group dependencies are positive in the lower extreme quantiles, while inter-group dependencies are negative. This result holds in both the short- and long-term perspectives. Thus, it is worth diversifying between these two currency groups.
    Keywords: G11 ; G15 ; F31 ; ddc:330 ; cryptocurrencies ; fiat currencies ; quantile dependence ; cross-spectral analysis ; diversification
    Language: English
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  • 15
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    Kiel und Hamburg: ZBW - Deutsche Zentralbibliothek für Wirtschaftswissenschaften, Leibniz-Informationszentrum Wirtschaft
    Publication Date: 2018-04-30
    Description: We show that in a exogenous growth model with non-market ("home") sector calibrated to Bulgarian data under the progressive taxation regime (1993-2007), the economy exhibits equilibrium indeterminacy due to the presence of non-market production. These results are in line with the findings in Benhabib and Farmer (1994, 1996) and Farmer (1999). Also, the findings in this paper are in contrast to Guo and Lansing (1988) who argue that progressive taxation works as an automatic stabilizer. Under the flat tax regime (2008-16), the economy calibrated to Bulgarian data displays saddle-path stability. The decrease in the average effective tax rate addresses the indeterminacy issue and eliminates the "stable focus" dynamics.
    Keywords: O41 ; J46 ; ddc:330 ; Progressive taxation ; Non-market sector ; Home production ; Equilibrium (In)determinacy
    Language: English
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  • 16
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    Kiel und Hamburg: ZBW - Deutsche Zentralbibliothek für Wirtschaftswissenschaften, Leibniz-Informationszentrum Wirtschaft
    Publication Date: 2018-04-30
    Description: Applying the Bayesian approach, a small open economy DSGE model was estimated using a sample of quarterly data for a macro-region formed by six Central Europe and Baltic economies: Czech Republic, Estonia, Hungary, Lithuania, Poland, and Slovakia. Estimates have been employed to investigate the effects of a financial crisis, exploring the role played by country differences in the relative performances. We also use our Bayesian estimations to compute two measures of resilience in the considered region.
    Keywords: E02 ; E32 ; E58 ; ddc:330 ; resilience ; Bayesian estimations ; financial crisis ; macroeconomic performance ; emerging markets
    Language: English
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  • 17
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    Prague: Czech National Bank
    Publication Date: 2018-04-30
    Description: The paper focuses on the estimation of the effective lower bound for the Czech National Bank's policy rate. The effective lower bound is determined by the value below which holding and using cash would be more convenient than deposits with negative yields. This bound is approximated based on storage, the insurance and transportation costs of cash and the costs associated with the loss of the convenience of cashless payments and complemented with the estimate based on interest charges, which present direct costs to the profitability of the bank. Overall, the estimated value is below -1% and is approximately in the interval -1.6%, -1.1%. In addition, by means of a vector autoregression, we show that the potential of negative rates would not be sufficient to deliver monetary policy easing with effects similar to those of the exchange rate commitment.
    Keywords: E52 ; E58 ; ddc:330 ; effective lower bound ; negative interest rates ; costs of holding cash ; transmission of monetary policy
    Language: English
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  • 18
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    Kiel und Hamburg: ZBW - Deutsche Zentralbibliothek für Wirtschaftswissenschaften, Leibniz-Informationszentrum Wirtschaft
    Publication Date: 2018-04-30
    Description: We use novel and unique data to study the effect of price changes in the market for luxury and middle class homes. We find that luxury home sales respond less to price changes than the middle-class home sales; in the market for luxury homes, past prices affect current prices; luxury home prices persist; and prices of luxury homes are stickier than prices of middle-class homes. Recent macroeconomic models predict that housing markets can have counter-cyclical effect, if home prices are flexible. Our findings imply that home prices, especially luxury home prices, may not be flexible enough to generate such effect.
    Keywords: E31 ; E32 ; R21 ; G14 ; D12 ; ddc:330 ; Housing market ; Luxury housing ; Housing demand ; Price rigidity ; Sticky prices ; Predictability ; Veblen Effect
    Language: English
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  • 19
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    San Francisco, CA: Public Library of Science
    Publication Date: 2018-04-30
    Description: This paper reports the results of a lab experiment designed to study the role of observability for peer effects in the setting of a simple production task. In our experiment, participants in the role of workers engage in a team real-effort task. We vary whether they can observe, or be observed by, one of their co-workers. In contrast to earlier findings from the field, we find no evidence that low-productivity workers perform better when they are observed by high-productivity co-workers. Instead, our results imply that peer effects in our experiment are heterogeneous, with some workers reciprocating a high-productivity co-worker but others taking the opportunity to free ride.
    Keywords: C91 ; J24 ; ddc:330 ; laboratory experiment ; peer group ; peer effects ; productivity ; work habits
    Language: English
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  • 20
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    Kiel und Hamburg: ZBW - Deutsche Zentralbibliothek für Wirtschaftswissenschaften, Leibniz-Informationszentrum Wirtschaft
    Publication Date: 2018-04-30
    Description: We augment an otherwise standard business cycle model with a richer government sector, and add monopolistic competition in the product market, and rigid prices, as well as rigid wages a la Calvo (1983) in the labor market. This specification with the nominal wage rigidity, when calibrated to Bulgarian data after the introduction of the currency board (1999-2016), allows the framework to reproduce better observed variability and correlations among model variables, and those characterizing the labor market in particular. As nominal wage frictions are incorporated, the variables become more persistent, especially output, capital stock, investment and consumption, which helps the model match data better.
    Keywords: D43 ; E32 ; ddc:330 ; business cycles ; monopolistic competition ; rigid (Calvo) prices ; rigid (Calvo) wages
    Language: English
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  • 21
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    Kiel und Hamburg: ZBW - Deutsche Zentralbibliothek für Wirtschaftswissenschaften, Leibniz-Informationszentrum Wirtschaft
    Publication Date: 2018-04-30
    Description: We introduce an environmental dimension into a real-business-cycle model augmented with a detailed government sector. We calibrate the model to Bulgarian data for the period following the introduction of the currency board arrangement (1999-2016). We investigate the quantitative importance of utility-enhancing environmental quality, and the mechanics of environmental ("carbon") tax on polluting production, as well as the effect of government spending on pollution abatement over the cycle. In particular, a positive shock to pollution emission in the model works like a positive technological shock, but its effect is quantitatively very small. Allowing for pollution as a by-product of production improves the model performance against data, and in addition this extended setup dominates the standard RBC model framework, e.g., Vasilev (2009).
    Keywords: E32 ; C68 ; Q58 ; ddc:330 ; Business cycles ; pollution ; environmental quality ; environmental tax ; abatement spending
    Language: English
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  • 22
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    Kiel und Hamburg: ZBW - Deutsche Zentralbibliothek für Wirtschaftswissenschaften, Leibniz-Informationszentrum Wirtschaft
    Publication Date: 2018-04-30
    Description: This paper characterized optimal fiscal policy - with environmental taxes, and public spending on abatement - in the presence of pollution, and evaluated it relative to the exogenous (observed) one in Bulgaria, an economy with a largely unreformed and polluting industry. The results are evaluated in light of the optimal environmental taxation of dirty production and the optimal spending on abatement, and the effect of those fiscal measures on the utility-enhancing environmental quality. To this end, a dynamic general-equilibrium model is calibrated to Bulgarian data (1999-2016). The main findings from the computational experiments performed are: (i) The optimal steady-state income tax rate is zero; (ii) The benevolent Ramsey planner provides twenty percent higher utility-enhancing environmental quality; (iii) The optimal level of carbon taxes is almost three times higher, and the optimal level of abatement spending is six times higher; (iv) The optimal steady-state consumption tax is twice lower.
    Keywords: C68 ; Q58 ; ddc:330 ; Ramsey policy ; pollution ; environmental tax ; environmental quality
    Language: English
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  • 23
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    Hoboken, NJ: Wiley
    Publication Date: 2018-04-30
    Description: Biocluster initiatives have become an important tool for governments to establish, promote, and strengthen economic collaboration, learning, innovation, and employment within particular regions. However, in addition to issues like competitiveness and employment, bioclusters operate with the additional goal of fostering the transition to a sustainable bioeconomy. The profound changes that are required for a successful shift from a fossil‐based economy to a bioeconomy are called transitions and the relatively new scientific field of transition theory has emerged to study them. The aim of this paper is to show the contribution that transition theory can make to the study of bioclusters. In this paper I will review frameworks from the study of sustainability transitions (multi‐level perspective and technical innovation systems) and frameworks from theories of evolutionary economic geography and cluster studies (regional and sectoral innovation systems). The review shows how the choice of a particular framework will shape the analysis of the biocluster through the particular focus and delineation associated with each framework. The review shows the advantages and disadvantages these frameworks have for incorporating the various issues related to the shift towards a bioeconomy that are currently neglected in the literature on bioclusters.
