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  • 1
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    New York : Wiley-Blackwell
    Biopolymers 24 (1985), S. 461-482 
    ISSN: 0006-3525
    Keywords: Chemistry ; Polymer and Materials Science
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Notes: Mechanical creep and creep recovery in small shearing deformations have been studied in unligated clots formed with both thrombin and ancrod. In thrombin clots, both A binding sites (which interact with “a” sites to link monomer units within a protofibril) and B sites (which interact with “b” sites to form links between protofibrils) are exposed to enable formation of linkages; in ancrod clots, only the A sites are exposed. Fine clots (with minimal lateral aggregation of protofibrils), coarse clots (with substantial aggregation of fibril bundles), and clots of intermediate coarseness were compared. Fine thrombin clots showed less creep at short times but more creep at long times than coarse or intermediate clots and had more irrecoverable deformation relative to the initial elastic deformation. Ancrod clots had greater irrecoverable deformation than the corresponding thrombin clots, both fine and coarse. The permanent deformation in fine ancrod clots was enormous, corresponding almost to fluid character; the rate of permanent deformation was larger than that in fine thrombin clots by more than two orders of magnitude. For all types of clots, differential measurements of compliance (or its reciprocal, elastic modulus), as well as the applicability of the Boltzmann superposition principle to calculation of creep recovery, showed that the overall density of structure remained constant throughout the mechanical history; i.e., if structural elements were breaking, they were reforming at the same rate in different configurations. The possibility that the weakness of ancrod clots is attributable to partial degradation of α-chains rather than absence of Bb linkages was eliminated by comparisons of clots made with thrombin, ancrod, and ancrod plus thrombin; the last two showed identical partial degradation of α-chains (by gel electrophoresis), but the first and third had essentially identical initial elastic moduli and creep behavior. Two alternative mechanisms for irrecoverable deformation in fine clots are discussed, involving rupture of protofibrils and slippage of twisted segments, respectively.
    Additional Material: 12 Ill.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 2
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    New York : Wiley-Blackwell
    Biopolymers 25 (1986), S. 1315-1336 
    ISSN: 0006-3525
    Keywords: Chemistry ; Polymer and Materials Science
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Notes: The polymerization of fibrin, at pH 8.5 and ionic strength 0.45, and under conditions where the action of thrombin on fibrinogen was the rate-determining step, was interrupted by inactivating thrombin with p-nitrophenyl-p′-guanidinobenzoate (NPGB). Addition of the tetrapeptide Gly-Pro-Arg-Pro (GPRP) partially dissociated the fibrin oligomers as shown by subsequent ligation with Factor XIIIa and calcium ion followed by denaturation and gel electrophoresis; polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis with reduction showed a decrease in the proportion of γ-γ ligation compared with controls untreated by GPRP, and agarose gel electrophoresis showed a shift in the distribution of oligomer sizes. The dissociation was accomplished within 15 min and its extent was consistent with establishment of an equilibrium in which two molecules of GPRP react to sever an oligomer. When GPRP was introduced into fine unligated fibrin clots by diffusion, there was some dissociation as shown by differences in the degree of γ-γ ligation after treatment by Factor XIIIa; but the action of GPRP was much slower and less complete than on soluble oligomers. However, even a small amount of dissociation affected the mechanical properties of fine clots profoundly. The shear modulus (measured 25 s after application of stress) decreased progressively with increasing concentration of GPRP introduced by diffusion. The rate of shear creep under constant stress and the proportion of irrecoverable deformation also increased enormously. If the steadystate creep rate is interpreted in terms of an effective viscosity, the latter is decreased by up to three orders of magnitude by the presence of GPRP. In terms of transient network theories of viscoelasticity, the average lifetime of a network strand is greatly diminished. However, the total density of strands remains constant during creep and creep recovery as shown by constancy of the differential modulus or compliance. Removal of GPRP by diffusion only partially restores the original shear modulus and creep behavior of the original clot. Some limited data on the effect of the tetrapeptide Gly-His-Arg-Pro are also reported.
