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  • 1
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Springer
    Cell biology and toxicology 5 (1989), S. 39-50 
    ISSN: 1573-6822
    Keywords: anticlastogens ; chromosome aberrations in interphase ; premature chromosome condensation ; repair inhibitor
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: Abstract Premature chromosome condensation was induced in Indian muntjak fibroblasts after exposure of the cells to bleomycin. Further experiments were devoted to the interaction of anticlastogens and a repair inhibitor, streptovitacin A. Chromosomal aberrations due to bleomycin treatment were S -phase-independently visible in the GI and G2 phase of the cell cycle. For premature chromosome condensation experiments, a 100 fold lower concentration of the mutagen produced a similar extent of chromosome damage as in metaphase studies. Additional exposure to the anticlastogens β-aminoethylisothiouronium or N-acetylcysteine revealed differences between corresponding interphase and metaphase effects and between different exposure conditions. Streptovitacin A, known as an inhibitor of protein synthesis, acted like an anticlastogen in the G2 phase of the cell cycle. Our studies show that the premature chromosome condensation technique offers various qualitative insights into primary processes of mutagenicity and antimutagenicity, but requires further improvement and careful choice of the cell system for study.
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  • 2
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Springer
    Culture, medicine and psychiatry 11 (1987), S. 123-205 
    ISSN: 0165-005X
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Ethnic Sciences , Medicine
    Notes: Abstract This study reports on the findings from a WHO sponsored cross-national investigation of life events and schizophrenia. Data are presented from a series of 386 acutely ill schizophrenic patients selected from nine field research centers located in developing and developed countries (Aarhus, Denmark; Agra, India; Cali, Colombia; Chandigarh, India; Honolulu, USA; Ibadan, Nigeria; Nagasaki, Japan; Prague, Czechoslovakia; Rochester, USA). On a methodological level, the study demonstrates that life event methodologies originating in the developed countries can be adapted for international studies and may be used to collect reasonably reliable and comparable cross-cultural data on psychosocial factors affecting the course of schizophrenic disorders. Substantive findings replicate the results of prior studies which conclude that socioenvironmental stressors may precipitate schizophrenic attacks and such events tend to cluster in the two to three week period immediately preceding illness onset.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 3
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Springer
    Protoplasma 65 (1968), S. 247-250 
    ISSN: 1615-6102
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 4
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Springer
    ISSN: 1619-7089
    Keywords: Aerosol deposition ; Mucociliary and tussive clearance ; Bronchodilators ; Mucolytics
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Abstract A special inhalative device is described for reproducible deposition patterns of radioactive aerosols to measure mucociliary and tussive clearance and to evaluate the effect of drugs on the bronchial tree. Additive actions on mucus transport exist between β2 and theophylline, but not in combination with inhalative quarternary ammonium compounds (ipatropium and oxitropium bromide). Mucolytics are generally less effective on mucociliary clearance than β2 and theophylline, positive, negative and nonresponders are often seen due to the different viscoelastic properties of the mucus. Mucus transport is more than mucociliary clearance. Two-phase gas/liquid movement and coughing are also important transport mechanisms for bronchial mucus. Therefore, bronchodilators enhance mucus transport by increasing airway patency, which increases total and regional air flow and improves cough clearance.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 5
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Springer
    Theoretical and applied climatology 15 (1967), S. 52-61 
    ISSN: 1434-4483
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Geosciences , Physics
    Description / Table of Contents: Zusammenfassung In den Untersuchungen über den Einfluß des atmosphärischen Kohlensäuregehaltes auf das Klima der Erde wurde bisher die Absorption kurzwelliger Sonnenstrahlung völlig außer acht gelassen. Es kann gezeigt werden, daß der kurzwellige und der langwellige Einfluß einer höheren CO2-Konzentration einander entgegenwirken. Für den Fall einer Verdopplung des gegenwärtigen Kohlensäuregehaltes wird eine Temperaturänderung an der Erdoberfläche von ΔT=+1,2°C berechnet.
    Abstract: Résumé Jusqu'à présent l'absorption du rayonnement solaire de courte longuer d'onde n'a pas été prise en considération dans les recherches de l'influence de la concentration du CO2 de l'atmosphère sur le climat de la terre. Il peut être démontré que les influences du rayonnement de courte et de grande longueur d'onde agissent l'une contre l'autre. La variation de la température de la surface de la terre est ΔT=+1.2°C si la concentration présente est doublée.