    Keywords: ddc:330 ; bioclusters ; innovation ; innovation systems ; multi‐level perspective (MLP) ; sustainability transitions
    Language: English
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  • 24
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    München: Oekom Verlag
    Publication Date: 2018-04-30
    Description: Der vorliegende Artikel soll einen Beitrag zu theoretischen Überlegungen einer Technikfolgenabschätzung (TA) der Alternativen leisten. Ausgehend von der Annahme, dass TA seit ihrer Entstehung den Anspruch auf die Entwicklung von (technischen) Alternativen erhoben hat, wird hier der Versuch unternommen, die Rolle der TA im Rahmen aktueller Innovationsprozesse zu reflektieren und (neu) zu definieren. Dies scheint vor allem im Hinblick auf aktuelle gesellschaftliche Herausforderungen notwendig. Zu diesem Zweck wird eine Grundannahme Lothar Hacks über das Verhältnis von Gesellschaft und Technik herangezogen. Seine Annahme besagt, dass die kontinuierliche Überführung von sozialen Problemen und Leitbildern in enge technische Lösungsansätze in hochindustrialisierten Ländern dominant und Teil der aktuellen gesellschaftlichen Probleme ist. Diese These wird im vorliegenden Artikel im Hinblick auf einen Perspektivenwechsel als Ausgangspunkt eines zukünftigen Forschungsprogramms der TA fruchtbar gemacht. Hierbei bildet das Denken in Alternativen von gesellschaftlichen Zukünften den zentralen Fokus.
    Description: This article provides theoretical arguments for a technology assessment (TA) of alternatives that critically engages in innovation and transformation processes. We draw on an observation by Lothar Hack who stated that a major problem of industrial societies is the dominant translation of complex societal problems into narrow technical solutions. Here we have to come up with alternatives to open up space for other options; it also requires a fundamental shift in perspective that may guide the research program of a TA of alternatives. Based on this, we reflect on the role of TA and its expectations in the light of a vastly changed innovation landscape.
    Keywords: Y80 ; O33 ; ddc:330 ; technology assessment ; technological progress ; alternatives ; methodological challenges
    Language: German
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    facet.materialart.
    Berlin: Heinrich-Böll-Stiftung
    Publication Date: 2018-04-30
    Description: Die Industrie 4.0 bietet Spielräume für die Verbesserung der Arbeitsqualität, kann aber auch steigende Arbeitsintensität, Dequalifizierung und einen Verlust von Handlungsspielräumen bedeuten.
    Keywords: ddc:330 ; Arbeitsbedingungen ; Industrie ; Digitalisierung ; Arbeitsplatzverlust ; Arbeitsintensität ; Qualifikationswandel ; Arbeitsgestaltung ; Dequalifizierung
    Language: German
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  • 26
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    Lisbon: Cogitatio
    Publication Date: 2018-04-30
    Description: Although measuring democratic deliberation is necessary for a valid measurement of the performance of democracies, it poses serious theoretical and methodological challenges. The most serious problem in the context of research on democratic performance is the need for a theoretical and methodological approach for “upscaling” the measurement of deliberation from the micro and meso level to the macro level. The systemic approach offers a useful framework for this purpose. Building on this framework, this article offers a modular approach consisting of four parameters for conceptualization, measurement, and aggregation which can be adjusted to make the measurement of democratic deliberation compatible with the various general measurement approaches adopted by different scholars.
    Description: This article is part of the issue “Why Choice Matters: Revisiting and Comparing Measures of Democracy”, edited by Heiko Giebler (WZB Berlin Social Science Center, Germany), Saskia P. Ruth (German Institute of Global and Area Studies, Germany), and Dag Tanneberg (University of Potsdam, Germany).
    Keywords: ddc:330 ; deliberation ; democracy ; democratic performance ; measurement of democracy ; systemic approach
    Language: English
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  • 27
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    Kiel, Hamburg: ZBW - Deutsche Zentralbibliothek für Wirtschaftswissenschaften, Leibniz-Informationszentrum Wirtschaft
    Publication Date: 2018-04-30
    Description: This study investigates how West German spouses have responded by adjusting their time allocation to the alimony reform introduced in 2008. This reform imposed financial self-responsibility after a finalized divorce. It weakened the relative bargaining position of the spouse with a claim for maintenance in the case of a potential divorce prior to the law change. Therefore, the present study helps to verify bargaining models by considering the 2008 policy change as a shift of spousal bargaining power. Estimating difference-in-differences models I find that, indeed, wives who face a potential low alimony loss might have increased their working hours as a result of the 2008 reform. To my knowledge, the present investigation is the first analysis of the behavioral response of individuals in longer marriages to the 2008 reform. Its approach to identifying those who have been (dis)advantaged by this reform is a new one, proposing a method that reflects the realities of alimony arrangements in Germany.
    Keywords: D13 ; J12 ; J13 ; J22 ; K36 ; ddc:330 ; Alimony ; Family ; Bargaining ; Institutional change ; Labor supply ; Time allocation
    Language: English
    Type: doc-type:workingPaper
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  • 28
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    Berlin: BDZ Deutsche Zoll- und Finanzgewerkschaft
    Publication Date: 2018-04-30
    Description: § 12d ZollVG wurde mit dem Gesetz zur Änderung des ZollVG vom 10.3.2017 eingefügt. Die Norm regelt die sog. Eilzuständigkeit der Zollbeamten in den Vollzugsbereichen für polizeiliche Sofortmaßnahmen in den Bundesländern, in welchen die Polizeigesetze, Sicherheitsgesetze und Gefahrenabwehrgesetze der Länder diese Eilzuständigkeit vorsehen. Die Eilzuständigkeit darf für die Aufgaben der Polizei von den Zollbeamten der Vollzugsbereiche wahrgenommen werden, bis die zuständigen Polizeibediensteten eingetroffen sind. Im Dezember 2017 hatten sieben Landespolizeigesetze die Eilzuständigkeit vorgesehen, zwei weitere haben angekündigt, die Eilzuständigkeit einzuführen. Neben der Eilzuständigkeit in den Länderpolizeigesetzen (und ggf. Sicherheitsgesetzen, Gefahrenabwehrgesetzen, etc.) besteht grundsätzlich die bundesweite Eilzuständigkeit für die Aufgaben der BPol nach § 64 Abs. 1, 3 BPolG3, die jedoch nur für die Aufgaben der BPol gilt (Grenzschutz, Bahnpolizei, Luftverkehrssicherheit, etc.).
    Keywords: K34 ; ddc:330 ; Zollrecht ; Zollverwaltung ; Polizeirecht ; Ordnungsrecht
    Language: German
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  • 29
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    Iasi: Lumen International Publishing
    Publication Date: 2018-04-30
    Description: This article addressed historical aspects of the political economy involving sustained forest ecology in Sierra Leone as a whole, with emphasis on the Freetown Peninsula and its surrounding communities. Attention is paid to cultural, social and economic aspects involving forest livelihoods of residents on the Freetown Peninsula and far afield. The term 'Political Economy' is used in this situation to denote the relationship between the economics of people's livelihoods and public policy (in relation to the management of legislative procedures) in ensuring that resources in the forest environment is sustainably managed to cater for the livelihood needs of people in Sierra Leone, while at the same time maintaining a balance in protecting the forest ecosystems. The paper has provided a critical review of the political economy of forest ecology in the country on the basis of scholarly discourses, and its applicability in adapting to the fragile political administrative management Sierra Leone have (and is continuing to) experienced.
    Description: This is based on the author's extensive literature on natural resource management in Sierra Leone.
