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  • 1
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Springer
    Plant and soil 82 (1984), S. 303-314 
    ISSN: 1573-5036
    Keywords: Acetylene reduction ; Disease resistance ; Host-Rhizobium strain interaction ; Nitrate reductase ; Nodule enzymes ; Nodule mass ; 15N evaluation ; Plant vigor
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Agriculture, Forestry, Horticulture, Fishery, Domestic Science, Nutrition
    Notes: Summary The goal of breeding alfalfa for increased N2 fixation potential is addressed. A chronological progression of breeding, physiological, microbiological, and plant pathological research is described. Studies describing the interrelationships among plant morphological, plant physiological, andRhizobium effectiveness traits are summarized. It was concluded that N2 fixation in alfalfa is affected by coordinated responses among many physiological and biochemical traits. The simultaneous improvement of many factors in the symbiosis requires a comprehensive multiple-step breeding program. The current program includes selection in the glasshouse for seedling vigor,Rhizobium preference, shoot growth, nodule mass, root growth, nitrogenase (as measured by acetylene reduction), and nodule enzyme activity. The inclusion of additional selection traits is anticipated. Field evaluations of N2 fixation potential of alfalfa populations are made with15N isotope dilution techniques. Plant germplasm sources used in the breeding program include several heterogeneous populations which have good combining ability and pest resistance when they are intercrossed. Significant progress has been made in achieving the goal of breeding alfalfa for improved N2 fixation.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 2
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Philadelphia : Wiley-Blackwell
    ISSN: 0095-9898
    Keywords: Life and Medical Sciences ; Cell & Developmental Biology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 3
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Philadelphia : Wiley-Blackwell
    ISSN: 0095-9898
    Keywords: Life and Medical Sciences ; Cell & Developmental Biology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Additional Material: 4 Ill.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 4
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    s.l. : American Chemical Society
    ISSN: 1520-5126
    Source: ACS Legacy Archives
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 5
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Springer
    Theoretical and applied genetics 84 (1992), S. 355-361 
    ISSN: 1432-2242
    Keywords: Glutamate oxalate transaminase ; Isozymes ; Nitrogen fixation ; Medicago sativa L. ; Rhizobium meliloti
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: Summary The enzyme aspartate aminotransferase (AAT) plays a key role in the assimilation of fixed-N in alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.) root nodules. AAT activity in alfalfa nodules is due to the activity of two dimeric isozymes, AAT-1 and AAT-2, that are products of two distinct genes. Three forms of AAT-2 (AAT-2a, -2b, and-2c) have been identified. It was hypothesized that two alleles occur at the AAT-2 locus, giving rise to the three AAT-2 enzymes. In a prior study bidirectional selection for root nodule AAT and asparagine synthetase (AS) activities on a nodule fresh weight basis in two diverse alfalfa germ plasms resulted in high nodule enzyme activity subpopulations with about 20% more nodule AAT activity than low enzyme activity subpopulations. The objectives of the study presented here were to determine the inheritance of nodule AAT-2 production and to evaluate the effect of bidirectional selection for AAT and AS on AAT-2 allelic frequencies, the relative contributions of AAT-1 and AAT-2 to total nodule activity, nodule enzyme concentration, and correlated traits. Two alleles at the AAT-2 locus were verified by evaluating segregation of isozyme phenotypes among F1 and S1 progeny of crosses or selfs. Characterization of subpopulations for responses associated with selection was conducted using immunoprecipitation of in vitro nodule AAT activity, quantification of AAT enzyme protein by ELISA, and AAT activity staining of native isozymes on PAGE. Results indicate that selection for total AAT activity specifically altered the expression of the nodule AAT-2 isozyme. AAT-2 activity was significantly greater in high compared to low activity subpopulations, and high AAT subpopulations from both germ plasms had about 18% more AAT-2 enzyme (on a nodule fresh weight basis). No significant or consistent changes in AAT-2 genotypic frequencies in subpopulations were caused by selection for AAT activity. Since changes in AAT activity were not associated with changes in AAT-2 genotype, selection must have affected a change(s) at another locus (or loci), which indirectly effects the expression of nodule AAT.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 6
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    [s.l.] : Nature Publishing Group
    Nature 199 (1963), S. 95-96 
    ISSN: 1476-4687
    Source: Nature Archives 1869 - 2009
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
    Notes: [Auszug] Granovsky1'4 suggested that leaf hoppers produced injury by introducing some chemical or enzymatic toxin into the plant with their salivary secretions. Histological and chemical studies by Smith and Poos5 and Smith6 demonstrated that feeding leaf hoppers injected a protein aceous sheath material ...
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  • 7
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Springer
    Marine biology 121 (1995), S. 555-563 
    ISSN: 1432-1793
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: Abstract Photographs were taken every 0.5 m along three transects of 5.5 m length on shallow rock faces at Signy Island, Antarctica, during the austral summer of 1991/1992. The percentage cover of substratum ranged from 0 to 100% and the colonising communities included representatives of ten phyla. The zone from mean low-water neap level to 1.5 m depth was mostly devoid of organisms as a result of the seasonal formation of the encrusting ice foot. Coralline and macroalgae dominated from 2 to 3 m, and animal groups from 3.5 to 5.5 m. Bryozoans, and to a lesser extent sponges, were the most abundant animal phyla. Within the bryozoans a succession of colonisation of different species was observed, the most abundant two of which occupied 〉80% of substratum in places. Substratum type seemed to be the main factor influencing community development in the shallow sublittoral at Signy Island, although ice impact prevents community development in the top 1.5 m and limits it over the rest of the transect down to 5.5 m. Depth and profile of substratum also influenced communities within this depth range (particularly taxonomic composition).
