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  • 1
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    [s.l.] : Nature Publishing Group
    Nature structural & molecular biology 14 (2007), S. 131-137 
    ISSN: 1545-9985
    Source: Nature Archives 1869 - 2009
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: [Auszug] The type III secretion system (T3SS) ATPase is the conserved and essential inner-membrane component involved in the initial stages of selective secretion of specialized T3SS virulence effector proteins from the bacterial cytoplasm through to the infected host cell, a process crucial to subsequent ...
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  • 2
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Oxford, UK : Blackwell Science Ltd
    Molecular microbiology 57 (2005), S. 0 
    ISSN: 1365-2958
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: Enteropathogenic Escherichia coli (EPEC) is an intestinal attaching and effacing pathogen that utilizes a type III secretion system (T3SS) for the delivery of effectors into host cells. The chaperone CesT has been shown to bind and stabilize the type III translocated effectors Tir and Map in the bacterial cytoplasm prior to their delivery into host cells. In this study we demonstrate  a  role  for  CesT  in  effector  recruitment  to the membrane embedded T3SS. CesT-mediated effector recruitment was dependent on the presence of the T3SS membrane-associated ATPase EscN. EPEC ΔcesT carrying a C-terminal CesT variant, CesT(E142G), exhibited normal cytoplasmic Tir stability function, but was less efficient in secreting Tir, further implicating CesT in type III secretion. In vivo co-immunoprecipitation studies using CesT-FLAG containing EPEC lysates demonstrated that CesT interacts with Tir and EscN, consistent with the notion of CesT recruiting Tir to the T3SS. CesT was also shown to be required for the efficient secretion of several type III effectors encoded within and outside the locus of enterocyte effacement (LEE) in addition to Tir and Map. Furthermore, a CesT affinity column was shown to specifically retain multiple effector proteins from EPEC culture supernatants. These findings indicate that CesT is centrally involved in recruiting multiple type III effectors to the T3SS via EscN for efficient secretion, and functionally redefine the role of CesT in multiple type III effector interactions.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 3
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Oxford, UK : Blackwell Science Ltd
    Molecular microbiology 51 (2004), S. 0 
    ISSN: 1365-2958
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: Enterohaemorrhagic Escherichia coli (EHEC) O157:H7 uses a specialized protein translocation apparatus, the type III secretion system (TTSS), to deliver bacterial effector proteins into host cells. These effectors interfere with host cytoskeletal pathways and signalling cascades to facilitate bacterial survival and replication and promote disease. The genes encoding the TTSS and all known type III secreted effectors in EHEC are localized in a single pathogenicity island on the bacterial chromosome known as the locus for enterocyte effacement (LEE). In this study, we performed a proteomic analysis of proteins secreted by the LEE-encoded TTSS of EHEC. In addition to known LEE-encoded type III secreted proteins, such as EspA, EspB and Tir, a novel protein, NleA (non-LEE-encoded effector A), was identified. NleA is encoded in a prophage-associated pathogenicity island within the EHEC genome, distinct from the LEE. The LEE-encoded TTSS directs translocation of NleA into host cells, where it localizes to the Golgi apparatus. In a panel of strains examined by Southern blot and database analyses, nleA was found to be present in all other LEE-containing pathogens examined, including enteropathogenic E. coli and Citrobacter rodentium, and was absent from non-pathogenic strains of E. coli and non-LEE-containing pathogens. NleA was determined to play a key role in virulence of C. rodentium in a mouse infection model.
