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  • 1
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    Berlin: Deutsches Institut für Wirtschaftsforschung (DIW)
    Publication Date: 2016-06-22
    Description: This paper develops an axiomatic approach to the measurement of social exclusion. At the individual level, social exclusion is viewed in terms of deprivation of the person concerned with respect to different functionings in the society. At the aggregate level we treat social exclusion as a function of individual exclusions. The class of subgroup decomposable social exclusion measures using a set of independent axioms is identified. We then look at the problem of ranking exclusion profiles by exclusion dominance principle under certain restrictions. Finally, applications of decomposable and non-decomposable measures suggested in the paper using European Union and Italian data are also considered.
    Keywords: D63 ; ddc:330 ; Social Exclusion ; Axioms ; Characterization ; Dominance ; Application ; Policy ; Soziale Isolation ; Messung ; Disparitätsmass ; Theorie
    Language: English
    Type: doc-type:workingPaper
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  • 2
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    Berlin: Deutsches Institut für Wirtschaftsforschung (DIW)
    Publication Date: 2016-06-22
    Description: This paper proposes a method for detecting income classes based on the change-point problem. There is an increasing demand for such a method in the literature. Computation of polarization indices requires a pre-grouping of the incomes. Similarly, indices of social exclusion and sometimes indices of income inequality require detection of thresholds. The estimation procedure is implemented using a bootstrap technique. Finally, an application of the method to EU member states and to the United States is also considered.
    Keywords: D31 ; ddc:330 ; income distribution ; change-point ; thresholds ; Einkommensverteilung ; Disparitätsmass ; Soziale Isolation ; Theorie ; EU-Staaten ; Vereinigte Staaten ; change-point
    Language: English
    Type: doc-type:workingPaper
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  • 3
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    Berlin: Deutsches Institut für Wirtschaftsforschung (DIW)
    Publication Date: 2016-06-22
    Description: Given any income distribution, to each income we associate a subgroup containing all persons whose incomes are not higher than this income and a person?s target shortfall in a subgroup is the gap between the subgroup highest income and his own income. We then develop an absolute target shortfall ordering, which, under constancy of population size and total income, implies the Lorenz and Cowell-Ebert complaint orderings. Under the same restrictions, one distribution dominates the other by this ordering if and only if the dominated distribution can be obtained from the dominant one by a sequence of rank preserving progressive transfers, where each transfer is shared equally by all persons poorer than the donor of the transfer. The relationship of the ordering with the absolute deprivation and differential orderings, and its consistency with ranking of distributions by absolute target shortfall indices are explored. Well-known inequality indices like the absolute Gini index and the standard deviation are interpreted as absolute target shortfall indices. Finally, the possibility of a relative target shorfall ordering is also discussed.
    Keywords: D63 ; D31 ; ddc:330 ; Target shortfall orderings ; transfer ; indices ; Sozialtransfer ; Einkommensverteilung ; Disparitätsmass ; Theorie
    Language: English
    Type: doc-type:workingPaper
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  • 4
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    Berlin: Deutsches Institut für Wirtschaftsforschung (DIW)
    Publication Date: 2016-06-22
    Description: This paper explores the relationship between two well-established concepts of measuring individual well-being: the concept of happiness, i.e. self-reported level of satisfaction with income and life, and relative deprivation/satisfaction, i.e. the gaps between the individual?s income and the incomes of all individuals richer/poorer than him. Operationalizing both concepts using micro panel data from the German Socio-Economic Panel, we provide empirical evidence for subjective well-being depending more on relative satisfaction than on absolute levels of income. This finding holds even after controlling for other influential factors in a multivariate setting.
    Keywords: I31 ; D31 ; D63 ; ddc:330 ; Relative Deprivation ; Satisfaction ; SubjectiveWell-Being ; SOEP
    Language: English
    Type: doc-type:workingPaper
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  • 5
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    Brussels: Economics and Econometrics Research Institute (EERI)
    Publication Date: 2018-01-19
    Description: The present paper examines a long-run relationship between the energy, bioenergy and food prices. In the recent years the bioenergy production has increased significantly around the world. The increase has been driven by rising energy prices as well as by environmental policies aiming at reducing the harmful effects of conventional sources of energy, such as climate change. Bioenergy, in turn, affects agricultural markets, because it uses agricultural commodities as inputs. The theoretical model we develop predicts that, because of price inelastic food demand, the agricultural price increase may be substantial. The empirical findings confirm the theoretical hypothesis that energy prices do affect prices of agricultural commodities. However, the co-integration is weaker than theoretically predicted. The price effect of bioenergy might be mitigated by new technological development, which improve yields and lead to an offsetting effect in the supply of agricultural commodities, and by fallow land brought into cultivation, when agricultural profitability is rising.