    Description: Cet article aborde les aspects historiques de l'économie politique impliquant une écologie forestière durable dans l'ensemble de la Sierra Leone, en mettant l'accent sur la péninsule de Freetown et ses environs. communautés. Une attention particulière est accordée aux aspects culturels, sociaux et économiques impliquant les moyens de subsistance des habitants de la péninsule de Freetown et de loin. Le terme «économie politique» est utilisé dans cette situation pour désigner la relation entre l'économie des moyens de subsistance des populations et la politique publique (en relation avec la gestion des procédures législatives) pour assurer la gestion durable des ressources dans l'environnement forestier. besoins de la population en Sierra Leone, tout en maintenant un équilibre dans la protection de la forêt les écosystèmes. Le document a fourni un examen critique de l'économie politique de l'écologie forestière dans le pays sur la base de discours savants, et son applicabilité dans l'adaptation à la gestion administrative politique fragile de la Sierra Leone (et est continuer à) expérimenté.
    Keywords: Q01 ; Q57 ; ddc:330 ; Political Economy ; Forest Ecology ; Critical Discourse ; Sustainability ; Sierra Leone
    Language: English
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  • 30
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    Kiel, Hamburg: ZBW - Deutsche Zentralbibliothek für Wirtschaftswissenschaften, Leibniz-Informationszentrum Wirtschaft
    Publication Date: 2018-04-30
    Description: We augment an otherwise standard business cycle model with a richer government sector, and add a modified cash in advance considerations, and one-period-ahead nominal wage contracts. In particular, the cash in advance constraint of Cooley and Hansen (1989) is extended to include private investment and government consumption. This specification, together with the nominal wage rigidity, when calibrated to Bulgarian data after the introduction of the currency board (1999-2016), gives a role to money in propagating economic uctuations. In addition, the combinations of these ingredients allows the framework to reproduce better observed variability and correlations among model variables, and those characterizing the labor market in particular.
    Keywords: E32 ; ddc:330 ; business cycles ; modified cash-in-advance constraint ; one-period nominal wage contracts
    Language: English
    Type: doc-type:preprint
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  • 31
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    Chennai: International Association of Engineering and Management Education (IAEME)
    Publication Date: 2018-04-30
    Description: The Public-Private Partnerships (3Ps) is a proven model in many countries and the past its implementation in many domains like transportation, power, water and sanitary, education and for an affordable housing project. With the application of 3P in the General pool, residential accommodation houses construction for the Government employees based on rationing has created a gap in which all the parties’ cooperation helps in attain the desired goal and support in overcoming the problems. The private sector contributes through their quick access to funds, investment potential, efficiency, innovativeness, and skills, while the government organisations are responsible for accessing the risks and meeting the responsibilities. This research focuses the issues on implementing the 3P model for General Pool residential building with a model evaluation study. The study results indicate the factors responsible for successful implementation and peril perceptions of different stakeholders. This model of 3P’s is suitable for evaluation of policy framework with the Government of India.
    Keywords: R58 ; ddc:330 ; Public-Private Partnerships (3Ps) ; general pool residential accommodation ; critical success ; critical restricting factors
    Language: English
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  • 32
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    Kiel und Hamburg: ZBW - Deutsche Zentralbibliothek für Wirtschaftswissenschaften, Leibniz-Informationszentrum Wirtschaft
    Publication Date: 2018-04-30
    Description: In recent years, the increasing awarding of patents has captured the attention of scholars operating in different fields. The economic literature has studied the causes of this proliferation; we propose an entry game focusing on one of the consequences, showing how an incumbent may create a patent portfolio in order to control market entry and to collude. The incumbent fixes the level of patent protection and the threat of denunciation reduces the entrant's expected profits; moreover, if the entrant deviates from collusion, the incumbent can strengthen punishment suing the competitor for patent infringement, reducing her incentive to deviate. Our analysis suggests that antitrust authorities should pay attention to the level of patent protection implemented by the incumbent and note whether the holder of a patent reacts to entry by either suing or not suing the competitor. In the model, we use completely general functional forms in analyzing the issues, and this allows us to obtain general results not depending on the assumptions about the kind of oligopolistic competition.
    Keywords: D43 ; K21 ; L13 ; ddc:330 ; patents ; litigation ; collusion ; entry game
    Language: English
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  • 33
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    Publication Date: 2018-04-30
    Description: In the last decade of XX century, has expanded the area of capital movements, which included the former socialist countries. Thus, the countries that are attracting some of the centers of the capital and at the same time, participate in the export of capital, it is impossible not to have engaged in a global economy. Our country has been greatly involved in the processes of globalization. At the same time, Georgia's future development will depend on how the country is adapting to globalization with the need for policy implementation, the political, economic and organizational actuating levers. In this regard, the need for more emphasis on the intellectual forces of international finance - financial institutions with their own interests, the use of integrated approaches to economic development, high rates of achievement, social and economic policy harmonization, social inequality mitigation. Finally, the orientation of foreign economic priorities have to be organic in conjunction with the ongoing processes, it must define the strategic objectives of the national economy.
    Keywords: F36 ; H30 ; E60 ; ddc:330 ; Public Finance ; Financial Aspects ; Economic Integration ; Macroeconomic Policy ; Fiscal Policy
    Language: English
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  • 34
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    Amsterdam [u.a.]: Elsevier
    Publication Date: 2018-04-30
    Description: In this paper we aim to analyse economic and social transition factors affecting the agricultural labor force and to understand the feminization phenomenon in rural Tajikistan. Agrarian reforms, seasonal male labor outmigration, and the subsequent increase in women's labor participation have facilitated changes in gender occupational segregation. We assume that in post-Soviet transition countries such as Tajikistan, the process of feminization grew from the need to take on jobs and to to slip in the role of the breadwinner due to the absence of men. The process enabled women to gain knowledge and experience in new employment positions. We contribute to the knowledge on feminization by conducting qualitative, case based analysis through in-depth interviews and focus group discussions and present unique data on previously unobserved employment categories and their characteristics from the Sughd province of Tajikistan. Results suggest that existing local systems of power and male-dominated relationships are being challenged due to male labor force outmigration, leading to a feminization of the remaining labor force and recipient clients. The jobs women perform remain subject to low protection, security, and earnings. However, increased participation in the labor force provides a gateway to a wider spectrum of labor opportunities and advances women's roles in primary agricultural production as well as in the service supply sector, and provides them a certain amount of control over their own lives.
    Keywords: ddc:330 ; Gender ; Post-Soviet agriculture ; Feminization ; Farm and water management ; Service providers ; Central Asia
    Language: English
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  • 35
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    s.l.: Alkhaer Publications
    Publication Date: 2018-04-30
    Description: In this empirical work, cognisance has been given to providing a review of literature on the seasonal Box- Jenkins modelling, particularly with reference to a univariate model. Seasonal pattern of Headline Consumer Price Index (HCPI) has been produced for Sierra Leone and with EVIEWS making use of best model selection of (6,0)(0,0). Data were seasonally adjusted with iteration and sufficient diagnostic test outcomes showing that forecast using Static method yielded best outcome, with Year-on-Year inflation over the three monthly period forecasted outcomes. The correlogram of the resultant series revealed very stable outcome of the results, while MAPE for the forecast evaluation revealing marginal error for the outcome, indicating that the model is quite adequate with the chosen methodology.
    Description: This publication is based on Time Series Econometric forecasting for Inflation in Sierra Leone using Box-Jenkins methodology [ARIMA]
    Description: Dans ce travail empirique, on a pris connaissance de la revue de la littérature sur les Modélisation de Jenkins, en particulier en référence à un modèle univarié. La tendance saisonnière de l'indice des prix à la consommation global (IPCH) a été produite pour la Sierra Leone et avec EVIEWS en utilisant le meilleur modèle de sélection (6,0) (0,0). Les données ont été corrigées des variations saisonnières avec l'itération et les résultats des tests de diagnostic suffisants montrant que les prévisions utilisant la méthode statique ont donné les meilleurs résultats, avec une inflation d'une année à l'autre sur les trois résultats mensuels prévus. Le corrélogramme de la série résultante a révélé un résultat très stable des résultats, alors que MAPE pour l'évaluation des prévisions révélait une erreur marginale pour le résultat, indiquant que le modèle est tout à fait adéquat avec la méthodologie choisie.
