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  • 1
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    Louvain-la-Neuve: European Regional Science Association (ERSA)
    Publication Date: 2018-06-21
    Description: Environmental sustainability has a complex significance. It is both a theoretical concept and a practical challenge which implies a specific approach, allowing for concrete time and space circumstances. Romania, that experiences a stressful and often painful process of transition to the market economy, has to face important environmental challenges at the same time with great political, economic, social, organisational, cultural, behavioural ones. Therefore environmental preservation strategy is closely related to other components of the national strategy and reform - the sectoral strategies, the strategy of socio-economic regional development, the national physical plan and so on - that take into consideration environmental constraints too. Even though the integration of all these components was a major concern, it cannot be said that this has been really achieved. However, the development of the environmental preservation strategy is only a means to an end, implementation, monitoring and evaluation being also required. In this respect it is apparent that, whatever the importance of financing this strategy, the whole society's participation, as well as communication/information and adequate education are a corner stone for carrying out the proposed objectives. It is absolutely acknowledged that successful strategies are participatory; participation must be concieved in terms of both government ( national and local) and non-governmental actors (corporate sector, non-governmental organisations as well as direct involvement with communities and individuals). In order to carry out their specific functions these actors have to rely on an appropriate legal framework, economic instruments and mechanisms for mediation and conflict resolution. The committment of the participants involved as well as a conducive political and social climate are critical in a 'people-centred' approach to environmentally suatainable development strategy. Starting from these overall conditions this paper aims at highlighting the institutional and behavioural challenges to Romania's environmental preservation strategy, so as to answer questions as: to what extent is the Romanian society able to adapt to environmental change ? which are the mechanisms, the instruments that can be employed to face this change and to attain the objectives proposed? Without denying the role of technical change in such processes, this paper focuses on the need of real, radical changes not only in terms of institutional, legislative framework but also in terms of behaviour, mentalities, attitudes. In this context the environmental management decentralization and the role of local public administration and local communities are particularly addressed.
    Keywords: ddc:330
    Language: English
    Type: doc-type:conferenceObject
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  • 2
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    Unknown
    Louvain-la-Neuve: European Regional Science Association (ERSA)
    Publication Date: 2017-08-03
    Description: After less than two years from its accession to the EU, Romania was seriously hit by the global financial and economic crisis. Compared to other former transition countries, the turmoil was deeper and lasted longer and a modest recovery was recorded only in the second half of 2011, given deep internal vulnerabilities that amplified the impact of international shocks. Consequently, the Romanian regions have been also hit by the crisis, which induced an uneven distribution of its effects at regional scale, depending on the specific economic and social structures, regional specialisation degree, export orientation of economic activities, etc. The crisis has generated difficulties for the beneficiaries of the EU-funded projects – both local public administration and private firms - to provide the co-financing contribution, so that the Romanian Government has had to adopt a series of measures meant to support the implementation of the on-going Operational Programmes and the EU funds absorption process as well. This paper discusses the main developments of Romania's regional policy particularly in the 2009-2011 period, considered crucial years for the successful implementation of this policy. The economic, institutional, political factors that have influenced the regional policy during these years are analysed at the same time with the solutions proposed at the middle of the 2007-2013 programming period for the problems which the regional policy implementation is confronted with.
    Keywords: R13 ; R28 ; R38 ; R58 ; ddc:330 ; regional policy ; Romania ; Structural and Cohesion Funds ; absorption ; co-financing ; implementation problems
    Language: English
    Type: doc-type:conferenceObject
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  • 3
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    Louvain-la-Neuve: European Regional Science Association (ERSA)
    Publication Date: 2017-08-03
    Description: Before 1990, the services of general interest (SeGI) in Romania were entirely provided by the public authorities. Afterwards, the market was gradually liberalized and the SeGI captured the attention of private operators. Nowadays, the business sector is involved next to the public authorities in offering services of general interest so as to respond citizens' expectations. The cooperation between the public authorities and the business sector is more developed in the area of SeGI that prove to be profitable, such as waste service and public transport, rather than services that need high investments in infrastructure, such as electricity, gas and water supply service. Starting from these overall considerations this paper addresses the legal and institutional issues generated by the organising and the provision of SeGI, with a particular emphasis on the territorial distribution of competences and the derived responsibilities. It takes into consideration the classification of competences associated to local authorities as a result of the decentralisation process, which are divided into exclusive, shared and delegated ones. Two territorial levels are considered, namely the counties - LAU1 (the same as NUTS3) and the localities (municipalities, towns and communes) – LAU 2. The development regions (NUTS2) are not considered as they are not administrative units and, consequently, do not have competences in the administration of the services of general interest. A series of drawbacks, inconsistencies are revealed followed by reflections on the solutions adopted by the authorities in favour of economic liberalisation and sustainable development of the local communities. They are derived from the Law of communitarian services of public utilities no. 51/2006, which is the main pillar of the policy framework for the public services in Romania. Thus, the public services in Romania could be provided by direct and indirect management. The latter might represent the solution that would directly support the cooperation between the local public administration authorities and the business sector and would indirectly generate the liberalization of services of general interest. The paper is based on the research conducted under the auspices of the on-going ESPON project "Indicators and perspectives for services of general interest in territorial cohesion and development – SeGI" (PS 1-16, No.094/2011), in which Bucharest Academy of Economic Studies is one of the partners involved.
