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  • 1
    Book
    Book
    Lohmar [u.a.] : Eul
    Part of "Reihe: Industrieökonomik"
    Person(s): Fehr, Andrea
    Keywords: Breitbandverteilnetz ; Netzzugang ; Telekommunikationsmarkt ; Deregulierung ; Marktverhalten ; Deutschland ; Hochschulschrift ; Deutschland 03.10.1990- ; Breitbandverteilnetz ; Netzzugang ; Telekommunikationsmarkt ; Deregulierung ; Marktverhalten
    Type of Medium: Book
    Pages: XX, 258 S. , Ill., graph. Darst.
    Edition: 1. Aufl.
    ISBN: 3899363469
    Series Statement: Reihe: Industrieökonomik 1
    RVK:
    Language: German
    Dissertation note: Zugl.: Stuttgart, Univ., Diss., 2004/2005
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  • 2
    Online Resource
    Online Resource
    Wiesbaden : Springer VS
    Person(s): Fehr, Helmut
    Keywords: Elite ; Zivilgesellschaft ; Öffentlichkeit ; Legitimität ; Demokratisierung ; Ostmitteleuropa ; Ostmitteleuropa ; Elite ; Zivilgesellschaft ; Öffentlichkeit ; Legitimität ; Demokratisierung
    Type of Medium: Online Resource
    Pages: 1 Online-Ressource (XIV, 463 S.)
    ISBN: 9783658043766 , 9783658043773
    Series Statement: Europa, Politik, Gesellschaft
    DDC: 305
    RVK:
    Language: German
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  • 3
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    Nature Publishing Group (NPG)
    Publication Date: 2016-02-26
    Description: 〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Fehr-Duda, Helga -- Fehr, Ernst -- England -- Nature. 2016 Feb 25;530(7591):413-5. doi: 10.1038/530413a.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉University of Zurich, Switzerland.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26911767" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Print ISSN: 0028-0836
    Electronic ISSN: 1476-4687
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
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  • 4
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    BioMed Central
    Publication Date: 2014-07-12
    Description: Background: Initially, human area MT+ was considered a visual area solely processing motion information but further research has shown that it is also involved in various different cognitive operations, such as working memory tasks requiring motion-related information to be maintained or cognitive tasks with implied or expected motion.In the present fMRI study in humans, we focused on MT+ modulation during working memory maintenance using a dynamic shape-tracking working memory task with no motion-related working memory content. Working memory load was systematically varied using complex and simple stimulus material and parametrically increasing retention periods. Activation patterns for the difference between retention of complex and simple memorized stimuli were examined in order to preclude that the reported effects are caused by differences in retrieval. Results: Conjunction analysis over all delay durations for the maintenance of complex versus simple stimuli demonstrated a wide-spread activation pattern. Percent signal change (PSC) in area MT+ revealed a pattern with higher values for the maintenance of complex shapes compared to the retention of a simple circle and with higher values for increasing delay durations. Conclusions: The present data extend previous knowledge by demonstrating that visual area MT+ presents a brain activity pattern usually found in brain regions that are actively involved in working memory maintenance.
    Electronic ISSN: 1471-2202
    Topics: Medicine
    Published by BioMed Central
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  • 5
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    BioMed Central
    Publication Date: 2014-08-12
    Description: Background: The temporo-spatial dynamics of risk assessment and reward processing in problem gamblers with a focus on an ecologically valid design has not been examined previously. Methods: We investigated risk assessment and reward processing in 12 healthy male occasional gamblers (OG) and in 12 male problem gamblers (PG) with a combined EEG and fMRI approach to identify group-differences in successively activated brain regions during two stages within a quasi-realistic blackjack game. Results: Both groups did not differ in reaction times but event-related potentials in PG and OG produced significantly different amplitudes in middle and late time-windows during high-risk vs. low-risk decisions. Applying an fMRI-constrained regional source model during risk assessment resulted in larger source moments in PG in the high-risk vs. low-risk comparison in thalamic, orbitofrontal and superior frontal activations within the 600-800?ms time window. During reward processing, PG showed a trend to enhanced negativity in an early time window (100-150?ms) potentially related to higher rostral anterior cingulate activity and a trend to centro-parietal group-differences in a later time window (390-440?ms) accompanied by increased superior-frontal (i.e., premotor-related) source moments in PG vs. OG. Conclusions: We suggest that problem gambling is characterized by stronger cue-related craving during risk assessment. Reward processing is associated with early affective modulation followed by increased action preparation for ongoing gambling in PG.
