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  • 1
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Springer
    Protoplasma 146 (1988), S. 166-173 
    ISSN: 1615-6102
    Keywords: Entomophthorales ; Entomophthora muscae ; Ultrastructure ; Cytochemistry ; Protoplast ; in vitro growth
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: Summary Entomophthora muscae (C.) Fres. can be grownin vitro as protoplasts. Light and electron microscopical studies of thein vitro developed protoplasts have demonstrated the absence of an organized wall over the protoplasmic Con A-positive membrane at all stages of growth. The cytological organization is typical of the Entomophthorales with condensed chromatin in the interphase nuclei and small eccentric metaphase spindles. Long strands of endoplasmic reticulum, microubules and vesicles surrounding the plasmalemma may be involved in maintaining the precise shape ofE. muscae protoplast. Starvation of the fungus induces the formation of hyphal bodies after deposition of Con A- and WGA-positive wall material at the plasmalemma surface.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 2
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Oxford, UK : Blackwell Publishing Ltd
    FEMS microbiology letters 231 (2004), S. 0 
    ISSN: 1574-6968
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: The plasmid pHT73 containing cry1Ac and tagged with an erythromycin resistance gene was transferred from Bacillus thuringiensis subspecies kurstaki KT0 to several Bacillus cereus group strains by conjugation. Sodium dodecyl sulfate–polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS–PAGE) and phase contrast microscopy showed that the transconjugants containing plasmid pHT73 could express Cry1Ac toxin and produce bipyramidal crystalline inclusion bodies during sporulation. The study demonstrated that pHT73 could be transferred to B. thuringiensis subsp. kurstaki, several B. cereus strains and Bacillus mycoides. Under non-selective conditions, the stability of the pHT73 plasmid in the transconjugants was found to be 58.2–100% after 100 generations and 4–96% after 200 generations. The variations are mainly caused by the choice of receptor strain.
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  • 3
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Amsterdam : Elsevier
    Journal of Invertebrate Pathology 48 (1986), S. 318-324 
    ISSN: 0022-2011
    Keywords: Entomophthora ; Entomophthorales ; insect pathology ; spore ; sporogenesis ; ultrastructure
    Source: Elsevier Journal Backfiles on ScienceDirect 1907 - 2002
    Topics: Biology
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 4
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Springer
    BioControl 37 (1992), S. 65-77 
    ISSN: 1573-8248
    Keywords: Strongwellsea castrans ; Delia radicum ; Entomophthorales ; entomogenous fungus ; in vitro culture ; enzyme profile ; Strongwellsea castrans ; Delia radicum ; Entomophthorales ; culturein vitro ; champignon entomopathogène ; profil d'enzyme
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Agriculture, Forestry, Horticulture, Fishery, Domestic Science, Nutrition
    Description / Table of Contents: Résumé Le champignon entomopathogèneStrongwellsea castrans a été isolé pour la première foisin vitro en incubant des conidies projetées de cadavres de mouches du chou (Delia radicum) dans un milieu liquide simple et semi-défini contenant du dextrose, de l'extrait de levure et de l'hydrolysat de lactalbumine tamponné à pH 7. Le champignon s'y est développé sous forme d'hyphes longues et unituniquées. Après transfert sur milieu solide, des corps hyphaux multinucléés sont apparus et ont développé une paroi plus épaisse et laminée. On n'observera aucune conidie ni spore de résistance, que ce soit en milieu liquide ou sur milieu solide, et le champignon ne survécut aux repiquages qu'en milieu liquide. En utilisant le système API-ZYM, des tests sur des extraits d'hyphes deS. castrans se sont avérés positifs pour 11 enzymes mais aucune différence nette n'a été observée en ce qui concerne les profils d'enzymes entreS. castrans et des champignons du genreErynia.
