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  • 1
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Oxford, UK : Munksgaard International Publishers
    Journal of pineal research 38 (2005), S. 0 
    ISSN: 1600-079X
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Abstract:  The aim of this study was to determine the effects of melatonin on proinflammatory status of rats with collagen-induced arthritis (CIA). CIA was induced in male Wistar rats with an emulsion of type II collagen in Freund's Incomplete Adjuvant (C-II/FIA). For 14 days, control and pinealectomized rats received a subcutaneous injection of 100 μL melatonin (30 μg) or vehicle (saline on 1% ethanol). Levels of cytokines interleukin (IL)-1β and IL-6 were determined in the serum, peripheral blood mononuclear cells, and joints. Levels of anti-type II collagen antibody, nitrite/nitrate, and lipid peroxidation (LPO) were determined in the serum, joints, and brain. Treatment with melatonin significantly increased the levels of IL-1β, IL-6, nitrite/nitrate and LPO in joints. However, melatonin significantly reduced the levels of nitrite/nitrate and LPO in serum and brain. Moreover, CIA in pinealectomized rats presented significantly reduced levels of IL-1β and IL-6, titers of anti-type II collagen antibodies, levels of nitrite/nitrate, and LPO in joints but elevated levels in serum and brain. Melatonin has been described as a proinflammatory and antioxidant agent. In a process of inflammation as CIA, melatonin acts with a markedly proinflammatory effect at local and peripheral levels maintaining its antioxidant effect only at peripheral level.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 2
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Oxford, UK : Munksgaard International Publishers
    Journal of pineal research 39 (2005), S. 0 
    ISSN: 1600-079X
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Abstract:  Septic shock, the most severe problem of sepsis, is a lethal condition caused by the interaction of a pathogen-induced long chain of sequential intracellular events in immune cells, epithelium, endothelium, and the neuroendocrine system. The lethal effects of septic shock are associated with the production and release of numerous pro-inflammatory biochemical mediators including cytokines, nitric oxide and toxic oxygen and nitrogen radicals, together with development of massive apoptosis. As melatonin has remarkable properties as a cytokine modulator, antioxidant and anti-apoptotic agent, the present study was designed to evaluate the possible protective effect of melatonin against LPS-induced septic shock in Swiss mice. We observed that intraperitoneally (i.p.) administered-melatonin (10 mg/kg) 30 min prior, and 1 hr after i.p. LPS injection (0.75 mg/animal) markedly protected mice from the LPS lethal effects with 90% survival rates for melatonin and 20% for LPS-injected mice after 72 hr. The melatonin effect was mediated by modulating the release of pro-/anti-inflammatory cytokine levels, protection from oxidative damage and counteracting apoptotic cell death. Melatonin was able to partially counteract the increase in LPS-induced pro-inflammatory cytokine levels such as tumor necrosis factor-α, IL-12 and interferon-γ at the local site of injection, while it increased the production of the anti-inflammatory cytokine IL-10 both locally and systemically. Furthermore, melatonin inhibited the LPS-induced nitrite/nitrate and lipid peroxidation levels in brain and liver and counteracted the sepsis-associated apoptotic process in spleen. In conclusion, we have demonstrated that melatonin improves the survival of mice with septic shock via its pleiotropic functions as an immunomodulator, antioxidant and anti-apoptotic mediator.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 3
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Oxford UK : Blackwell Publishing Ltd
    Journal of pineal research 32 (2002), S. 0 
    ISSN: 1600-079X
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: This study was designed to investigate the effect of melatonin on the fatty acid composition of plasma and tissue lipids. Melatonin administration to rats fed with a standard diet only increased long-chain n-6 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) in total plasma lipids and liver phospholipids but induced significant changes in hypercholesterolemic rats. In plasma, palmitoleic and oleic acids increased and n-6 and n-3 PUFA decreased in hypercholesterolemic rats; theses changes were reversed by melatonin administration. The analysis of lipid fractions revealed that only the cholesteryl ester fraction was affected by melatonin. Histological studies of the carotid artery intima revealed the appearance, in hypercholesterolemic rats, of fatty streaks produced by a mass of foam cells covered by the endothelium and by a thin layer of mononucleated cells. These changes were prevented by melatonin. We conclude that long-term melatonin administration modifies the fatty acid composition of rat plasma and liver lipids and ameliorates the arterial fatty infiltration induced by cholesterol.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 4
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Springer
    Journal of molecular histology 32 (2000), S. 217-222 
    ISSN: 1573-6865
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: Abstract The effects have been examined of different methods and regimens for tissue fixation, preservation, permeabilization and immunostaining of different mRNAs detected by in situ hybridization in paraffin-embedded samples. The three main hormone mRNAs expressed in the thyro–parathyroid glands, namely thyroglobulin, calcitonin and parathyroid hormone mRNAs, were chosen as the target nucleic acid sequences to be detected using digoxigenin-labelled probes. Our results suggest that chemical fixation and permeabilization of tissue samples are restrictive steps. Thus, paraformaldehyde fixation provides excellent signal intensities and non-detectable background levels whereas routine formalin and Bouin's solution give unsatisfactory results. A clear linear correlation was also found between signal intensity and proteinase K permeabilization. Moreover, the optimization of immunohistochemical steps, such as anti-digoxigenin antibody concentration and colour development times, enhance the intensity and specificity of hybrid signals. Furthermore, our results show that, in contrast to some data in the literature, paraffin-embedded tissue is suitable for detection of mRNAs by in situ hybridization. It gives equivalent intensities of specific signal and superior histological and cellular resolutions when compared to cryopreserved tissue.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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