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  • 1
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Springer
    Acta mathematica hungarica 83 (1999), S. 315-325 
    ISSN: 1588-2632
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Mathematics
    Notes: Abstract In this paper the notion of a dual base of countable order for bitopological spaces is introduced, and an analogue of a metrization theorem of A. Arhangel'skii is given.
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  • 2
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Springer
    ISSN: 1573-2657
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 3
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Springer
    Czechoslovak journal of physics 45 (1995), S. 893-906 
    ISSN: 1572-9486
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Physics
    Notes: Abstract Some results are collected for phase transitions in which the elastic strain plays a decisive role. Both ferroelastic and antiferroelastic behaviour results in patterning which has a tweed-like appearance. The ‘infinitesimal loop approximation’ first used by Kroupa in 1962 is used to try to sort out the possible effects. Transformations resulting in pure shear produce ferroelastic tweed, whereas transformations based on the nucleation and growth of platelike precipitates seem likely to produce antiferroelastic tweed.
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  • 4
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    [S.l.] : American Institute of Physics (AIP)
    Journal of Applied Physics 80 (1996), S. 3228-3237 
    ISSN: 1089-7550
    Source: AIP Digital Archive
    Topics: Physics
    Notes: Defect structures were investigated by transmission electron microscopy for GaN/Al2O3 (0001) epilayers grown by metal-organic chemical vapor deposition using a two-step process. The defect structures, including threading dislocations, partial dislocation bounding stacking faults, and inversion domains, were analyzed by diffraction contrast, high-resolution imaging, and convergent beam diffraction. GaN film growth was initiated at 600 °C with a nominal 20 nm nucleation layer. This was followed by high-temperature growth at 1080 °C. The near-interfacial region of the films consists of a mixture of cubic and hexagonal GaN, which is characterized by a high density of stacking faults bounded by Shockley and Frank partial dislocations. The near-interfacial region shows a high density of inversion domains. Above ∼0.5 μm thickness, the film consists of isolated threading dislocations of either pure edge, mixed, or pure screw character with a total density of ∼7×108 cm−2. The threading dislocation reduction in these films is associated with cubic to hexagonal transformation of the nucleation layer region during high temperature growth. © 1996 American Institute of Physics.
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  • 5
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    [S.l.] : American Institute of Physics (AIP)
    Journal of Applied Physics 76 (1994), S. 6440-6442 
    ISSN: 1089-7550
    Source: AIP Digital Archive
    Topics: Physics
    Notes: The magnetic domain structure and microscopic magnetization reversal processes in epitaxial Fe/GaAs(001) films with cubic anisotropy and in-plane easy axes have been investigated by a Lorentz microscope equipped with a magnetizing stage. For the films of a few hundred angstroms thickness we observe the single domain remanent state predicted for a two-dimensional film but find that domains play a crucial role in the magnetic reversal process. For reversal along the in-plane 〈110〉 directions (hard axes), magnetization reversal proceeds via a combination of coherent rotation and displacements of weakly pinned 90° domain walls at critical fields. For magnetization reversal along the in-plane 〈100〉 directions (easy axes), an irregular checkerboard domain structure develops at the critical field and both 180° and 90° domain walls coexist. The reversal of the domains with magnetization vector opposite to the applied field direction takes place by a combination of two 90° reorientations. We discuss how these processes are related to the magnetic anisotropies present in the film and the macroscopic M-H hysteresis curves.
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  • 6
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    [S.l.] : American Institute of Physics (AIP)
    Journal of Applied Physics 75 (1994), S. 6501-6503 
    ISSN: 1089-7550
    Source: AIP Digital Archive
    Topics: Physics
    Notes: An electron-microscopy-based technique of electron-energy-loss spectroscopy (EELS) has been used to characterize electronic and magnetic properties of ultrathin Fe films grown on GaAs(100) surface, as a function of the film thickness. Large-area electron transparent membranes for microscopic analysis are prepared by ion-beam thinning or chemical etching from the substrate side, and the top surface of the ultrathin Fe film is protected by a thin Cr layer. Analysis of the Fe 2p, Cr 2p, and O 1s absorption spectra confirms that only the Cr layer is oxidized. The local magnetic moments of the ultrathin Fe films are deduced from the "white line'' branching ratio in the Fe 2p absorption spectra. For Fe films as thin as 150 A(ring), the magnetic moment is not different from that found in bulk α-Fe. For a 70-A(ring) Fe film, the local magnetic moment is enhanced although the average magnetization is reduced. As doping is suspected to be the cause for the departure from bulk α-Fe properties. In the case where the 50-A(ring) film is polycrystalline and discontinuous, spatially resolved EELS has been used to distinguish small island clusters from large crystalline particles. The large particles are α-Fe crystallites and the islands are probably also heavily affected by As doping.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 7
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    New York, NY : Wiley-Blackwell
    Gamete Research 20 (1988), S. 431-436 
    ISSN: 0148-7280
    Keywords: oocytes ; embryo culture ; in-vitro fertilization ; Life and Medical Sciences ; Cell & Developmental Biology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: Embryonic development of in-vitro fertilized rabbit ova was assessed following in-vitro culture in four different serum supplemented media. A mixture of Basal Medium Eagle (BME) and Ham's F10 medium (1:1) provided better support for in-vitro development than Ham's F10, BME, or regular acidic saline (RAS). In-vitro embryonic development in the BME/Ham's F10 mixture was synchronous with in-vivo development through at least 55 hr of culture. After 54 hr of culture, embryos transferred to the oviduct of a synchronous pseudopregnant recipient were able to implant at the same rate as simultaneously transferred embryos grown in vivo. BME/Ham's F10 supplemented with 10% newborn calf serum was highly supportive of rabbit embryo development following in-vitro fertilization.