    Notes: Abstract The entomogenous fungusStrongwellsea castrans was isolatedin vitro for the first time, by incubating conidia projected from infected cabbage root flies (Delia radicum) in a simple, semi-defined liquid medium comprising dextrose, yeast extract and lactalbumin hydrolysate buffered to pH 7. The fungus grew as long unitunicate hyphae. After transfer to a solid nutrient medium, multinucleate hyphal bodies were formed which developed a thick, laminated wall. Neither conidia nor resting spores developed in liquid or on solid media and the fungus survived successive sub-culturing only in liquid media. Using the API-ZYM system, tests on extracts on hyphae ofS. castrans were positive for 11 enzymes but there were no consistent differences in enzyme profiles betweenS. castrans and fungi of the related genusErynia.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 5
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Springer
    BioControl 33 (1988), S. 135-144 
    ISSN: 1573-8248
    Keywords: Entomophthora muscae ; Conidiobolus apiculatus ; Erynia sp. ; Psila rosae ; mortality factor ; population regulation ; Entomophthora muscae ; Conidiobolus apiculatus ; Erynia sp. ; Psila rosae ; facteur de mortalité ; régulation des populations
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Agriculture, Forestry, Horticulture, Fishery, Domestic Science, Nutrition
    Description / Table of Contents: Résumé Trois espèces d'Entomophthorales ont été trouvées sur des Mouches de la Carotte adultes durant 2 saisons successives:Entomophthora muscae (C.) Fres,Conidiobolus apiculatus (Thax.) Remaud. & Keller etErynia sp.E. muscae était de loin l'espèce la plus commune causant des épizooties dans une population de mouche de la carotte plus de 3 fois par an. Les mouches capturées dans la haie manifestaient un niveau d'infection plus élevé que celles capturées dans le champ à proximité de la haie. Les mouches capturées à 200 mètres de la haie manifestaient le niveau d'infection le plus bas. Apparemment, la haie était le foyer d'infection car les mouches de la carotte tuées parE. muscae s'y trouvaient attachées à la face inférieure des feuilles. Les mouches capturées sur les pièges jaunes développaient uniquement des symptômes limités et donnaient peu d'information sur les niveaux d'infection dus au champignon.
    Notes: Abstract Three species of Entomophthorales were found on adult carrot flies (Psila rosae F.) during two successive seasons:Entomophthora muscae (C.) Fres.,Condiobolus apiculatus (Thax.) Remaud. & Keller andErynia sp.E. muscae was by far the most common species and caused epizootics in one carrot fly population up to 3 times per year. Flies cuaght in the hedge showed a higher infection level than flies caught in the field close to the hedge. Flies caught 200 m away from the hedge showed the lowest infection level. Apparently the hedge was the site of infection, since carrot flies, killed byE. muscae, were found there attached to the underside of the leaves. Flies caught on yellow sticky traps developed only to a limited extend symptoms and gave little information about the fungus infection levels.
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  • 6
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Springer
    BioControl 32 (1987), S. 425-435 
    ISSN: 1573-8248
    Keywords: Entomophthora muscae ; Psila rosae ; in vivo culture ; lethal time ; primary spore discharge ; Entomophthora muscae ; Psila rosae ; kulturin vivo ; Lebensdauer ; Abschleuderung von Primärsporen
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Agriculture, Forestry, Horticulture, Fishery, Domestic Science, Nutrition
    Description / Table of Contents: Zusammenfassung Eine Methode für einein vivo Kultur vonE. muscae wird beschrieben. Die Nahrung der Pilzkultur bestand aus ihrem natürlichen Wirt, erwachsene Möhrenfliegen (P. rosae). Die Lebensdauer der erwachsenen Möhrenfliegen hängt im hohen Mass von der Temperatur ab, sowohl was infizierte als uninfizierte Fliegen betrifft. Im Interval von 8.2°C–20.2°C war die LT50 für infizierte Fliegen etwa 5.4 mal kürzer als die durchschnittliche Lebensdauer (“LT50”) für uninfizierte Fliegen. Das Abschleuderung der Primärsporen zeigte auch eine starke Temperaturabhängigkeit. Die totale Anzahl von Primärsporen pro Fliege in 100% RH und Dunkelheit abgeschleudert, lag zwischen 1.2×104 und 9.6×104 und Betrug im Mittel 5.1×104.