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  • 8
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Springer
    Marine biology 121 (1995), S. 565-572 
    ISSN: 1432-1793
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: Abstract Photographic samples were taken every 5 m along two 40 m transects on mostly rock face at Signy Island, Antarctica, during the austral winter of 1991. Dense and taxonomically rich communities of benthos occurred at most of the sublittoral study locations. These communities, however, varied significantly with substratum type, substratum profile and depth. Algae were generally the largest occupiers of space, but the area of substratum colonised by animal taxa increased whenever the profile approached vertical. Shallower than 15 m, disturbance effects, largely from ice, restricted community development to a high degree, but the frequency of disturbance at 25 m appeared to maintain high diversity by preventing domination of the assemblage by a few competitively superior taxa. Bryozoans, and to a lesser extent sponges, were the most abundant animal phyla. Among the bryozoans, species with an encrusting growth form occurred at the shallowest depths followed by encrusting massive/folaceous species and, at 40 m, the erect flexible forms. The ratio of encrusting to erect bryozoan species changed rapidly over the 0 to 50 m depth zone, from exclusively encrusting at 0 to 5 m to approaching 1 at 50 m. The erect bryozoans studied, from the shallow sublittoral to 290 m, could be classified as encrusting massive (foliaceous), erect flexible or erect rigid forms. There was some suggestion, despite the overlap between groups and considerable intra-group variation, that encrusting massive forms were abundant in the shallowest water, followed by erect flexible forms and then erect rigid forms with increasing depth. Some species which occurred as encrusting massive/foliaceous forms in deeper water occurred mostly in encrusting form only in shallow water (〈15 m).
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  • 9
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Springer
    Marine biology 131 (1998), S. 647-658 
    ISSN: 1432-1793
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: Abstract The seasonality of polypide cycling has been investigated for three species of erect bryozoans from Antarctica: Isoseculiflustra rubefacta (Kluge, 1914), Nematoflustra flagellata (Waters, 1904) and Himantozoum antarcticum (Calvet, 1905). Approximately ten colonies of each species were collected monthly by SCUBA divers over a 14 mo period during 1992/1993, and the status of each individual zooid was classified as differentiating/regenerating, active (feeding autozooids), degenerate (brown body) or sexually reproductive (ovicells present, or zooid containing a larva). Polypide cycling in all three species was distinctly seasonal. New zooids formed at the growth margin and typically contained actively feeding polypides for ≃9 mo before these polypides degenerated into brown bodies in the austral winter (June). Very few polypides were active in the period from June to August, when water-column food levels were at their lowest; after this period new polypides differentiated. Individual zooids typically underwent a total of five (I. rubefacta and N. flagellata), or at least four (H. antarcticum) complete polypide cycles before becoming senescent. Polypide lifetimes generally became shorter as the age of the zooid increased. Sexual reproduction was also distinctly seasonal in these species, with bands of ovicells or sexually reproductive zooids being formed each year in late summer once a given colony had grown to a threshold size (or age). Larvae were then brooded for ≃10 mo before being released in January/February (N. flagellata) or February/March (H. antarcticum). The seasonal patterns of polypide cycling are related clearly to the variations in food availability, and these species appear to have the longest zooid lifetime (≃5 yr) and the slowest polypide cycling (once per year with polypide lifetimes up to 10 mo) reported for any bryozoan so far.
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  • 10
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Springer
    Marine biology 136 (2000), S. 813-822 
    ISSN: 1432-1793
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: Abstract Almost 2000 cheilostomatid–cheilostomatid (bryozoan) interactions were recorded from 110 rocks from intertidal and infralittoral zone locations at Kodiac Island in the Alaskan Boreal–Arctic. Intraspecific interactions were unusually rare; this may have resulted from inhibition of con-specific settlement by adult colonies. In one species, rank did vary as a function of depth. The proportion of determinate-species encounter-pairings (a pairing in which one competitor/species wins all encounters) and tied outcomes (whereby neither competitor/species wins or loses but are involved in a “standoff” or mutual overgrowth) increased from the upper midlittoral to the lower infralittoral. The assemblage of bryozoans formed a clear hierarchy, with a score of 0.83 on Tanaka and Nandakumar's transitivity index. Overgrowth dominants did not monopolise the assemblage. The most abundant species were mid- or lower-ranked competitors. The identity of the competitive species had a major influence on the outcome of encounters. Zooidal height and colony growth morphology were important factors determining overall overgrowth rank. The greatest number of interaction types was recorded on medium-sized (surface area 〉300 and 〈600 cm2) rocks, and the overall diversity of intertidal species was very high compared with studies conducted elsewhere. The high interaction and species diversity recorded may both have resulted from intermediate levels of disturbance.
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