    Additional Material: 1 Ill.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 8
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Springer
    Theoretical and applied genetics 97 (1998), S. 60-73 
    ISSN: 1432-2242
    Keywords: Key wordsMalus pumila Mill ; Molecular linkagemap ; Marker-assisted selection ; Fruit tree breeding ; Outbred progeny
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: Abstract  Linkage maps for the apple cultivars ‘Prima’ and ‘Fiesta’ were constructed using RFLP, RAPD, isozyme, AFLP, SCAR and microsatellite markers in a ‘Prima’בFiesta’ progeny of 152 individuals. Seventeen linkage groups, putatively corresponding to the seventeen haploid apple chromosomes, were obtained for each parent. These maps were aligned using 67 multi-allelic markers that were heterozygous in both parents. A large number of duplicate RFLP loci was observed and, in several instances, linked RFLP markers in one linkage group showed corresponding linkage in another linkage group. Distorted segregation was observed mainly in two regions of the genome, especially in the male parent alleles. Map positions were provided for resistance genes to scab and rosy leaf curling aphid (Vf and Sd 1, respectively) for the fruit acidity gene Ma and for the self-incompatibility locus S. The high marker density and large number of mapped codominant RFLPs and some microsatellite markers make this map an ideal reference map for use in other progenies also and a valuable tool for the mapping of quantitative trait loci.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 9
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Springer
    Theoretical and applied genetics 94 (1997), S. 528-533 
    ISSN: 1432-2242
    Keywords: Key words Apple ; Dysaphis devecta ; Insect resistance ; Marker-assisted selection ; Molecular markers ; Plant breeding
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: Abstract  Sd 1 is a dominant gene for resistance to biotypes 1 and 2 of the rosy leaf curling aphid, Dysaphis devecta Wlk., which can cause economic damage to apple trees. This report describes the identification of three RFLP and four RAPD markers linked to Sd 1 in a cross between the D. devecta susceptible variety ‘Prima’ (sd 1 sd 1) and the resistant variety ‘Fiesta’ (Sd 1 sd 1). Potted trees were artificially infested in the glasshouse, and the ratio of resistant:susceptible plants supported the hypothesis that the resistance was under the control of a single dominant gene. The position of the gene was mapped to a single locus on a ‘Fiesta’ chromosome, within 2 cM of three tightly linked RFLP markers (MC064a, 2B12a and MC029b); the four RAPD markers were located further away (between 13 and 46 cM). This is the first report of molecular markers for an aphid resistance gene in tree fruit crops. The potential application of these markers in a marker-assisted resistance breeding programme is discussed.
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  • 10
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Springer
    Theoretical and applied genetics 96 (1998), S. 699-708 
    ISSN: 1432-2242
    Keywords: Key words Malus ; Apple ; Venturia ; Scab resistance ; Linkage mapping ; Cluster analysis
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: Abstract  Apple scab, caused by the fungus Venturia inaequalis (Cke.) Wint., is an important disease in commercial apple production. A mapping population of 155 individuals, derived from a cross between the apple varieties ‘Prima’ (resistant)בFiesta’ (susceptible), was scored for response to the disease in replicated field and glasshouse trials throughout Europe. Twenty data sets were selected and cluster analysis was used to form a consensus score for the population fitting a 1 : 1 segregation ratio of resistance:susceptibility. The progeny were scored with molecular markers. A detailed map covering 54 cM of the ‘Prima’ linkage group containing the Vf gene for scab resistance was constructed using 24 molecular markers linked to the resistance gene. One isoenzyme marker (Pgm-1), six RFLP markers and 17 RAPD markers formed a linkage group with the consensus measure of resistance to scab. Four marker bridges were established with the corresponding ‘Fiesta’ linkage group with additional markers (one isozyme, one RFLP, three RAPD and one AFLP). A low chi-square value indicated a good fit of the marker ordering, which was in close agreement with previously reported linkage positions for some of the markers and Vf. Differences were observed in the ability of different scoring methods to resolve susceptible and resistant classes. The results obtained for the consensus classification of resistance to scab for the population may suggest the presence of virulent inocula at some sites, which could overcome the Vf gene for resistance. The consequences of relying on individual scoring occasions for studying Vf scab resistance are discussed in the context of linkage analysis, conventional breeding selection, and marker-assisted selection.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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