    Notes: Abstract A method for maintaining anin vivo culture ofEntomophthora muscae (C) Fres. on its original host, adult carrot flies (Psila rosae F.), is described. The lethal time for adult carrot flies was greatly influenced by temperature, both for infected and for uninfected flies. In the range 8.2°C–20.2°C the LT50 for infected flies was about 5.4 times shorter than the estimated average life-span for uninfected flies. The discharge of primary spores was also strongly dependent on temperature. The total number of primary spores discharged per fly at 100% RH and in darkness ranged between 1.2×104 and 9.6×104 with a mean of 5.1×104.
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  • 7
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Springer
    ISSN: 1573-0972
    Keywords: Aedes aegypti ; Bacillus thuringiensis ; foliage ; Pieris brassicae ; Tipula oleracea
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Process Engineering, Biotechnology, Nutrition Technology
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 8
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    New York, NY [u.a.] : Wiley-Blackwell
    Journal of Applied Polymer Science 16 (1972), S. 945-954 
    ISSN: 0021-8995
    Keywords: Chemistry ; Polymer and Materials Science
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Mechanical Engineering, Materials Science, Production Engineering, Mining and Metallurgy, Traffic Engineering, Precision Mechanics , Physics
    Notes: Sorption kinetics and equilibria for CO2 in polycarbonate were studied over a range of temperatures from 35° to 65°C and pressures from 3 to 22 atm. The dual mode sorption model of Vieth et al. was used to test the data, and a comparison was made with previous work on glassy polystyrene. Further evidence of the validity of generality of the model in providing a consistent picture of small-molecule diffusion in glassy polymers was thereby provided. The technical feasibility of membrane separation of H2 from a H2/CO2 mixture by selective permeation through polycarbonate was examined at 50°C.
    Additional Material: 6 Ill.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 9
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Springer
    Entomologia experimentalis et applicata 97 (2000), S. 265-274 
    ISSN: 1570-7458
    Keywords: Delia radicum ; Delia floralis ; Entomophthora muscae ; Strongwellsea castrans ; trap ; microbial control ; natural enemy ; Entomophthorales ; epizootiology ; fungal pathogen ; prevalence
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: Abstract Brassiceye®traps baited with ethylisothiocyanate were modified and used to collect live adults of Delia radicum(L.) and Delia floralis(Fallén) (Diptera: Anthomyiidae) from the field to observe the prevalence of Entomophthora muscae(Cohn) Fresenius and Strongwellsea castransBatko & Weiser. The traps were highly effective and selective for D. radicumand D. floralis. Of the flies identified, 98.4% in 1996 and 93.7% in 1997 were either D. radicumor D. floralis. In 1997 the maximum mean catch was as high as 82 flies per trap per day, and more than 80% of these were females. During both seasons E. muscaecaused relatively high levels of mortality in adult populations of D. radicumand D. floralis. The fungus caused a total infection level of 17.9% in 1996 and 47.7% in 1997 with infection peaks of 82.4% in 1996 and 87.5% in 1997. Both years, a significant positive correlation was found between E. muscaeprevalence and temperature. One infection peak was observed for S. castransin 1996, and during that season the total S. castransinfection level was 18.0%. In 1997, the total S. castransinfection level was as low as 8.1%. There is no strong indication that the prevalence of E. muscaeor S. castransdiffers between either the fly species or sexes within species.
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  • 10
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Palo Alto, Calif. : Annual Reviews
    Annual Review of Entomology 51 (2006), S. 331-357 
    ISSN: 0066-4170
    Source: Annual Reviews Electronic Back Volume Collection 1932-2001ff
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: Invertebrate pathogens and their hosts are taxonomically diverse. Despite this, there is one unifying concept relevant to all such parasitic associations: Both pathogen and host adapt to maximize their own reproductive output and ultimate fitness. The strategies adopted by pathogens and hosts to achieve this goal are almost as diverse as the organisms themselves, but studies examining such relationships have traditionally concentrated only on aspects of host physiology. Here we review examples of host-altered behavior and consider these within a broad ecological and evolutionary context. Research on pathogen-induced and host-mediated behavioral changes demonstrates the range of altered behaviors exhibited by invertebrates including behaviorally induced fever, elevation seeking, reduced or increased activity, reduced response to semiochemicals, and changes in reproductive behavior. These interactions are sometimes quite bizarre, intricate, and of great scientific interest.
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