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  • 1
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Oxford, UK : Blackwell Publishing Ltd
    Economic affairs 23 (2003), S. 0 
    ISSN: 1468-0270
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Economics
    Notes: Poor countries are believed to be trapped in a vicious circle of poverty where low incomes lead to low savings and insufficient resources for investments. Foreign aid is supposed to boost investment and link poor countries to a virtuous circle of growth. But real per capita growth has not been present in the modern history of Kenya and Tanzania - even though foreign aid has increased many times over. Does the recent history in Uganda pave the way for new principles of efficient aid, or is it just a rare occasion of aid-induced behavioural change?
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 2
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    Brussels: European Centre for International Political Economy (ECIPE)
    Publication Date: 2019-08-31
    Description: There have been calls to exclude certain products from trade agreements because they cause damages to public health or the environment. Lately, campaigns for product exclusions have included chemicals (generally or specific chemicals like glyphosate), sugary drinks and candy (or sugar generally), and alcoholic beverages. Previously the same case has been made for tobacco products. In this paper, it is argued that product exclusions are neither legally feasible nor desirable. Measures to exclude products would run foul of the rules and market-access commitments that countries have agreed in the WTO, and that serve as a basis also for other trade deals, like bilateral Free Trade Agreements. Importantly, excluding products from current market-access commitments in the WTO would per se do nothing with regard to public health because the main effect is that local production of the excluded goods would substitute goods that are now imported. The conclusion is that trade policy is not a tool for regulatory ambitions. Nor does it stand in the way for regulations that aim to improve public health. Trade policy concerns trade, and the instruments and agreements that exist for the pursuit of better and less-discriminatory trade conditions simply cannot be used for sundry regulatory proposals, however relevant they may be.
    Keywords: ddc:330
    Language: English
    Type: doc-type:report
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  • 3
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    Brussels: European Centre for International Political Economy (ECIPE)
    Publication Date: 2019-08-31
    Keywords: ddc:330 ; Handelsabkommen ; Handelsbilanz ; Außenwirtschaftliches Gleichgewicht ; USA
    Language: English
    Type: doc-type:report
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  • 4
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    Brussels: European Centre for International Political Economy (ECIPE)
    Publication Date: 2019-08-30
    Keywords: ddc:330
    Language: English
    Type: doc-type:report
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  • 5
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    Brussels: European Centre for International Political Economy (ECIPE)
    Publication Date: 2018-02-15
    Description: This paper examines the trade-policy consequences of current approaches in the European Union towards biofuels. The EU uses a broad range of measures to subsidise the production of biofuels in Europe and to protect them from foreign competition. It is one of the biggest manifestations of "green protectionism" (...)
    Keywords: ddc:330 ; Biokraftstoff ; EU-Energiepolitik ; WTO-Recht
    Language: English
    Type: doc-type:report
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  • 6
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    Brussels: European Centre for International Political Economy (ECIPE)
    Publication Date: 2018-02-15
    Description: While innovation is central for the quality of healthcare and improving health outcomes, it is also a source of increasing costs for governments. Confronted by fiscal pressures, governments have made efforts to restrict access to innovative treatments. While such policies are understandable, they are not necessarily supportive of the ambition to control the cost burden of a disease. This paper reviews economic analyses of the cost burden of cancer, and blood cancers in particular, and the effects that innovative treatments have on other sources of costs in the healthcare system or the economy as a whole. While there is a need for more research on the relations between costs in healthcare systems, and significant variations between countries, several studies have found that access to innovative treatments have reduced inpatient care costs because, among other things, better treatments reduce the need for long hospital stay. Furthermore, research also shows that a significant part of the total cost burden of cancer and blood cancer is the productivity loss to the economy when patients are out of work. Reducing the productivity loss is central for improving the economic rationality of healthcare systems. This Policy Brief charts some areas for work - at national and the EU level.
    Keywords: ddc:330 ; Gesundheitskosten ; Krebskrankheit ; Medizinische Behandlung ; Innovation ; Gesundheitsfinanzierung ; EU-Staaten
    Language: English
    Type: doc-type:report
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  • 7
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    Brussels: European Centre for International Political Economy (ECIPE)
    Publication Date: 2018-02-15
    Description: Standard-essential patents (SEPs) have been critical to the ICT revolution. SEPs have allowed for the fast rates of innovation diffusion that the world has witnessed in the past 25 years. Yet the SEP system is under pressure. It suffers from a smoldering crisis of confidence as costly legal disputes across several international jurisdictions have caused unpredictable frictions in the markets for standardized technologies. Regulators in several parts of the world are now considering actions that seek to overcome obscurities in the SEP system. Asymmetric information is at the very heart of current problems in the market for SEPs, and all too often resembles a market dominated by a "confusopoly" with little transparency about products, quality and prices. In this paper, we will discuss ideas and concepts for what could be done to maintain a balanced and trusted system that supports technological innovation and at the same time conforms to economic efficiency.
    Keywords: ddc:330
    Language: English
    Type: doc-type:report
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  • 8
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    Brussels: European Centre for International Political Economy (ECIPE)
    Publication Date: 2018-02-15
    Description: Today, increases in the demand for healthcare are driving European governments to look for ways to control growth in healthcare expenditures and at the same time improve health outcomes. Consideration of ways to enhance trade in healthcare goods and services is important for governments as they struggle to find resources to finance this increasing demand for healthcare.
    Keywords: ddc:330
    Language: English
    Type: doc-type:report
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  • 9
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    Brussels: European Centre for International Political Economy (ECIPE)
    Publication Date: 2018-02-15
    Description: The forces of the Wealth of nations are not at work for the Health of nations. Economic and trade integration have progressed over the last fifty years and yet one sector remains conspicuously un-globalized: health care. Interest groups and international organizations, like the World Health Organization, have conveyed a picture of trade liberalization of health care as detrimental to developing countries. Yet it is developed countries that primarily resist opening their markets for trade in health care, say Lucy Davis and Fredrik Erixon in this new study. They examine the opposition to trade in health care and suggest ways of moving forward, expanding on the potential that trade could bring to this beleaguered sector. Countries as diverse as Brazil, China, Cuba, India and South Africa are already significant exporters of health care. Patients in developed and developing countries stand to gain from lower health costs, increased efficiency and better quality of service.
    Keywords: ddc:330 ; Wirtschaftsintegration ; Gesundheitswesen ; Dienstleistungshandel ; Entwicklungsländer ; Industrieländer
    Language: English
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  • 10
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    Brussels: European Centre for International Political Economy (ECIPE)
    Publication Date: 2018-02-15
    Description: Globalization has been accused of "stealing jobs" and depressing wages in the developed part of the world. China's entry into the world economy, in particular, has sparked fears about a "middle-class squeeze". These fears resemble the anxiety in previous eras over the rise of new emerging markets. As recent as twenty years ago, Japanese firms were by some considered to be far too competitive for American or European firms to survive. Now, as then, most of these fears are based on erroneous facts and wild exaggerations. In this new Policy Brief, Fredrik Erixon analyses data on wages, prices and income to estimate the benefits from globalization. He finds a strong link between disinflation and rising real income.
    Keywords: ddc:330 ; Globalisierung ; Verteilungswirkung
    Language: English
    Type: doc-type:report
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