    Keywords: C53 ; ddc:330 ; ARIMA Model ; Time Series ; HCPI ; Sierra Leone
    Language: English
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  • 36
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    Lagos, Nigeria: Academic Journals
    Publication Date: 2018-04-30
    Description: This article aims to examine the long and short run relationship between agricultural exports and agriculture share of GDP. Links between series considered are assessed by co-integration analysis using Johansen co-integration technique and ECM-GARCH. Results indicate a positive link in the short and long term between agricultural exports and agriculture share of GDP, as well as co-integration between the pairs of series used. Also it can be found that increases in agricultural exports were followed by increases in agriculture share of GDP. Agriculture exports and agriculture share of GDP elasticities are 0.62. The past shocks and agricultural exports increased agriculture share of GDP volatility.
    Keywords: F13 ; F14 ; F15 ; F40 ; Q17 ; ddc:330 ; Agricultural exports ; Agricultural economic growth ; Co-integration analysis ; Johansen co-integration ; ECM-GARCH
    Language: English
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  • 37
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    Lisbon: Cogitatio
    Publication Date: 2018-04-30
    Description: Measures of democracy are in high demand. Scientific and public audiences use them to describe political realities and to substantiate causal claims about those realities. This introduction to the thematic issue reviews the history of democracy measurement since the 1950s. It identifies four development phases of the field, which are characterized by three recurrent topics of debate: (1) what is democracy, (2) what is a good measure of democracy, and (3) do our measurements of democracy register real-world developments? As the answers to those questions have been changing over time, the field of democracy measurement has adapted and reached higher levels of theoretical and methodological sophistication. In effect, the challenges facing contemporary social scientists are not only limited to the challenge of constructing a sound index of democracy. Today, they also need a profound understanding of the differences between various measures of democracy and their implications for empirical applications. The introduction outlines how the contributions to this thematic issue help scholars cope with the recurrent issues of conceptualization, measurement, and application, and concludes by identifying avenues for future research.
    Description: Editorial of the issue “Why Choice Matters: Revisiting and Comparing Measures of Democracy”, edited by Heiko Giebler (WZB Berlin Social Science Center, Germany), Saskia P. Ruth (German Institute of Global and Area Studies, Germany), and Dag Tanneberg (University of Potsdam, Germany).
    Keywords: ddc:330 ; application ; conceptualization ; democracy ; democratic quality ; measurement
    Language: English
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  • 38
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    Kiel und Hamburg: ZBW - Deutsche Zentralbibliothek für Wirtschaftswissenschaften, Leibniz-Informationszentrum Wirtschaft
    Publication Date: 2018-04-30
    Description: I fit a high-dimensional macroeconomic dataset of 41 countries to a factor-augmented vector autoregressive model to examine the role of the recent Chinese economic slowdown for international inflation dynamics. I identify Chinese supply and demand shocks and examine their contributions to international price indicators. My main findings are: (i) Impulse response analyses indicate that Chinese business cycle shocks and especially demand shocks significantly spill over to inflation rates in Europe, North America, Asia and Oceania, mainly transmitted through global oil, commodity and manufacturing prices. (ii) The Chinese growth slowdown that started in 2012 can be attributed to a fall in aggregate Chinese demand and supply. (iii) Historical decompositions indicate that the fall in Chinese demand lowered national prices in Europe, North America, Asia and Oceania by up to 12 percent from the third quarter of 2013 on.
    Keywords: ddc:330 ; China’s Economic Slowdown ; Global inflation ; Spillovers ; Factor Augmented Vector Autoregressive Model
    Language: English
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  • 39
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    Essen: RWI - Leibniz-Institut für Wirtschaftsforschung
    Publication Date: 2018-05-01
    Description: Der weltwirtschaftliche Aufschwung hat sich im vergangenen Jahr deutlich verstärkt. In den fortgeschrittenen Volkswirtschaften wurden der private Konsum und die Exporte kräftig ausgeweitet. Die Belebung des Welthandels ging mit einer Zunahme der Nachfrage nach Rohstoffen einher. Die begünstigte insbesondere die rohstoffexportierenden Schwellenländer, die in den vergangenen Jahren unter dem deutlichen Fall der Rohstoffpreisen gelitten hatten. Dadurch hat sich der Kreis der Länder mit einer positiven gesamtwirtschaftlichen Entwicklung im vergangenen Jahr deutlich erhöht. Die Geldpolitik wird im Prognosezeitraum ihren expansiven Kurs voraussichtlich nach und nach zurücknehmen. Für die USA ist sogar zu erwarten, dass angesichts der kräftigen fiskalischen Impulse die Zinsen schneller angehoben werden als dies noch Ende vergangenen Jahres zu erwarten war. Für dieses Jahr stehen die Zeichen insgesamt günstig, dass die weltweite Produktion weiter kräftig expandieren wird. Nicht zuletzt dürfte die Steuersenkung in den USA die Nachfrage dort anregen, insbesondere die privaten Investitionen. Allerdings dürfte das rauere handelspolitische Klima, dass in der Einführung von Zöllen auf Stahl und Aluminium seitens der USA einen vorläufigen Höhepunkt erreichte, weltweit das Investitionsklima verschlechtern, insbesondere weil das Risiko besteht, dass auch andere Länder handelspolitische Maßnahmen ergreifen und sich der Konflikt auf andere Gütergruppen ausweitet. Aufgrund der derzeitigen Breite des internationalen Aufschwungs dürften die dämpfenden Wirkungen aber vorerst begrenzt bleiben. Alles in allem erwarten wir eine Zunahme der globalen Wirtschaftsleistung um 3,4% (Tabelle 1). Für das kommende Jahr ist ein etwas verlangsamtes Expansionstempo zu erwarten. Vor allem in den fortgeschrittenen Volkswirtschaften dürften die Notenbanken die Zinsen erhöhen. Zudem dämpfen voraussichtlich die bereits hoch ausgelasteten Kapazitäten zunehmend den Produktionsanstieg. Angesichts der nach wie vor schwachen Produktivitätsentwicklung ist zu erwarten, dass sich Lohnerhöhungen weiterhin nur schwer durchsetzen lassen. Die weltwirtschaftliche Produktion dürfte dann wohl um 3,2% ausgeweitet werden.
    Description: The upswing of the world economy has strengthened considerably over the last year. Private consumption and exports have expanded substantially in the advanced economies. The recovery of the international trade has gone hand in hand with a rise in the commodities demand. This was especially beneficial for the commodity exporting developing countries, which have suffered from a decline in the demand in previous years. The expansive monetary policy stance should tighten throughout the forecast period. Due to the strong fiscal stimulus in the U.S. it is even to be expected that the interest rates will be raised more quickly than anticipated at the end of the last year. For this year we expect that world output will continue to expand considerably. The tax cut in the U.S. should stimulate domestic demand, especially private investment. Nevertheless, the harsh situation in international trade, which sharpened with the announcement of tariffs on steel and aluminium, should have a negative impact on the investment climate. Moreover, there is a risk that the conflict will escalate and affect other countries and spread to different goods. The current scope of the international expansion, however, should attenuate these effects. Overall, we expect an increase of the global economic performance of 3.4%. For the upcoming year, we expect a slight slowdown of the expansionary pace. The central banks in advanced economies are likely to raise the interest rates. Furthermore, the already high capacity utilisation may dampen the expansion increasingly. Given the continued lower pace of technological progress, wage increases are not likely to take hold easily. Therefore, the world output is expected to grow by 3.2%. The biggest risk for the world economy currently is that trade barriers will affect international trade. Another present risk is the continued high valuation of risky assets. The forthcoming tightening of monetary policy should lead to a correction of the respective asset prices, which gives rise to a risk of overshooting. A positive risk for the forecast is that the trade conflict is resolved, which would result in a larger than anticipated strengthening of the economy.
    Keywords: ddc:330
    Language: German
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  • 40
    facet.materialart.