    Additional Material: 8 Ill.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 3
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    s.l. : American Chemical Society
    Biochemistry 22 (1983), S. 4336-4340 
    ISSN: 1520-4995
    Source: ACS Legacy Archives
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 4
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    s.l. : American Chemical Society
    Biochemistry 25 (1986), S. 5667-5673 
    ISSN: 1520-4995
    Source: ACS Legacy Archives
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 5
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    New York : Wiley-Blackwell
    Biopolymers 23 (1984), S. 127-138 
    ISSN: 0006-3525
    Keywords: Chemistry ; Polymer and Materials Science
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Notes: Human fibrinogen was treated with thrombin in the presence of fibrinoligase (Factor XIIIa) and calcium ion at pH 8.5, ionic strength 0.45, and the ensuing polymerization was interrupted at various time intervals (t) both before and after the clotting time (tc) by solubilization with a solution of sodium dodecyl sulfate and urea. Aliquots of the solubilized protein were subjected to gel electrophoresis on polyacrylamide gels after disulfide reduction by dithiothreitol and on agarose gels without reduction. The degree of γ-γ ligation was determined from the former. The latter provided the size distribution of ligated end-to-end sequences produced by splitting the ligated staggered overlapped oligomers down the middle, for degrees of polymerization, x, from 1 to 10. Addition of fibrinoligase (in which the activating thrombin had been inhibited by p-nitrophenyl-p′-guanidinobenzoate, NPGB) to Kabi fibrinogen showed the presence of small amounts of ligatable oligomers. Addition of fibrinoligase to a polymerizing mixture in which the action of thrombin had been stopped before clotting by NPGB produced the same distribution of ligated end-to-end sequences that was obtained when fibrinoligase was originally present, at least for reaction times up to 0.7 of the clotting time. The kinetics of γ-γ ligation by fibrinoligase acting on a polymerized mixture stabilized by NPGB were followed. The reaction was first order in the concentration of ligatable γ-γ junctions and the initial velocity was proportional to the enzyme concentration. The time evolution of size distribution of ligated end-to-end sequences agreed with a theory based on random ligation of ligatable junctions.
    Additional Material: 6 Ill.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 6
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    New York : Wiley-Blackwell
    Biopolymers 21 (1982), S. 2265-2277 
    ISSN: 0006-3525
    Keywords: Chemistry ; Polymer and Materials Science
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Notes: Human fibrinogen was treated with thrombin in the presence of fibrinoligase (Factor XIIIa) and calcium ion at pH 8.5, ionic strength 0.45, and the ensuing polymerization was interrupted at various time intervals (t) both before and after the clotting time (tc) by solubilization with a solution of sodium dodecylsulfate and urea. Aliquots of the solubilized protein were subjected to gel electrophoresis on polyacrylamide gels after disulfide reduction by dithiothreitol and on agarose gels without reduction. The degree of γ-γ ligation was determined from the former and the size distribution of ligated oligomers, for degree of polymerization x from 1 to 10, from the latter. In some experiments, thrombin was inhibited, after partial polymerization, by p-nitrophenyl-p′-guanidinobenzoate. From these, it was concluded that for thrombin concentration ≤0.013 units/mL and fibrinoligase ≥30 mg/L, oligomer assembly is rapid compared with peptide A release and ligation is rapid compared with assembly. Under these conditions, the theory of the first paper of this series describes rather well the time dependences of the degree of γ-γ ligation, the weight fractions of monomer and small oligomers, and the number- and weight-average degrees of polymerization after solubilization of the staggered overlapped assemblies, each of which splits to give two strands of end-to-end ligated oligomers. The theory assumes that the second A peptide is released by thrombin more rapidly than the first by a factor q, which, from the experimental data, is determined to be 16. The subsequent assembly into staggered overlapped oligomers follows the statistics of linear polycondesation taking into account the presence of both difunctional and monofunctional combining units. For higher thrombin or lower fibrinoligase concentrations, ligation fails to keep pace with oligomer assembly, and the size distributions after solubilization show a higher proportion of very small and a lower proportion of larger ligated oligomers, owing to separation of the staggered overlapped assemblies into smaller fragments.
    Additional Material: 10 Ill.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 7
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    New York : Wiley-Blackwell
    Biopolymers 22 (1983), S. 2017-2019 
    ISSN: 0006-3525
    Keywords: Chemistry ; Polymer and Materials Science
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Additional Material: 1 Ill.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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