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  • 1
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    Rio de Janeiro: Pontifícia Universidade Católica do Rio de Janeiro (PUC-Rio), Departamento de Economia
    Publication Date: 2018-03-22
    Description: This paper estimates the health dimension of the welfare cost of homicides in Brazil incorporating age, gender, educational, and regional heterogeneities. We use the marginal willingness to pay approach from the “value of life” literature to assign monetary values to the welfare cost of increased mortality due to violence. The results indicate that the present discounted value of the welfare cost of homicides in Brazil corresponds to roughly 78% of the GDP or, measured in terms of yearly flow, 2.3%. The analysis also indicates that reliance on aggregate data to perform such calculations, without taking into account the relevant dimensions of heterogeneity, can lead to biases of the order of 20% in the estimated social cost of violence
    Keywords: I18 ; J18 ; K42 ; O57 ; ddc:330 ; Wert des Menschenlebens ; Gewalt ; Wohlfahrtsanalyse ; Zahlungsbereitschaftsanalyse ; Brasilien
    Language: English
    Type: doc-type:workingPaper
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  • 2
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    Rio de Janeiro: Pontifícia Universidade Católica do Rio de Janeiro (PUC-Rio), Departamento de Economia
    Publication Date: 2018-03-22
    Description: We report two results. First, we evaluate the impact of a nationwide anti-firearm legislation passedby the Brazilian Congress in December 2003 (Estatuto do Desarmamento, henceforth ED). Our identificationstrategy hinges on the hypothesis that the law had stronger impact in places where gun prevalence washigher in the baseline. We find evidence that homicides (reduced form) and firearms prevalence(mechanism or first-stage) dropped faster in places with higher gun prevalence after the 2003. Using ourpreferred estimates, the ED saved between 2,000 and 2,750 lives from 2004 through 2007 in cities withmore than 50,000 inhabitants in the state of São Paulo. Second, assuming the ED causes homicide onlythrough its impact on firearms prevalence, we recover a causal estimate of the impact of firearms onhomicides. One standard deviation in the prevalence of firearms reduces homicides by quarter of astandard deviation. We find no impact of both ED and firearms on property crime in general or onrobberies.
    Keywords: K42 ; ddc:330 ; Gewalt ; Kriminalitätsökonomik ; Waffenrecht ; Brasilien
    Language: English
    Type: doc-type:workingPaper
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  • 3
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    Brasília: Instituto de Pesquisa Econômica Aplicada (IPEA)
    Publication Date: 2018-04-18
    Keywords: J15 ; K14 ; ddc:330 ; Sterblichkeit ; Gewalt ; Schwarze ; Ethnische Diskriminierung ; Wahrscheinlichkeitsrechnung ; Rio de Janeiro ; Brasilien
    Language: Portuguese
    Type: doc-type:workingPaper
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  • 4
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    Brasília: Instituto de Pesquisa Econômica Aplicada (IPEA)
    Publication Date: 2018-04-18
    Description: In this article, the rape notifications registered in Brazil between 2011 and 2014 were analyzed based on data from the Notifiable Conditions Information System (Sinan) of the Ministry of Health. The phenomenon was also characterized according to these administrative records. More specifically, the profiles of victims and perpetrators were described, along with the relationship between them and other situational elements. An unacceptable unchanging statistical pattern over the period analyzed was noted, in which 69.9% of victims were children and teenagers, and over 10% of victims had physical and/or mental disabilities. In parallel, there was an increase in the proportion of gang rape cases, which in 2014 accounted for 15.8% of all cases, where in 25.6% the victim did not know the perpetrators. Another alarming finding was that 40.0% of child rapists were close family members, including the father, stepfather, uncle, brother and grandfather. The data draws attention to the seriousness of the problem of gender violence in Brazil and highlights the need to produce more accurate information allowing mitigating public policies to be devised that involve several State agencies, particularly in the educational field.
    Keywords: I1 ; K14 ; ddc:330 ; rape ; Brazil ; violence ; Sinan ; gender
    Language: Portuguese
    Type: doc-type:workingPaper
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  • 5
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    Brasília: Instituto de Pesquisa Econômica Aplicada (IPEA)
    Publication Date: 2018-04-18
    Description: There is virtually a consensus that the ratio of suicides committed with guns to total suicides is the best way to indirectly measure gun ownership across different locations. However, such a proxy is not accurate for any locality with low population density in view that suicides are rare events. To circumvent this issue, we exploit the socioeconomic characteristics of the suicide victims so as to come up with a novel proxy for gun ownership. We assess our indicator using suicide micro-data from the Brazilian Ministry of Health between 2000 and 2010.
