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  • facet.materialart.
    Oles Honchar Dnipropetrovsk National University
    Online: 1(1).2010 –
    Publisher: Oles Honchar Dnipropetrovsk National University
    Print ISSN: 2310-4155
    Electronic ISSN: 2312-7295
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Keywords: Allgemeine Biowissenschaften ; Allgemeine medizinische Zeitschriften
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  • facet.materialart.
    München: ifo Institut für Wirtschaftsforschung an der Universität München
    Publication Date: 2017-08-04
    Keywords: H20 ; H21 ; ddc:330 ; Finanzausgleich ; Horizontaler Finanzausgleich ; Kanada ; Fiscal transfer ; Horizontal fiscal transfer ; Canada
    Language: English
    Type: doc-type:article
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  • facet.materialart.
    Institute for the Study of Labor (IZA) Bonn
    Publication Date: 2015-07-08
    Description: We analyze the impact of information frictions on workers' wages, contributing to the literature that tested search theory, which has so far focused on labor market frictions in general and not specifically on information asymmetries. Using data for 16 countries from the European Social Survey 2008, we find a sizeable gap between workers' perceptions of the unemployment rate and the actual unemployment rate in the country, which is a meaningful indicator of their misperception of labor market tightness. To handle the interval nature of our outcome of interest, the earnings variable, we estimate interval regressions, as well as ordered probit models. We follow a threefold strategy to tackle potential endogeneity problems, as the model includes: controls for the worker's ability; country-specific fixed effects; the unemployment rate in the region of residence, which might be the benchmark respondents have in mind when reporting their perception of the national unemployment rate and which is known to influence regional wages. Results show that when subjective perceptions overstate the unemployment rate in the country, a one percentage point gap between the perceived and the actual unemployment rate reduces individual wages by 0.4 to 0.7 percent. We discuss a potential mechanism generating this result. A pessimistic view of the labor market leads to concern over own future employment prospects and is thus likely to lower reservation wages; a too optimistic view, in turn, could raise reservation wages, but it would render job finding more difficult.
    Keywords: J31 ; J42 ; J64 ; ddc:330 ; job search ; matching ; unemployment ; frictions ; wage dispersion ; labor market tightness
    Language: English
    Type: doc-type:workingPaper
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  • facet.materialart.
    Centre for Microdata Methods and Practice (cemmap) London
    Publication Date: 2014-09-08
    Description: In this paper we study the impact of misreported treatment status on the estimation of causal treatment effects. We characterise the bias introduced by misclassification on the average treatment effect on the treated under the assumption of selection on observables. Although the bias of matching-type estimators computed from misclassified data cannot in general be signed, we show that the bias is most likely to be downward if misclassification does not depend on variables entering the selection-on-observables assumption, or only depends on such variables via the propensity score index. We extend the framework to multiple treatments. We provide results to bound the returns to a number of educational qualifications in the UK semi-parametrically, and by using the unique nature of our data we assess the plausibility for the two biases from measurement error and from omitted variables to cancel out.
    Keywords: C10 ; I20 ; J31 ; ddc:330 ; Measurement Error , Misclassification , Programme Evaluation , Returns to Educational Qualifications , Treatment Effect , Bounds
    Language: English
    Type: doc-type:workingPaper
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  • facet.materialart.
    Institute for the Study of Labor (IZA) Bonn
    Publication Date: 2015-05-22
    Description: Using the 1996-2001 Chilean CASEN Panel Survey, this paper analyzes the impact on income of the switch from salaried employment to entrepreneurship (self-employment and leadership of micro-enterprises). By means of a difference-in-differences non-parametric matching estimator the paper alleviates problems of selection bias (on observable and unobservable traits) and creates the appropriate counterfactuals of interest. The results indicate that the income gains associated with the switch from salaried employment to entrepreneurship are positive, statistically significant and financially substantial. Even more, the results are qualitatively the same using mean and medians, suggesting that the impacts are not influenced by the presence of few superstar winners. Additionally, the income changes associated with the reverse switches (from self-employment to salaried jobs) are negative. The results also suggest interesting gender differences, as females show higher gains than males on the switch from salaried jobs to entrepreneurship and lower losses on the reverse switch.
    Keywords: ddc:330 ; Selbstständige ; Unternehmer ; Unternehmensgründung ; Einkommen ; Chile
    Language: English
    Type: doc-type:workingPaper
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  • facet.materialart.
    Inter-American Development Bank, Research Dep. Washington, DC
    Publication Date: 2011-11-19
    Description: Using the 1996-2001 Chilean CASEN Panel Survey, this paper analyzes the impact on income of the switch from salaried employment to entrepreneurship (self-employment and leadership of micro-enterprises). By means of a differencein-differences non-parametric matching estimator the paper alleviates problems of selection bias (on observable and unobservable traits) and creates the appropriate counterfactuals of interest. The results indicate that the income gains associated with the switch from salaried employment to entrepreneurship are positive, statistically significant and financially substantial. Even more, the results are qualitatively the same using mean and medians, suggesting that the impacts are not influenced by the presence of few 'superstar winners'. Additionally, the income changes associated with the reverse switches (from self-employment to salaried jobs) are negative. The results also suggest interesting gender differences, as females show higher gains than males on the switch from salaried jobs to entrepreneurship and lower losses on the reverse switch.