    Essen: RWI - Leibniz-Institut für Wirtschaftsforschung
    Publication Date: 2018-05-01
    Description: Der weltwirtschaftliche Aufschwung hat sich im vergangenen Jahr deutlich verstärkt. In den fortgeschrittenen Volkswirtschaften wurden der private Konsum und die Exporte kräftig ausgeweitet. Die Belebung des Welthandels ging mit einer Zunahme der Nachfrage nach Rohstoffen einher. Die begünstigte insbesondere die rohstoffexportierenden Schwellenländer, die in den vergangenen Jahren unter dem deutlichen Fall der Rohstoffpreisen gelitten hatten. Dadurch hat sich der Kreis der Länder mit einer positiven gesamtwirtschaftlichen Entwicklung im vergangenen Jahr deutlich erhöht. Die Geldpolitik wird im Prognosezeitraum ihren expansiven Kurs voraussichtlich nach und nach zurücknehmen. Für die USA ist sogar zu erwarten, dass angesichts der kräftigen fiskalischen Impulse die Zinsen schneller angehoben werden als dies noch Ende vergangenen Jahres zu erwarten war. Für dieses Jahr stehen die Zeichen insgesamt günstig, dass die weltweite Produktion weiter kräftig expandieren wird. Nicht zuletzt dürfte die Steuersenkung in den USA die Nachfrage dort anregen, insbesondere die privaten Investitionen. Allerdings dürfte das rauere handelspolitische Klima, dass in der Einführung von Zöllen auf Stahl und Aluminium seitens der USA einen vorläufigen Höhepunkt erreichte, weltweit das Investitionsklima verschlechtern, insbesondere weil das Risiko besteht, dass auch andere Länder handelspolitische Maßnahmen ergreifen und sich der Konflikt auf andere Gütergruppen ausweitet. Aufgrund der derzeitigen Breite des internationalen Aufschwungs dürften die dämpfenden Wirkungen aber vorerst begrenzt bleiben. Alles in allem erwarten wir eine Zunahme der globalen Wirtschaftsleistung um 3,4% (Tabelle 1). Für das kommende Jahr ist ein etwas verlangsamtes Expansionstempo zu erwarten. Vor allem in den fortgeschrittenen Volkswirtschaften dürften die Notenbanken die Zinsen erhöhen. Zudem dämpfen voraussichtlich die bereits hoch ausgelasteten Kapazitäten zunehmend den Produktionsanstieg. Angesichts der nach wie vor schwachen Produktivitätsentwicklung ist zu erwarten, dass sich Lohnerhöhungen weiterhin nur schwer durchsetzen lassen. Die weltwirtschaftliche Produktion dürfte dann wohl um 3,2% ausgeweitet werden.
    Description: The upswing of the world economy has strengthened considerably over the last year. Private consumption and exports have expanded substantially in the advanced economies. The recovery of the international trade has gone hand in hand with a rise in the commodities demand. This was especially beneficial for the commodity exporting developing countries, which have suffered from a decline in the demand in previous years. The expansive monetary policy stance should tighten throughout the forecast period. Due to the strong fiscal stimulus in the U.S. it is even to be expected that the interest rates will be raised more quickly than anticipated at the end of the last year. For this year we expect that world output will continue to expand considerably. The tax cut in the U.S. should stimulate domestic demand, especially private investment. Nevertheless, the harsh situation in international trade, which sharpened with the announcement of tariffs on steel and aluminium, should have a negative impact on the investment climate. Moreover, there is a risk that the conflict will escalate and affect other countries and spread to different goods. The current scope of the international expansion, however, should attenuate these effects. Overall, we expect an increase of the global economic performance of 3.4%. For the upcoming year, we expect a slight slowdown of the expansionary pace. The central banks in advanced economies are likely to raise the interest rates. Furthermore, the already high capacity utilisation may dampen the expansion increasingly. Given the continued lower pace of technological progress, wage increases are not likely to take hold easily. Therefore, the world output is expected to grow by 3.2%. The biggest risk for the world economy currently is that trade barriers will affect international trade. Another present risk is the continued high valuation of risky assets. The forthcoming tightening of monetary policy should lead to a correction of the respective asset prices, which gives rise to a risk of overshooting. A positive risk for the forecast is that the trade conflict is resolved, which would result in a larger than anticipated strengthening of the economy.
    Keywords: ddc:330
    Language: German
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  • 41
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    Maastricht: Global Labor Organization (GLO)
    Publication Date: 2018-05-01
    Description: We present experimental evidence on the impact of delivering double-fortified salt (DFS), salt fortified with iron and iodine, through the Indian school-feeding program called “midday meal” on anemia, cognition, and math and reading outcomes of primary school children. We conducted a field experiment that randomly provided one-year supply of DFS at a subsidized price to public primary schools in one of the poorest regions of India. The DFS treatment had significantly positive impacts on hemoglobin levels and reduced the prevalence of any form of anemia by 9.3 percentage points (or about 20 percent) but these health gains did not translate into statistically significant impacts on cognition and test scores. While exploring the heterogeneity in effects, we find that treatment had statistically significant gains in anemia and test scores among children with higher treatment compliance. We further estimate that the intervention was very cost effective and can potentially be scaled up rather easily.
    Keywords: C93 ; I1 ; O11 ; ddc:330 ; Double-fortified salt ; education ; anemia ; school feeding ; India ; randomized controlled trial
    Language: English
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    Halle (Saale): Leibniz Institute of Agricultural Development in Transition Economies (IAMO)
    Publication Date: 2018-05-01
    Description: We examine the plausibility of four established and innovative identification strategies for agricultural production functions using farm-level panel datasets from five EU countries. Newly suggested proxy and dynamic panel approaches provide attractive conceptual improvements over received Within and duality models. Even so, empirical implementation of such advancements does not always live up to expectations. This is particularly true for the dynamic panel estimator, which mostly failed to identify reasonable elasticities for the (quasi-) fixed factors. Less demanding proxy approaches represent an interesting alternative for agricultural applications. In our EU sample, high production elasticities for materials prevail. Hence, improving the availability of working capital is the most promising way to increase agricultural productivity.
    Description: Auf der Grundlage von einzelbetrieblichen Paneldatensätzen aus fünf EU Ländern untersuchen wir die Plausibilität von vier etablierten und innovativen Identifikationsstrategien für landwirtschaftliche Produktionsfunktionen. Die in jüngerer Zeit vorgeschlagenen Proxy- und dynamischen Panel-Ansätze bieten aussichtsreiche konzeptionelle Verbesserungen gegenüber herkömmlichen "Within" und Dualitätsmodellen. Die empirische Umsetzung dieser Weiterentwicklungen erfüllt jedoch nicht immer die Erwartungen. Dies trifft besonders auf den dynamischen Panel-Schätzer zu, dem es überwiegend nicht gelang, glaubwürdige Elastizitäten für die (quasi-) fixen Faktoren zu identifizieren. Weniger anspruchsvolle Proxy-Ansätze stellen eine interessante Alternative für landwirtschaftliche Anwendungen dar. In unserer EU Stichprobe fanden wir überwiegend hohe Produktionselastizitäten für Betriebsmittel. Die Verbesserung der Verfügbarkeit von Betriebsmittelkrediten erscheint daher als vielversprechender Weg, um die landwirtschaftliche Produktivität zu erhöhen.
    Keywords: C13 ; C23 ; D24 ; Q12 ; ddc:330 ; agricultural factor productivity ; production function estimation ; EU ; Farm Accountancy Data Network ; Landwirtschaftliche Faktorproduktivität ; Schätzung von Produktionsfunktionen ; Testbetriebsnetz
    Language: English
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  • 43
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    Nürnberg: Institut für Arbeitsmarkt- und Berufsforschung (IAB)
    Publication Date: 2018-05-03
    Description: Der bayerische Arbeitsmarkt ist in einer sehr guten Verfassung. Die sozialversicherungspflich-tige Beschäftigung steigt stetig an, die Zahl der Arbeitslosen erreicht immer neue Tiefstände und die Arbeitslosenquote bewegt sich nahe der Vollbeschäftigungsschwelle von 3 Prozent. Ob und wie sich diese Entwicklung 2018 fortsetzen wird, zeigt die regionale Arbeitsmarktprog-nose des Regionalen Forschungsnetzes (RFN) des Instituts für Arbeitsmarkt- und Berufsfor-schung (IAB) für 2018. In Anlehnung an die nationale Prognose des IAB veröffentlicht das RFN zweimal im Jahr Prognosen zur Zahl der Arbeitslosen und der sozialversicherungspflichtigen Beschäftigten (am Arbeitsort) für West- und Ostdeutschland sowie für die einzelnen Bundes-länder und Agenturbezirke der Bundesagentur für Arbeit. Demnach wird die Zahl der sozialversicherungspflichtigen Beschäftigten in Bayern im Ver-gleich zum Vorjahr um 2,1 Prozent und somit etwas kräftiger als in Deutschland insgesamt (1,9 Prozent) zunehmen. Die Zahl der Arbeitslosen wird mit -2,5 Prozent ähnlich stark zurück-gehen wie im bundesweiten Durchschnitt (-2,4 Prozent). Der Rückgang zeigt sich in beiden Rechtskreisen. Allerdings wird die SGB II Arbeitslosigkeit voraussichtlich etwas stärker zurückgehen (-2,6 Prozent) als die SGB III Arbeitslosigkeit (-2,3 Prozent). Innerhalb Bayerns zeigen sich vor allem Unterschiede zwischen Nord- und Ostbayern und zwischen den städtisch und ländlich geprägten Agenturbezirken. Zudem erschweren zunehmend strukturelle Probleme den Ausgleich am Arbeitsmarkt.