    Keywords: C15 ; C51 ; I18 ; ddc:330 ; crime ; firearm ; fixed effects ; logit ; regularization ; suicides ; violence
    Language: Portuguese
    Type: doc-type:workingPaper
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  • 6
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    Brasília: Instituto de Pesquisa Econômica Aplicada (IPEA)
    Publication Date: 2020-01-17
    Description: A subject of great relevance, but little studied in Brazil, concerns the effect of female participation in the labor market (PFMT) on domestic violence. In this article, we try to understand this question from a reflection on two polar literatures based on economic rationality and patriarchal theory, which reach opposite conclusions. Additionally, based on PNAD/IBGE data from 2009, we examined empirically the effects of PFMT on the violence perpetrated not only by the spouse but also by the former spouse. In order to overcome the potential problems of endogeneity, we used a probit model with instrumental variables, in which the instrument for the participation of women in the labor market was based on the number of places in kindergartens and pre-schools in the locality where they live.
    Keywords: J15 ; J16 ; K42 ; ddc:330 ; domestic violence ; Brazil ; job Market ; rationality ; patriarchy
    Language: Portuguese
    Type: doc-type:workingPaper
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  • 7
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    Brasília: Instituto de Pesquisa Econômica Aplicada (IPEA)
    Publication Date: 2019-01-24
    Keywords: I19 ; K0 ; ddc:330
    Language: Portuguese
    Type: doc-type:workingPaper
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  • 8
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    Brasília: Instituto de Pesquisa Econômica Aplicada (IPEA)
    Publication Date: 2019-01-24
    Keywords: D60 ; D61 ; G20 ; H10 ; H50 ; K14 ; L31 ; ddc:330
    Language: Portuguese
    Type: doc-type:workingPaper
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  • 9
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    Brasília: Instituto de Pesquisa Econômica Aplicada (IPEA)
    Publication Date: 2019-01-24
    Description: According to official data from the Mortality Information System (SIM) of the Ministry of Health, the number of deaths caused by homicides in the State of Rio de Janeiro has declined between 2006 and 2009, from 7,099 to 5,064, which implies a decrease of 28.7% in the period. However, as we argue in this article, there are evidences that this variation is due to error on data classification. We conclude, first, that the number of fatal violent incidents with unknown cause in Rio de Janeiro inexplicably has increased since 2007, a fact that completely clashes with the national standard. Secondly, based on microdata of SIM, we analyzed the different type of victimization and we identify differences in patterns, in relation to socioeconomic characteristics of the victims, but also in relation to situational elements of the incident. Finally, we developed a multinomial logit model to statistically reclassify deaths with undetermined cause, to be homicides, suicides or fatal accidents. Our estimates indicated that the number of homicides in Rio de Janeiro, from 2006 to 2009 remained relatively stable, but the number of hidden homicides increased sharply during this period. We estimated there were 3,165 homicides not recorded in 2009, which represent 62.5% of the registred homicide.
    Keywords: I19 ; K0 ; ddc:330
    Language: Portuguese
    Type: doc-type:workingPaper
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  • 10
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    Brasília: Instituto de Pesquisa Econômica Aplicada (IPEA)
    Publication Date: 2019-01-24
    Description: Do more guns cause less crime or more crime? Some authors argue that the spread of firearms encourage violent solutions to interpersonal conflicts. Other authors, however, suggest that the defensive use of gun decreases economic crime. In this paper we proposed an identification strategy to estimate the effect of guns on violent crimes and on property crime. The strategy was based on the use of instrumental variables that allowed us to explore the temporal and cross-section variation of the crimes and prevalence of guns in cities. The instrument was developed based on the Statute of Disarmament (ED) - a national law passed in December 2003. The identification hypothesis is that the impact of ED on the demand for weapons would be greater as higher the prevalence of weapons previous the occurrence of the Law. We presented evidence that the policy of disarmament, operated in the state of São Paulo between 2001 and 2007, was one of the relevant factors that led to the decrease in violent crime, particularly homicides (average elasticity around 2.0). On the other hand, we found no evidence of any effect on other crimes with economic motivation as larceny, vehicle theft, and trafficking of illicit drugs, suggesting the irrelevance of the potential effect of deterring crime by the armed victim.
    Keywords: K42 ; ddc:330
    Language: Portuguese
    Type: doc-type:workingPaper
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