    Keywords: R12 ; R58 ; O18 ; L8 ; L9 ; ddc:330 ; services of general interest ; competences ; local administrative units ; local development ; public – private cooperation
    Language: English
    Type: doc-type:conferenceObject
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  • 4
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    Unknown
    Louvain-la-Neuve: European Regional Science Association (ERSA)
    Publication Date: 2015-09-19
    Description: Various research studies addressing the specific problems and difficulties in the underdeveloped regions in the transition countries from Central and Eastern Europe have identified possible reactions regarding appropriate economic and social policy measures. Some of them take into consideration the role of cluster initiatives as a response to poor competitiveness, low level of innovation, high levels of unemployment and out-migration of the highly-skilled labour force. Though, the simple presence of clusters in a less developed region does not automatically mean more competitiveness and prosperity. A series of policy measures meant to improve the frame conditions for business firms and overall regional development should accompany clusters formation, as a coherent package including economic, legal, institutional, infrastructure, cultural and socio-political elements. Staring from these overall considerations our paper brings into discussion the capacity of cluster policies to offer viable solutions to the Romania's Eastern regions, lagging behind the Western ones. First, an overall image of the clusters existing in the Eastern part of Romania is provided based on statistical methods, mainly location quotients, Gini and Herfindahl indexes of regional specialisation and industrial concentration and cluster analysis. Second, GIS techniques are employed in order to provide a spotlight on cluster identity, location and borders by means of spatial, thematic data at locality level. Performance indicators are also included, so as to get an image on clusters' contribution to the development of the corresponding local economies as well as the county and region economy. Third, based on these results, the interviews with business environment representatives and policy makers in the envisaged regions point out the clusters with the highest chances of success. Also, the best practices are discussed and connected with successful solutions from other Central and East European countries. They will be differentiated in accordance with the characteristics of the North-East and South-East regions, bearing in mind that, however, South-East region has a higher development level and different profile compared with North-East. The paper is the result of a CERGE-GDN funded project.
    Keywords: ddc:330
    Language: English
    Type: doc-type:conferenceObject
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  • 5
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    Unknown
    Louvain-la-Neuve: European Regional Science Association (ERSA)
    Publication Date: 2015-09-19
    Description: The economic and social cohesion policy of the European Union has two inter-related components, namely the vertical cohesion, referring to the alleviation of social disparities and the solidarity with the disadvantaged social groups, and the horizontal cohesion, which concentrates on the regional disparities decrease and the solidarity with the lagging regions' population. Based on this approach, the EU's regional policy is closely related to the horizontal dimension of the cohesion policy and is supported by the EU funds via allocations for convergence - competitiveness and employment - European territorial co-operation objectives of the 2007-2013 programming period. The Central and East European Countries, as New Member States (NMS) of the EU are a major beneficiary of these allocations, especially with regard to the convergence objective, considering the big regional disparities they display in comparison with the EU average. At the EU level it is largely acknowledged that transition to the market economy experienced by these countries has deepened the regional disparities; at present the main issue is when and with which rate a process of regional convergence will occur, both inside each country and compared to the EU average. Hence, the main questions this paper raises: first, which are the implications of the cohesion policy, via EU funds for regional disparities in the NMS? Second, are these countries prepared to ensure a high capacity of absorbing the EU funds and, thus, to turn to good account their endogenous growth potential? In order to answer these questions empirical evidence based on the EU statistical data and studies will be provided, accompanied by comments upon the so-called 'absorption problems'.
    Keywords: ddc:330
    Language: English
    Type: doc-type:conferenceObject
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