    Electronic ISSN: 1471-244X
    Topics: Medicine
    Published by BioMed Central
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  • 6
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    BioMed Central
    Publication Date: 2014-09-19
    Description: Background: Hepatitis C virus (HCV) infections are a severe burden on public health worldwide, causing mortality rates triple that of the general population. Since 2011, for both therapy-naive and therapy-experienced genotype 1 patients, the first generation of direct acting antivirals (DAAs), i.e., the protease-inhibitors (PI) telaprevir and boceprevir have been added to existing dual therapies. The therapeutic effect of the resulting triple therapy is striking; however, treatment regimens are complex and commonly cause side effects. Little is known of how patients implement therapy in their daily lives, or of how they deal with these effects.This study aims to describe HCV patients' experiences with protease-inhibitor-based triple therapy and their support needs. Methods: A qualitative design was used. Patients from three outpatient clinics, with ongoing, completed or discontinued PI treatment experience were recruited using a maximum variation sampling approach. Open-ended interviews were conducted and analyzed using thematic analysis according to Braun & Clarke (Qual Res Psychol 3:77-101, 2006). Results: Thirteen patients participated in the interviews. All described themselves as highly motivated to undergo treatment, since they saw the new therapy as a "real chance" for a cure. However, all later described the therapy period as a struggle. The constitutive theme-"Fighting an uphill battle"- describes the common existential experience of and negative consequences of coping with side effects. The processes that fostered this common experience followed three sub-themes: "encountering surprises", "dealing with disruption" and "reaching the limits of systems". Conclusion: HCV patients undergoing outpatient protease-inhibitor-based triple therapy need systematic support in symptom management. This will require specially trained professionals to advise and support them and their families, and to provide rapid responses to their needs throughout this complex course of therapy. As the generation of DAAs for all genotypes, are expected to have less severe side effects, and many HCV patients require treatment, this knowledge can improve treatment support tremendously, especially for patients who are quite difficult to treat. Furthermore, these findings are helpful to illustrate development in HCV treatment.
    Electronic ISSN: 1471-2334
    Topics: Medicine
    Published by BioMed Central
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  • 7
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    SpringerOpen
    Publication Date: 2014-10-17
    Description: Background: The purpose of this study was to survey the current practice of the use of lung ultrasonography (LUS) in the diagnosis of pneumothorax. Methods: Physician sonographers, accredited for diagnostic ultrasonography in surgery, anaesthesia and medicine were studied. Questions addressed the frequency of exposure to patients with suspected pneumothorax, frequency of LUS use, preferences regarding technical aspects of LUS examination, assessment of diagnostic accuracy of LUS and involvement in teaching. Results: Of the respondents, 55.1% used LUS `always? or `frequently? for suspected pneumothorax. Also, 35.5% of physicians rated LUS as `always reliable? in ruling out pneumothorax, and 21.3% of respondents rated LUS as `always reliable? in ruling in pneumothorax. The mode of performing LUS for pneumothorax was highly variable.Statistically significant differences were found regarding the likelihood of LUS usage, the combined use of M-Mode and B-mode scanning and the confidence to exclude pneumothorax based on LUS findings for physicians with frequent exposure to pneumothorax cases. Conclusions: Physicians' use of LUS in the diagnosis of pneumothorax is modest. Confidence in diagnostic accuracy is not comprehensive. Further research is required to establish the most efficient way of performing LUS in this scenario to achieve the highest possible diagnostic accuracy and reliable documentation of examination results.
