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  • 1
    Online Resource
    Online Resource
    Wiesbaden : Springer VS
    Keywords: Geschichte 1994-2004 ; Sozialwissenschaften ; Presse ; Nahostkonflikt ; Terrorismus ; Berichterstattung ; Frame (Journalismus) ; Deutschland ; Ägypten ; Social sciences ; Political communication ; Area studies ; Communication ; Social Sciences ; Communication Studies ; Political Communication ; Area Studies ; Hochschulschrift ; Deutschland 03.10.1990- ; Ägypten -1958,Jan. ; Presse ; Nahostkonflikt ; Terrorismus ; Berichterstattung ; Frame 〈Journalismus〉 ; Geschichte 1994-2004
    Type of Medium: Online Resource
    Pages: 1 Online-Ressource (XX, 447 Seiten) , Illustrationen
    ISBN: 9783658173937
    Series Statement: Studies in International, Transnational and Global Communications
    DDC: 302.2
    Language: German
    Dissertation note: Dissertation Universität Erfurt 2016
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  • 2
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Springer
    Prospects 5 (1975), S. 323-328 
    ISSN: 1573-9090
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Education
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 3
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Springer
    Prospects 10 (1980), S. 369-378 
    ISSN: 1573-9090
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Education
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 4
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Springer
    Quality & quantity 4 (1970), S. 55-94 
    ISSN: 1573-7845
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Sociology
    Notes: Conclusion We have introduced three parameters of bivariate diachronic relation, viz.: 1) Constancy, measured as the area enclosed between the straight reference line and the empirical or idealized trajectory for one unit, the idealized trajectory for the case of more units. This is a measure of the over-all departure from the case of constant ratios between the rates of growth in the two variables, and the smaller the measure, the higher the constancy. 2) Regularity, measured as the diachronic correlation between X and Y around the idealized trajectory, whether based on one or more units. The measure will have to be based on correlation ratios if the variables are interval scale, in order to be sensitive to non-linear trajectories, in other words to low level of constancy. 3) Monotonicity, measured by counting the number of times the first derivative of the idealized trajectory, based on one or more units, changes signs. The higher the number, the lower the monotonicity. In addition we have introduced a measure that relates as much to synchronic relations as to diachronic relations: 4) Invariance, measured by counting the number of third variables relative to which the relation has been proved to be invariant. The higher the number, the more invariant the relation, but this measure makes best sense as a set-theoretical comparison between Irrel for one relation and Irrel for another relation. Listed like this one sees clearly how limited a concept of causal relations based on maximum constancy, regularity, monotonicity and invariance is. One also sees how it has at all been possible to develop this concept on the basis of synchronic correlation: simply by assuming constancy and monotonicity over time, or by failing to notice these aspects of the relation. The focus has been on regularity, which has then been approached by means of synchronic correlation even though these correlations are often quite different from the corresponding diachronic correlations. Most of the emphasis has been on the condition of invariance, with completely unrealistic and hence rather uninteresting conditions for a relation to be referred to as causal. But if we 1. introduce diachronic analysis and 2. relax these conditions, then more interesting conceptions on how social affairs can be studied develop. One might now construct a typology of sixteen types of relations depending on whether the four parameters above can be classified as high or low, but we shall not develop that scholastic exercise completely. Rather, it should be emphasized that the four are independent of each other so that all combinations are possible; and this can be used for a final definition: In other words, we shall prefer to use the term “causality” when the diachronic relation is characterized by very high values of constancy, regularity and monotonicity, and divide them into universal and particular relations depending on whether they hold under a very wide or very narrow variety of conditions. The same distinction will also be used for processes, which in general are diachronic relations characterized by lower values of constancy, regularity and monotonicity. Of course, if all these values are very low, then there is no relation at all to speak of.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 5
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Springer
    Synthese 〈Dordrecht〉 24 (1972), S. 343-372 
    ISSN: 1573-0964
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Natural Sciences in General , Philosophy