    Keywords: ddc:330 ; Arbeitsmarkt ; Prognose ; Konjunktur ; Bayern
    Language: German
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  • 44
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    Berlin: Deutsches Institut für Wirtschaftsforschung (DIW)
    Publication Date: 2018-05-03
    Description: The authors analyze gender differences in fairness perceptions of own wages and subsequent wage growth. The main finding is that women perceive their wage more often as fair if controls for hourly wage rates, individual and job-related characteristics are taken into account. Furthermore, the gender difference is more pronounced for married than for single women. This points to the fact that social norms, gender roles, and gender identity are at least partly responsible for the gap in fairness perceptions. Further analysis shows that individuals, who perceive their wage as unfair, experience larger wage growth in subsequent years. An explanation would be that a wage perceived as unfair triggers negotiations for a better wage or induces individuals to search for better paid work. Thus, differences in wage perceptions can contribute to explain the nowadays still persistent gender wage gap.
    Keywords: J16 ; J31 ; J71 ; A12 ; ddc:330 ; gender differences ; fairness ; social norms ; wages ; wage growth
    Language: English
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  • 45
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    Berlin: Deutsches Institut für Wirtschaftsforschung (DIW)
    Publication Date: 2018-05-03
    Description: Many studies confirm that marriage does not have lasting effects on levels of happiness, whereas divorce induces serious, scarring effects through social stigma. However, few academic efforts have been made regarding how remarriage after divorce impacts the subjective well-being (SWB) of the divorced. Taking into consideration that remarriage often entails regaining social acceptance, this paper examines the possibly different patterns of happiness depending on marital order. Specifically, this longitudinal study uses the German Socio-Economic Panel (SOEP) data set in order to compare SWB trajectories around first and subsequent marriages. The results show that the remarried go through a significantly greater boost in happiness than the first-married during the transition phase. Moreover, while life satisfaction that increased in the years around the first marriage quickly returns to the initial baseline, remarriage generates a lasting increase. This paper provides a complementary perspective to existing researches on divorce and debates over the hedonic treadmill theory.
    Keywords: ddc:330 ; Remarriage ; Subjective well-being ; Life course ; Social stigma
    Language: English
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  • 46
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    Berlin: Deutsches Institut für Wirtschaftsforschung (DIW)
    Publication Date: 2018-05-03
    Description: We investigate the role of individual labor income as moderator of the parental subjective well-being trajectories around the first childbirth. By analyzing the German Socioeconomic Panel Survey data, we find that high-income parents enjoy their first child less than low-income ones. In a low fertility country such as Germany, income seems therefore to matter negatively for parental subjective well-being after childbirth, though with important differences by gender. Among mothers, there is a positive and significant anticipation effect (i.e. increased subjective well-being) from becoming a parent, and this is higher for lower-income women. Conversely, during the years after the childbearing event, middle and high income women present a significant negative variation with respect to pre-child subjective well-being set-point, but only starting from the second year after childbirth. Among men, the anticipation effect is not present, whereas in the years following the childbirth there is an immediate strong decline in subjective well-being for fathers in the higher income groups. We discuss these findings in terms of preferences among different groups of parents and the differential costs of children - the latter closely related to difficulties in reconciling work and family.
    Keywords: ddc:330 ; first child ; subjective well-being ; individual income ; Germany
    Language: English
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  • 47
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    Nürnberg: Institut für Arbeitsmarkt- und Berufsforschung (IAB)
    Publication Date: 2018-05-03
    Description: Trotz anhaltenden Beschäftigungswachstums geht die Zahl der Arbeitslosen nicht im gleichen Umfang zurück. In Niedersachsen, wie in Deutschland insgesamt, lassen sich in den letzten Jahren eine Verfestigung der Langzeitarbeitslosigkeit sowie längere Arbeitslosigkeitsdauern beobachten. Dieser Beitrag widmet sich zwei Fragestellungen: Einerseits wird der Bestand der Arbeitslosen in Niedersachsen im Hinblick auf verschiedene Strukturmerkmale sowie auf die regionale Verteilung analysiert; zum anderen stehen die Übergänge aus Arbeitslosigkeit in Beschäftigung im Fokus. Eine nicht weiter differenzierte Betrachtung der Gruppe aller Arbeitslosen würde jedoch der eingangs beschriebenen Stagnation des Rückgangs der Langzeitarbeitslosigkeit nicht gerecht. Daher werden die Gruppe aller Langzeitarbeitslosen sowie eine als "arbeitsmarktferne" Langzeitarbeitslose bezeichnete Untergruppe, für die eine lange Dauer der Arbeitslosigkeit und kurze Beschäftigungserfahrungen kennzeichnend sind, mit der Gesamtheit aller Arbeitslosen verglichen. Die Ergebnisse zeigen, dass insbesondere Ältere und Personen ohne Berufsausbildung bei den Langzeitarbeitslosen überrepräsentiert sind und Langzeitarbeitslose deutlich seltener - gemessen am Bestand - Übergänge in Beschäftigung realisieren können. Gelingt die Aufnahme einer Beschäftigung, ist diese für Langzeitarbeitslose im Durchschnitt von kürzerer Dauer. In den meisten Fällen sind diese Unterschiede für die "arbeitsmarktfernen" Langzeitarbeitslosen noch stärker ausgeprägt.
    Keywords: ddc:330 ; Arbeitslosigkeit ; Langzeitarbeitslosigkeit ; Niedersachsen ; Übergänge in Beschäftigung
    Language: German
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  • 48
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    Nürnberg: Institut für Arbeitsmarkt- und Berufsforschung (IAB)
    Publication Date: 2018-05-03
    Description: Der Entgeltunterschied zwischen Frauen und Männern in Rheinland-Pfalz, die einer sozialversicherungspflichtigen Vollzeitbeschäftigung nachgehen, liegt bei 15,2 Prozent. Dieser geschlechtsspezifische Entgeltunterschied variiert innerhalb von Rheinland-Pfalz deutlich. In den kreisfreien Städten verdienen Frauen zwischen 8,3 Prozent (Neustadt an der Weinstraße) und 32,8 Prozent (Zweibrücken) weniger als die Männer. In den Landkreisen liegt der Gender Pay Gap zwischen 7,7 Prozent (Mainz-Bingen) und 29,9 Prozent (Germersheim). Vor allem in Kreisen, in denen das Verarbeitende Gewerbe dominiert, ist der Gender Pay Gap besonders hoch, ebenso in Kreisen, in denen vorwiegend Großbetriebe ansässig sind. In Kreisen mit einer jungen Altersstruktur ist der Gender Pay Gap dagegen vergleichsweise niedrig. Eine Oaxaca-Blinder-Zerlegung zeigt, dass vor allem die individuellen Merkmale einen Großteil der Höhe des Gender Pay Gap erklären. Die regionalen Faktoren, wie Wirtschafts- und Betriebsstruktur sowie die Altersstruktur in einer Region leisten kaum einen Beitrag zur Erklärung des Gender Pay Gap. Der Erklärungsbeitrag unterscheidet sich aber bei getrennter Betrachtung von Landkreisen und kreisfreien Städten: Insbesondere regionale Merkmale, wie Wirtschafts- und Altersstruktur wirken in den Landkreisen auf das Entgelt von Frauen positiver als auf das der Männer, was sich mindernd auf den geschlechtsspezifischen Entgeltunterschied auswirkt.