    Keywords: Q11 ; Q13 ; Q42 ; ddc:330 ; Energy ; bioenergy ; crude oil ; prices ; cointegration
    Language: English
    Type: doc-type:workingPaper
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  • 6
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    Berlin: Deutsches Institut für Wirtschaftsforschung (DIW)
    Publication Date: 2018-01-31
    Description: This paper explores the determinants of individual well-being as measured by self-reported levels of satisfaction with income. Making full use of the panel data nature of the German Socio-Economic Panel, we provide empirical evidence for well-being depending on absolute and on relative levels of income in a dynamic framework. This finding holds after controlling for other influential factors in a multivariate setting. The main novelty of the paper is the consideration of dynamic aspects: individual's own history as well as the relative income performance with respect to the others living in the society under analysis do play a major role in the assessment of well-being.
    Keywords: D63 ; I31 ; D31 ; ddc:330 ; Interdependent Preferences ; Inequality Aversion ; Status ; Subjective Well-Being ; SOEP
    Language: English
    Type: doc-type:workingPaper
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  • 7
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    Bologna: Alma Mater Studiorum - Università di Bologna, Dipartimento di Scienze Economiche (DSE)
    Publication Date: 2018-02-02
    Description: Vista da molto lontano la traiettoria della luna intorno al sole potrebbe essere descritta in modo simile a quella della terra: se non si va per il sottile, terra e luna procedono vicine nella loro rivoluzione intorno al sole.
    Keywords: ddc:330
    Language: Italian
    Type: doc-type:workingPaper
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  • 8
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    Amsterdam and Rotterdam: Tinbergen Institute
    Publication Date: 2013-11-13
    Description: We apply the theory of inequality in opportunity to measure inequity in mortality. Ourempirical work is based on a rich dataset for the Netherlands (1998-2007), linking informationabout mortality, health events and lifestyles. We show that distinguishing between differentchannels via which mortality is affected is necessary to test the sensitivity of the results withrespect to different normative positions. Moreover, our model allows for a comparison of theinequity in simulated counterfactual situations, including an evaluation of policy measures.We explicitly make a distinction between inequity in mortality risks and inequity in mortalityoutcomes. The treatment of this difference - “luck”- has a crucial in‡uence on the results.
    Keywords: D63 ; I12 ; I14 ; ddc:330 ; equity ; equality of opportunities ; mortality ; lifestyles ; Sterblichkeit ; Soziale Ungleichheit ; Lifestyle ; Niederlande
    Language: English
    Type: doc-type:workingPaper
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  • 9
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    München: Sonderforschungsbereich/Transregio 15 Governance and the Efficiency of Economic Systems
    Publication Date: 2014-03-22
    Description: In this paper, we investigate whether French consumers have modified their preferences towards environmentally-friendly vehicles between 2003 and 2008. We estimate a model of demand for automobiles incorporating both consumers' heterogeneity and CO2 emissions of the vehicles. Our results show that there has been a shift in preferences towards low-emitting cars, with an average increase of 367 euros of the willingness to pay for a reduction of 10 grams of carbon dioxide per kilometer. We also stress a large heterogeneity in the evolution of preferences between consumers. Rich and young people are more sensitive to environmental issues, and our results are in line with votes for the green party at the presidential elections. We relate these changes with two environmental policies that were introduced at these times, namely the obligation of indicating energy labels by the end of 2005 and a feebate based on CO2 emissions of new vehicles in 2008. Our results suggest that such policies have been efficient tools to shift consumers utility towards environmentally-friendly goods, the shift in preferences accounting for 20% of the overall decrease in average CO2 emissions of new cars on the period.
    Keywords: D12 ; H23 ; L62 ; Q51 ; ddc:330 ; environmental policy ; consumers' preferences ; CO2 emissions ; automobiles
    Language: English
    Type: doc-type:workingPaper
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  • 10
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    Munich: Center for Economic Studies and Ifo Institute (CESifo)
    Publication Date: 2018-02-23
    Description: This paper estimates the size and macroeconomic effects of base erosion and profit shifting (BEPS) using a computable general equilibrium model designed for corporate taxation and multinationals. Our central estimate of the impact of BEPS on corporate tax losses for the EU amounts to €36 billion annually or 7.7% of total corporate tax revenues. The USA and Japan also appear to loose tax revenues respectively of €101 and €24 billion per year or 10.7% of corporate tax revenues in both cases. These estimates are consistent with gaps in bilateral multinationals´ activities reported by creditor and debtor countries using official statistics for the EU. Our results suggest that by increasing the cost of capital, eliminating profit shifting would slightly reduce investment and GDP. It would however raise corporate tax revenues thanks to enhanced domestic production. This in turn could reduce other taxes and increase welfare.
    Keywords: C68 ; E62 ; H25 ; H26 ; H87 ; ddc:330 ; BEPS ; corporate taxation ; profit shifting ; tax avoidance ; CGE model
    Language: English
    Type: doc-type:workingPaper
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