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 6
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Springer
    International review of education 29 (1983), S. 273-273 
    ISSN: 1573-0638
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Education
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 7
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Springer
    International review of education 29 (1983), S. 281-287 
    ISSN: 1573-0638
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Education
    Description / Table of Contents: Zusammenfassung Friedenserziehung sollte zu etwas führen, das Lernende tun können — wie die Gesundheitserziehung zur hygienischen Praxis führt; es sollte nicht nur ein Vermitteln von Allgemeinwissen sein. Damit dies geschieht, müssen Konzepte des Friedens der Ebene angenähert werden, auf der die Menschen tatsächlich leben, d.h. der lokalen Ebene. In diesem Artikel wird die Meinung vertreten, daß dies eher auf Überrüstung verweist als auf Abrüstung; Verteidigung beruht eher auf lokaler konventioneller Verteidigung, paramilitärischen Einheiten und nichtmilitärischer Verteidigung als auf (oder zuzüglich zu) Verhandlungen unter Regierungen. Es wird ferner darauf hingewiesen, daß dies von Grund auf zum Aufbau von weniger verwundbaren Gesellschaften führen würde. Weniger verwundbare Gesellschaften hätten eine große Überlebungschance, selbst in Krisenzeiten — einschließlich Krieg im eigenen Land — und dadurch wären sie für Erpressungen weniger anfällig. Der Schlüssel zur nationalen Unverwundbarkeit ist lokale Unverwundbarkeit. Eine Gesellschaft, die weniger auf Abhängigkeit von nationalen und internationalen Zentren aufbaut, wird auch eine Gesellschaft sein, die weniger von of fensiven Waffen abhängig ist, und sich mehr auf Defensive einstellt, um ihre Sicherheit zu organisieren. Bestehende und dominante Arten von Verteidigung versuchen nicht nur ein hohes Niveau von Verwundbarkeit mit offensiven Waffen zu vereinen, sondern funktionieren auch auf einem Niveau, das so weit vom Durchschnittsbürger entfernt ist, daß er/sie meint, daß ihm/ihr wenig anderes übrigbleibt, als informiert und nebenher überzeugt zu sein.
    Abstract: Résumé L'éducation pour la paix devrait déboucher sur quelque chose que les étudiants puissent faire, et ne pas rester seulement une connaissance générale — comme l'éducation sanitaire conduit aux pratiques d'hygiène. Pour y parvenir nos concepts de paix doivent se rapprocher du niveau où vivent les gens, le niveau local. Cet article démontre que ceci vise le transarmement plutôt que le désarmement, la défense fondée sur la défense locale conventionelle, les unités paramilitaires et la défense non militaire plutôt que (on s'ajoutant aux) négociations entre gouvernements. L'article souligne aussi que ceci conduirait à l'édification de sociétés moins vulnérables de leurs fondements à leur sommet. Ces sociétés moins vulnérables auraient une capacité de survie supérieure, même en temps de crises, y compris l'état de guerre dans le pays même — et par conséquent seraient moins vulnérables au chantage. La clé de l'invulnérabilité nationale est l'invulnérabilité au niveau local. Et une société moins structurée sur une dépendance des centres nationaux et internationaux serait aussi une société moins dépendante des armes offensives, plus réglée sur les méthodes défensives pour organiser sa sécurité. Les méthodes actuelles et prédominantes de défense ne tentent pas seulement de combiner un haut niveau de vulnérabilité avec des armes offensives, mais elles opèrent aussi à un niveau si éloigné du citoyen ordinaire que celui-ci sent qu'il n'a pas grand chose d'autre à faire que d'être informé et peut-être d'avoir des opinions solides.
    Notes: Abstract Peace education should not be only general knowledge but conclude with something the students can do — as when health education leads to hygienic practices. For this to happen, our peace concepts have to come closer to the level at which people live, the local level. It is argued that this points to transarmament rather than disarmament; to defence based on local conventional defence, paramilitary units and non-military defence, rather than (or in addition to) negotiations among governments. It is also pointed out that this would lead to the building of less vulnerable societies from the bottom up. Less vulnerable societies would have great capacity for survival even in times of crisis, including warfare in the country itself, being thereby less susceptible to blackmail. The key to national invulnerability is local-level invulnerability. And a society organised with less dependency on national and international centres will also be a society less dependent on offensive weapons, concentrating more on defensive modes of security. Present and dominant modes of defence not only try to combine a high level of vulnerability with offensive weapons, but also operate at a level so far away from the ordinary citizen that he/she feels there is little else to do than just to be informed and perhaps to have strong opinions.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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