    Keywords: ddc:330 ; Regionaler Gender Pay Gap ; Rheinland-Pfalz
    Language: German
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  • 49
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    Nürnberg: Institut für Arbeitsmarkt- und Berufsforschung (IAB)
    Publication Date: 2018-05-03
    Description: Der Beitrag analysiert den Übergang von der Ausbildung ins Berufsleben in Sachsen. Dabei werden zwei Ausbildungskohorten (1994/1995 und 2011/2012) hinsichtlich ihrer Weiterbeschäftigung, ihres Wechselverhaltens und der Entgeltentwicklung an dieser sog. Zweiten Schwelle beobachtet. Dabei zeigt sich, dass knapp die Hälfte aller Auszubildenden der Ausbildungskohorte 2011/2012 im Anschluss an ihre Ausbildung weiter im Ausbildungsbetrieb beschäftigt ist. Mehr als ein Drittel wechselt den Betrieb. Rund 15 Prozent weisen eine Unterbrechung des Erwerbsverlaufes (z. B. durch Arbeitslosigkeit, Elternzeit, Erwerb eines höherqualifizierenden Abschlusses etc.) auf. In der Ausbildungskohorte 1994/1995 lag der Anteil derjenigen, die im Ausbildungsbetrieb weiterbeschäftigt waren, bei einem Drittel, etwa genauso viele wechselten den Betrieb und ein Drittel zeigte eine Unterbrechung des Erwerbsverlaufes. Damit spiegelt sich die in der jüngeren Vergangenheit und aktuell zu beobachtende stabile Arbeitsmarktlage auch an der Zweiten Schwelle wider. [...]
    Keywords: ddc:330 ; Arbeitsplatzwechsel ; Berufswechsel ; Einkommensentwicklung ; horizontale Mobilität ; innerbetriebliche Mobilität ; regionale Mobilität ; Zweite Schwelle ; zwischenbetriebliche Mobilität
    Language: German
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  • 50
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    Berlin: Deutsches Institut für Wirtschaftsforschung (DIW)
    Publication Date: 2018-05-03
    Description: This paper examines the degree of persistence in UK inflation by applying long-memory methods to historical data that span the period from 1660 to 2016. Specifically, we use both parametric and non-parametric fractional integration techniques, that are more general than those based on the classical I(0) vs. I(1) dichotomy. Further, we carry out break tests to detect any shifts in the degree of persistence, and also run rolling-window and recursive regressions to investigate its evolution over time. On the whole, the evidence suggests that the degree of persistence of UK inflation has been relatively stable following the Bretton Woods period, despite the adoption of different monetary regimes. The estimation of an unobserved-components stochastic volatility model sheds further light on the issues of interest by showing that post-Bretton Woods changes in UK inflation are attributable to a fall in the volatility of permanent shocks.
    Keywords: C14 ; C22 ; E31 ; ddc:330 ; UK inflation ; persistence ; fractional integration
    Language: English
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  • 51
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    Berlin: Deutsches Institut für Wirtschaftsforschung (DIW)
    Publication Date: 2018-05-03
    Description: We analyze whether start-up rates in different industries systematically change with business cycle variables. Using a unique data set at the industry level, we mostly find correlations that are consistent with counter-cyclical influences of the business cycle on entries in both innovative and non-innovative industries. Entries into the largescale industries, including the innovative part of manufacturing, are only influenced by changes in the cyclical component of unemployment, while entries into small-scale industries, like knowledge intensive services, are mostly influenced by changes in the cyclical component of GDP. Thus, our analysis suggests that favorable conditions in terms of high GDP might not be germane for start-ups. Given that both innovative and non-innovative businesses react counter-cyclically in 'regular' recessions, business formation may have a stabilizing effect on the economy.
    Keywords: E32 ; L16 ; L26 ; R11 ; ddc:330 ; new business formation ; entrepreneurship ; business cycle ; manufacturing ; services ; innovative industries
    Language: English
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  • 52
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    Nürnberg: Institut für Arbeitsmarkt- und Berufsforschung (IAB)
    Publication Date: 2018-05-03
    Description: Die vorliegende Studie beleuchtet Strukturen und Trends der Beschäftigung, der Arbeitslosigkeit und der Ausbildung in MINT-Berufen in Hessen. Neben dem Blick auf die Entwicklung und den aktuellen Stand der Beschäftigung wird hierbei auch die Arbeitslosigkeit in MINT-Berufen analysiert. Ferner wird die aktuelle Nachwuchssituation anhand der MINT-Ausbildungsberufe und -Studienfächer betrachtet, um ein ganzheitliches Bild sowohl von dem zu erwartenden Arbeitskräfteangebot als auch von den sich anhand der gesetzten Studien- und Ausbildungsschwerpunkte im MINT-Bereich abzeichnenden Zukunftstrends (Nachfrageseite) zu liefern. MINT-Berufe bieten in der Regel ein gutes und relativ sicheres Arbeitsfeld. Die Beschäftigungschancen in MINT-Berufen in Hessen sind günstig dank fortwährend guter Entwicklung in diesem berufsspezifischen Arbeitsmarkt. Auch die Entwicklung der Arbeitslosigkeit in MINT-Berufen ist positiv zu werten. Jedoch sind MINT-Berufe nach wie vor eine Männerdomäne. Die geschlechtsspezifische Segregation auf dem Arbeitsmarkt wird bereits in der beruflichen und akademischen Ausbildung zementiert.
    Keywords: ddc:330 ; Ausbildung ; Beschäftigung ; Hessen ; MINT ; Studium
    Language: German
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    Berlin: Deutsches Institut für Wirtschaftsforschung (DIW)
    Publication Date: 2018-05-03
    Keywords: ddc:330
    Language: German
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    Berlin: Deutsches Institut für Wirtschaftsforschung (DIW)
    Publication Date: 2018-05-03
    Keywords: ddc:330
    Language: German
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  • 55
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    Berlin: Deutsches Institut für Wirtschaftsforschung (DIW)
    Publication Date: 2018-05-03
    Keywords: ddc:330
    Language: German
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  • 56
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    Berlin: Deutsches Institut für Wirtschaftsforschung (DIW)
    Publication Date: 2018-05-03
    Description: This paper investigates whether personality traits can explain glass ceilings (increasing gender wage gaps across the wage distribution). Using longitudinal survey data from Germany, the UK, and Australia, I combine unconditional quantile regressions with wage gap decompositions to identify the effect of personality traits on wage gaps. The results suggest that the impact of personality traits on wage gaps increases across the wage distribution in all countries. Personality traits explain up to 14.5% of the overall gender wage gap. However, controlling for personality traits does not lead to a significant reduction of unexplained wage gaps in most cases.
    Keywords: C21 ; J16 ; J31 ; ddc:330 ; non-cognitive skills ; personality traits ; unconditional quantile regression ; gender wage gap ; glass ceiling
    Language: English
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  • 57
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    Frankfurt a. M.: Goethe University, SAFE - Sustainable Architecture for Finance in Europe
    Publication Date: 2018-02-14
    Description: Even if the importance of micro data transparency is a well-established fact, European institutions are still lacking behind the US when it comes to the provision of financial market data to academics. In this Policy Letter we discuss five different types of micro data that are crucial for monitoring (systemic) risk in the financial system, identifying and understanding inter-linkages in financial markets and thus have important implications for policymakers and regulatory authorities. We come to the conclusion that for all five areas of micro data, outlined in this Policy Letter (bank balance sheet data, asset portfolio data, market transaction data, market high frequency data and central bank data), the benefits of increased transparency greatly offset potential downsides. Hence, European policymakers would do well to follow the US example and close the sizeable gap in micro data transparency. For most cases, relevant data is already collected (at least on national level), but just not made available to academics for partly incomprehensible reasons. Overcoming these obstacles could foster financial stability in Europe and assure level playing fields with US regulators and policymakers.