    Keywords: J16 ; J31 ; J41 ; ddc:330 ; difference-in-differences ; non-parametric matching ; micro-enterprises ; Entrepreneurship-Ansatz ; Selbstständige ; Einkommen ; Frauen ; Schätzung ; Chile
    Language: English
    Type: doc-type:workingPaper
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  • facet.materialart.
    Institute for the Study of Labor (IZA) Bonn
    Publication Date: 2015-05-22
    Description: This paper explores the relative success of ethnic and immigrant Ukrainians in Canada and in the United States. We found evidence for both a sheepskin and citizenship effects, which partially explains the strong economic performance of Ukrainian immigrants in Canada. Ukrainian immigrants to the U.S. are overachievers relative to all groups, which sheds light on Borjas thesis that self-selection and not immigration policy sorts immigrants between Canada and the U.S.
    Keywords: J61 ; J31 ; ddc:330 ; immigration ; earnings ; ethnicity ; assimilation ; Einwanderung ; Ukrainer ; Soziale Integration ; Einkommen ; Erfolgsfaktor ; Kanada ; Vereinigte Staaten
    Language: English
    Type: doc-type:workingPaper
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  • facet.materialart.
    Bonn: Institute for the Study of Labor (IZA)
    Publication Date: 2017-05-31
    Description: This paper assesses the performance of common estimators adjusting for differences in covariates, such as matching and regression, when faced with so-called common support problems. It also shows how different procedures suggested in the literature affect the properties of such estimators. Based on an Empirical Monte Carlo simulation design, a lack of common support is found to increase the root mean squared error (RMSE) of all investigated parametric and semiparametric estimators. Dropping observations that are off support usually improves their performance, although the magnitude of the improvement depends on the particular method used.
    Keywords: C21 ; J68 ; ddc:330 ; Empirical Monte Carlo Study ; matching estimation ; regression ; common support ; outlier ; small sample performance
    Language: English
    Type: doc-type:workingPaper
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  • facet.materialart.
    Publication Date: 2013-05-22
    Description: German structural policy is characterized by a composite indicator with three targets:(1) minimization of unemployment, (2) maximization of GDP, and (3) equalization of regional unemployment rates. The composite indicator with given target weights is maximized subject to budget constraints and some administrative restrictions. The optimal combinations of target indices obtained for variable weight ratios are to be considered by a policy maker who thereby makes the final choice among already optimized outcomes, not being burdened with adjusting the target weights. The optimization is performed for econometric predictions-2004 which are derived from regional data for 1994-2002. Comparing with the optimal budget distribution, the efficiency of the actual "manual" budget distribution in 2000-2002 is about 4%, that is, the results actually obtained for 6 Bio. EUR could be obtained for 241 Mio.EUR (= 4% of the actual budget). Such a bad implementation of active labour market policies can be responsible for their low efficiency reported in some empirical studies and misinterpreted as their uselessness. Besides, it is found that the most productive jobs (most contributing to GDP) require least subsidies. Finally, taxes expected from new jobs allow to consider the problem from a managerial viewpoint. In particular, the government can maximize tax returns from investments in labour market policies.
    Keywords: C33 ; H25 ; J68 ; R00 ; R15 ; ddc:330 ; European Commission ; structural funds ; regional policy ; active labour market policies ; equalizing regional unemployment rates ; economic growth
    Language: English
    Type: doc-type:workingPaper
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  • facet.materialart.
    Publication Date: 2013-05-22
    Description: Reducing disparities among regions within European countries together with economic development is the aim of European and national structural policies. In particular, a European grant contributes to the German governmental program for reducing and equalizing regional unemployment. The goal is to bring unemployment down to the national average by creating new and/or by safeguarding existing jobs, which also contributes to decreasing national unemployment and to GDP growth. The distribution of available aid among 271 German labor market regions is considered as an econometric decision problem with three targets: (1) minimization of unemployment, (2) maximization of GDP, and (3) equalization of regional unemployment rates, subject to the budget constraint and some administrative restrictions. To prepare grounds for optimization, econometric predictions are made for the year 2004 from regional data 1994-2001. The model can be regarded as a prototype of decision-aid for designing regional policy at national and European levels.
    Keywords: J68 ; R00 ; R15 ; C33 ; H25 ; ddc:330 ; European Commission ; structural fund grants ; regional policy ; unemployment ; equalizing regional unemployment rates ; economic growth
    Language: English
    Type: doc-type:workingPaper
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