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  • 4
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Oxford BSL : Blackwell Science Ltd
    Molecular microbiology 31 (1999), S. 0 
    ISSN: 1365-2958
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: Agrobacterium tumefaciens induces tumours on plants by transferring a nucleoprotein complex, the T-complex, from the bacterium to the plant cell. The T-complex consists of a single-stranded DNA (ssDNA) segment, the T-DNA, and VirD2, an endonuclease covalently attached to the 5′ end of the T-DNA. A type IV secretion system encoded by the virB operon and virD4 is required for the entry of the T-complex and VirE2, a ssDNA-binding protein, into plant cells. The VirE1 protein is specifically required for the export of the VirE2 protein, as demonstrated by extracellular complementation and tumour formation. In this report, using a yeast two-hybrid system, we demonstrated that the VirE1 and VirE2 proteins interact and confirmed this interaction by in vitro binding assays. Although VirE2 is a ssDNA-binding protein, addition of ssDNA into the binding buffer did not interfere with the interaction of VirE1 and VirE2. VirE2 also interacts with itself, but the interaction between VirE1 and VirE2 is stronger than the VirE2 self-interaction, as measured in a lacZ reporter gene assay. In addition, the interaction of VirE2 with itself is inhibited by VirE1, indicating that VirE2 binds VirE1 preferentially. Analysis of various virE2 deletions indicated that the VirE1 interaction domain of VirE2 overlaps the VirE2 self-interaction domain. Incubation of extracts from Escherichia coli overexpressing His-VirE1 with the extracts of E. coli overexpressing His-VirE2 increased the yield of His-VirE2 in the soluble fraction. In a similar purified protein solubility assay, His-VirE1 increased the amount of His-VirE2 partitioning into the soluble fraction. In Agrobacterium, VirE2 was undetectable in the soluble protein fraction unless VirE1 was co-expressed. When urea was added to solubilize any large protein aggregates, a low level of VirE2 was detected. These results indicate that VirE1 prevents VirE2 from aggregating, enhances the stability of VirE2 and, perhaps, maintains VirE2 in an export-competent state. Analysis of the deduced amino acid sequence of the VirE1 protein revealed that the VirE1 protein shares a number of properties with molecular chaperones that are involved in the transport of specific proteins into animal and plant cells using type III secretion systems. We suggest that VirE1 functions as a specific molecular chaperone for VirE2, the first such chaperone linked to the presumed type IV secretion system.
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  • 5
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Oxford, UK : Blackwell Science Ltd
    Molecular microbiology 48 (2003), S. 0 
    ISSN: 1365-2958
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: Citrobacter rodentium infection of mice serves as a relevant small animal model to study enterohaemorrhagic Escherichia coli (EHEC) and enteropathogenic E. coli (EPEC) infections in man. Enteropathogenic E. coli and EHEC translocate Tir into the host cytoplasmic membrane, where it serves as the receptor for the bacterial adhesin intimin and plays a central role in actin condensation beneath the adherent bacterium. In this report, we examined the function of C. rodentium Tir both in vitro and in vivo. Similar to EPEC, C. rodentium Tir is tyrosine phosphorylated and is essential for actin condensation. Citrobacter Tir and EPEC Tir are functionally interchangeable and both require tyrosine phosphorylation to mediate actin rearrangements. In contrast, Citrobacter Tir supports actin nucleation in EHEC independent of tyrosine phosphorylation, while EHEC Tir cannot replace Citrobacter Tir for this function. This indicates that C. rodentium and EPEC use an actin nucleating mechanism different from EHEC. We also found that Tir is expressed and translocated into mouse enterocytes in vivo by C. rodentium during infections. This represents the first direct demonstration of a type III effector translocated in vivo into a natural host by any pathogen. In addition, we showed that Tir, but not its tyrosine phosphorylation, is essential for C. rodentium to colonize the large bowel and induce attaching/effacing (A/E) lesions and colonic hyperplasia in mice, and that both EPEC Tir and EHEC Tir can substitute for Citrobacter Tir for these activities in vivo. These results thus demonstrate that Tir is an essential virulence factor in this infection model. The data also show that the function of Tir tyrosine phosphorylation and its subsequent actin nucleating activity are not essential for C. rodentium colonization of the mouse gut nor for inducing A/E lesions and colonic hyperplasia, thereby uncoupling colonization and disease from actin condensation for this A/E pathogen.
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