    Keywords: ddc:330 ; micro data transparency ; financial stability ; financial market data
    Language: English
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  • 58
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    Rostock: Universität Rostock, Wirtschafts- und Sozialwissenschaftliche Fakultät, Institut für Volkswirtschaftslehre
    Publication Date: 2018-02-14
    Description: Ein Mindestmaß an Finanzkompetenz ist Voraussetzung für eine nachhaltige Nutzung von Finanzdienstleistungen, gesellschaftlichen Teilhabe und gelungene Integration. Die vorliegende Pilotstudie untersucht qualitativ, welche finanziellen Kompetenzen und Praktiken auf Seiten Geflüchteter vorliegen und welche Bedarfe und Hindernisse für die sinnvolle Nutzung von Finanzdienstleistungen bestehen. Sie konzentriert sich auf in Hamburg lebende Geflüchtete mit guter Bleibeperspektive aus Syrien, Irak und Eritrea. Feldbeobachtungen, Einzelinterviews und Fokusgruppendiskussionen zeigen, dass die finanzielle Bildung der Befragten gering ausgeprägt ist. Dies erklärt sich vor allem durch mangelnde Praxis sowie sprachliche Barrieren. Bereits in den Heimatländern wurden formelle Finanzdienstleistungen wenig genutzt. Finanzielle Transaktionen und Sparen werden überwiegend bar durchgeführt. Komplexere Finanzprodukte und Versicherungen werden nicht genutzt. Die finanzielle Inklusion der befragten Geflüchteten ist folglich nicht erreicht.
    Description: A minimum level of financial competence is a prerequisite for the sustainable use of financial services, social participation and successful integration. This pilot study is a qualitative study of the financial competencies and practices of refugees and the needs and obstacles to the appro-priate use of financial services. It focuses on refugees from Syria, Iraq and Eritrea living in Hamburg and having good prospects of staying in Germany. Field observations, individual interviews and focus group discussions show that the respondents' financial education is low. This is mainly due to a lack of practice and language barriers. Even in the home countries, formal financial services have been used little. Financial transactions and savings are mostly carried out in cash. More complex financial products and insurances are not used. The financial inclusion of the refugees interviewed has therefore not been achieved.
    Keywords: D14 ; I22 ; J15 ; ddc:330 ; financial education ; financial literacy ; financial behavior ; migration ; refugees
    Language: German
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  • 59
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    Kiel: Kiel Institute for the World Economy (IfW)
    Publication Date: 2018-02-14
    Description: The authors develop a model of cheap talk with multiple speakers in the presence of network externalities so that their utility functions are increasing in the network size. They first show that if there is no noise in private information that each sender receives, the full information is revealed by the harshest cross-checking strategies, that is, strategies to punish the senders unless their messages exactly coincide. Then, the authors show that with even a small noise cross-checking strategies cannot induce full revelation if utility functions of senders are linear in the network size, while full revelation is possible if utility functions are strictly concave. They find a sufficient condition for the existence of a fully revealing equilibrium which is supported by the cross-checking strategy with a positive confidence interval independent of each sender's private information.
    Keywords: C7 ; D8 ; ddc:330 ; cheap talk ; cross-checking strategy ; fully revealing equilibrium ; network externality ; word-of-mouth communication
    Language: English
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  • 60
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    Kiel: Kiel Institute for the World Economy (IfW)
    Publication Date: 2018-02-14
    Description: This paper examines the impact of income growth and income inequality on household saving rates and payoffs in a non-cooperative game where each player's payoff depends on her present and future consumption and her rank in the present-consumption distribution. The setting is a pooling equilibrium with three clusters of successive income groups, each cluster having its own present-consumption standard and rank in the present-consumption distribution. In this way the analysis addresses the saving behaviour and welfare of three social classes: the lower, middle and upper class. The author finds explanations for the Easterlin paradox and the Kuznets consumption puzzle and concludes that rank concerns tend to weaken the standard effect of inequality on aggregate saving.
    Keywords: C72 ; D31 ; D62 ; E21 ; I31 ; Z10 ; ddc:330 ; status ; relative consumption ; saving ; income inequality ; income growth
    Language: English
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  • 61
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    Kiel: Kiel Institute for the World Economy (IfW)
    Publication Date: 2018-02-14
    Description: The United Nations in February 2017 declared a famine emergency in light of the imminent danger of starvation facing an estimated 20 million people in four countries, and appealed urgently for US$4 billion to meet immediate needs. Other countries face grave food shortages that present urgent humanitarian needs and undermine long term prospects for peace and development. A feature of contemporary hunger crises is their tight links to conflicts. Religious institutions and leaders are actively involved in the immediate and specific famine situation affecting African nations and Yemen and in efforts to end the conflicts that are the primary cause of famine. More broadly, religious leaders are acting to achieve the United Nations Sustainable Development Goal (SDG) 2, Zero Hunger, by 2030. The imperative to act on hunger is shared across religious divides, and the common purpose that binds different religious communities portends well for peacebuilding and progress in the affected areas. Religious actors should thus be an integral part of the international response to famine emergencies as well as to the Zero Hunger challenge. The urgent crises are pertinent for G20 members and should be prominent on G20 agendas. G20 attention and support to religious roles could enhance responses to the famine and peacebuilding in affected areas and thus contribute to unlocking the potential of the affected countries. Interfaith and intrafaith action on SDG 2, highlighted as part of the global agenda, can speed progress towards Zero Hunger.
    Keywords: Q18 ; ddc:330 ; Famine ; Sustainable Development Goals ; Zero Hunger ; Starvation ; Catholic ; Muslim ; South Sudan ; Nigeria ; Somalia ; Yemen ; Myanmar ; Rohingya ; Interfaith
    Language: English
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  • 62
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    Kiel: Kiel Institute for the World Economy (IfW)
    Publication Date: 2018-02-14
    Description: The paper provides firm-level insights into the drivers of foreign technology licensing from the perspective of the licensee, using data across 114 nations. Drawing on the theoretical foundations related to knowledge spillovers, results show that manufacturing firms with own R&D capabilities were more likely to license foreign technologies, as were larger firms and those situated in the nations' main business city. Greater literacy facilitated foreign technology licensing, while overall economic prosperity of a nation did not have a significant impact. Interestingly, higher domestic interest rates, related to capital costs and to overall monetary policy, induced firms to license technology from abroad. Finally, some institutions like greater economic freedom aided technology licensing, while others like strong patent protection were not found to have a sizable impact.
    Keywords: L24 ; O33 ; O57 ; ddc:330 ; technology licensing ; R&D ; firm size ; location ; taxes ; informal competition
    Language: English
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    Brussels: European Centre for International Political Economy (ECIPE)
    Publication Date: 2018-02-15
    Description: Governments use taxation as a policy instrument to create a favourable business climate in the face of competition from neighbouring countries. Tech companies appear to be bearing the brunt of the blame associated with this geopolitics of tax, even though it is actually governments who set tax law and determine the international allocation of profit. The prevailing public perception that tech companies pay less corporate taxes is a myth: A comparison of the global effective tax rates (ETRs) paid by some of the world's largest internet firms worldwide shows that they pay taxes which are on average with those of leading businesses across the Asia-Pacific region. In addition, the biggest companies from Silicon Valley pay similar or even higher rates than those paid by many other internet companies in the Asia-Pacific region. The real question is where corporate taxes are paid. Most businesses tend to keep their key functions and production capacities in the country where they were once founded. By extension, they also tend to pay their taxes in that country. If Silicon Valley was to engage in profit shifting, they would be moving their profits in the other direction: To Asia, where the growth rates are higher and corporate tax rates are lower - not vice versa ...
    Keywords: ddc:330
    Language: English
    Type: doc-type:report
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    facet.materialart.
    Mannheim: Zentrum für Europäische Wirtschaftsforschung (ZEW)
    Publication Date: 2018-02-15
    Description: The paper investigates the reaction of public R&D spending on economic crises. We are interested in two counteracting motives: On the one hand, public R&D spending can be seen as a means to fight the crisis, and governments may decide to increase their R&D budgets. On the other hand, a crisis reduces public income and urges governments to cut spending, which may negatively affect public R&D budgets. Using panel data from 26 OECD countries over the period 1995 to 2015, we investigate how public R&D expenditure changes over the business cycle for different types of government R&D expenditure. On average, we find evidence for a strong pro-cyclical effect on public R&D investments. But country heterogeneity matters. Whereas European innovation leaders and non-EU countries pursue a counter-cyclical strategy, innovation followers and moderate innovators behave pro-cyclical. This leads to an increasing innovation gap in Europe. Short-run and long-run financing conditions (budget surplus and government debt levels) also significantly affect public R&D spending. However, there is no evidence that economic crises systematically affect the composition of public R&D spending along different thematic areas or by beneficiaries.
    Keywords: H54 ; H12 ; H61 ; ddc:330 ; public R&D expenditure ; economic crisis ; OECD ; panel data
    Language: English
    Type: doc-type:workingPaper
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