    Print ISSN: 2036-3176
    Electronic ISSN: 2036-7902
    Topics: Medicine
    Published by SpringerOpen
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  • 8
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    Geological Society of America (GSA)
    Publication Date: 2013-08-02
    Description: On the New Jersey shelf (offshore North America), the presence of pore water fresher than seawater is known from a series of boreholes completed during the 1970s and 1980s. To account for this fresh water, a first hypothesis involves possible present-day active dynamic connections with onshore aquifers, while a second involves meteoritic and/or sub–ice-sheet waters during periods of lowered sea level. Expedition 313 drilled three boreholes on the middle shelf, offering a unique opportunity for the internal structure of the siliciclastic system to be accessed, at scales ranging from the depositional matrix to the continental margin. This enables the stratigraphic architecture to be correlated with the spatial distribution and salinity of saturating fluids. Expedition 313 revealed both very low salinities (〈3 g/L) at depths exceeding 400 m below the seafloor and evidence for a multilayered reservoir organization, with fresh- and/or brackish-water intervals alternating vertically with salty intervals. In this study we present a revised distribution of the salinity beneath the middle shelf. Our observations suggest that the processes controlling salinity are strongly influenced by lithology, porosity, and permeability. Saltier pore waters generally occur in coarse-grained intervals and fresher pore waters occur in fine-grained intervals. The transition from fresher to saltier intervals is often marked by cemented horizons that probably act as permeability barriers. In the lowermost parts of two holes, the salinity varies independently of lithology, suggesting different mechanisms and/or sources of salinity. We present an interpretation of the sedimentary facies distribution, derived from core, logs, and seismic profile analyses, that is used to discuss the margin-scale two-dimensional reservoir geometry and permeability distribution. These proposed geometries are of primary importance when considering the possible pathways and emplacement mechanisms for the fresh and salty water below the New Jersey shelf.
    Electronic ISSN: 1553-040X
    Topics: Geosciences
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  • 9
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    BioMed Central
    Publication Date: 2013-10-12
    Description: Background: Poor sleep quality (SQ) and daytime sleepiness (DS) are common in renal transplant (RTx) recipients; however, related data are rare. This study describes the prevalence and frequency of self-reported sleep disturbances in RTx recipients. Methods: This cross-sectional study included 249 RTx recipients transplanted at three Swiss transplant centers. All had reported poor SQ and / or DS in a previous study. With the Survey of Sleep (SOS) self-report questionnaire, we screened for sleep and health habits, sleep history, main sleep problems and sleep-related disturbances. To determine a basis for preliminary sleep diagnoses according to the International Classification of Sleep Disorders (ICSD), 164 subjects were interviewed (48 in person, 116 via telephone and 85 refused). Descriptive statistics were used to analyze the data and to determine the frequencies and prevalences of specific sleep disorders. Results: The sample had a mean age of 59.1 +/- 11.6 years (60.2% male); mean time since Tx was 11.1 +/- 7.0 years. The most frequent sleep problem was difficulty staying asleep (49.4%), followed by problems falling asleep (32.1%). The most prevalent sleep disturbance was the need to urinate (62.9%), and 27% reported reduced daytime functionality. Interview data showed that most suffered from the first ICSD category: insomnias. Conclusion: Though often disregarded in RTx recipients, sleep is an essential factor of wellbeing. Our findings show high prevalences and incidences of insomnias, with negative impacts on daytime functionality. This indicates a need for further research on the clinical consequences of sleep disturbances and the benefits of insomnia treatment in RTx recipients.
    Electronic ISSN: 1471-2369
    Topics: Medicine
    Published by BioMed Central
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  • 10
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    BioMed Central
    Publication Date: 2013-03-10
    Description: Background Life expectancy is of increasing prime interest for a variety of reasons. In many countries, life expectancy is growing linearly, without any indication of reaching a limit.The state of North Rhine--Westphalia (NRW) in Germany with its 54 districts is considered here where the above mentioned growth in life expectancy is occurring as well. However, there is also empirical evidence that life expectancy is not growing linearly {\em at the same level } for different regions.Methods To explore this situation further a likelihood-based cluster analysis is suggested and performed. The modelling uses a nonparametric mixture approach for the latent random effect. Maximum likelihood estimates are determined by means of the EM algorithm and the number of components in the mixture model are found on the basis of the Bayesian Information Criterion. Regions are classified into the mixture components (clusters) using the maximum posterior allocation rule.Results For the data analyzed here, 7 components are found with a spatial concentration of lower life expectancy levels in a centre of NRW, formerly an enormous conglomerate of heavy industry, still the most densely populated area with Gelsenkirchen having the lowest level of life expectancy growth for both genders. The paper offers some explanations for this fact including demographic and socio-economic sources.Conclusions This case study shows that life expectancy growth is widely linear, but it might occur on different levels.
    Electronic ISSN: 1471-2288
    Topics: Medicine
    Published by BioMed Central
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