    Notes: Summary Hitherto absorption of solar radiation has completely been disregarded when investigating how a CO2 increase of the atmosphere modifies the earth's climate. It can be shown that shortwave and longwave influence of a higher CO2 concentration counteract each other. The temperature change at the earth's surface is ΔT=+1.2°C when the present concentration is doubled.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 6
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Springer
    Plant molecular biology 21 (1993), S. 1023-1033 
    ISSN: 1573-5028
    Keywords: cyanelles ; Cyanophora paradoxa ; peptidoglycan ; petH ; pre-ferredoxin-NADP+ reductase ; protein import
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: Abstract A cDNA clone for pre-ferredoxin-NADP+ reductase (FNR) was obtained by screening a Cyanophora paradoxa expression library with antibodies specific for cyanelle FNR. The 1.4 kb transcript was derived from a single-copy gene. The precursor (41 kDa) and mature forms (34 kDa) of FNR were identified by western blotting of in vitro translation products and cyanelle extracts, respectively. The derived amino acid sequence of the mature form was corroborated by data from N-terminal protein sequencing and yielded identity scores from 58% to 62% upon comparison with cyanobacterial FNRs. Sequence conservation seemed to be even more pronounced in comparison with enzymes from higher plants, but using the neighbor joining method the C. paradoxa sequence was clearly positioned between the prokaryotic and eukaryotic sequences. The transit peptide of 65 or 66 amino acids appeared to be totally unrelated to those from spinach, pea and ice plant but showed overall characteristics of stroma-targeting peptides.
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  • 7
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Springer
    International ophthalmology 15 (1991), S. 147-151 
    ISSN: 1573-2630
    Keywords: immunoglobulins ; secretory-IgA ; Sjögren syndrome ; tears
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Abstract The objective of the present study was to examine Secretory IgA in tears and serum of Sjögren patients (34 patients and 23 controls). The test was performed in a parallel study using a polyclonal and a monoclonal method (Inter-Assay variation 9.1/Intra-Assay variation 5.5). No differences in the levels of tear secretory IgA were found between patients and controls. In serum however, secretory IgA, total IgA, IgM and IgG showed a significant increase in the Sjögren patients. The fact that secretory IgA levels remain normal in the ocular mucosa of these patients may explain that, despite the autoimmune destruction of the lacrimal gland, humoral defense factors are normally present on the surface of the eye to combat infections.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 8
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Springer
    Water, air & soil pollution 3 (1974), S. 567-572 
    ISSN: 1573-2932
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Energy, Environment Protection, Nuclear Power Engineering
    Notes: Abstract Optical and centrifugal spectrometry for determining the particle size of aerosols is discussed.
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  • 9
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Springer
    Meteorology and atmospheric physics 17 (1968), S. 301-335 
    ISSN: 1436-5065
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Geography , Physics
    Description / Table of Contents: Zusammenfassung Die Bildung, Ausbreitung und Zerstörung des atmosphärischen Ozons wird in einem meridionalen Profil zwischen 15 km und 45 km unter der Annahme zonaler Symmetrie als nichtstationäres Problem untersucht. Die Einflüsse der Photochemie, der Advektion und der Turbulenz werden als Funktionen der Zeit behandelt. Es wird versucht, die Bedeutung der photochemischen Einflüsse, der verschiedenen Transportprozesse sowie der Kombination beider in einem numerischen Modell zu studieren; gegenwärtig verfügbare theoretische und experimentelle Daten finden Verwendung. In den photochemischen Berechnungen werden die Gleichungen der reinen Sauerstoff-Photochemie und mit Raketen ermittelte Daten der verfügbaren Sonnenenergie verwendet.Murgatroyds undSinlgetons Ergebnisse einer “möglichen meridionalen Zirkulation” und die vonPrabhakara benützten Werte der großräumigen Turbulenz, die aus der Verbreitung des radioaktiven Wolframs abgeleitet worden sind, werden als Transportmechanismen betrachtet. Verschiedene Kombinationen dieser Transportgrößen werden im Modell getestet und mit neueren Beobachtungen verglichen. Die relativ größten jahreszeitlichen Schwankungen der Ozonkonzentration treten in der oberen Stratosphäre auf mit einer maximalen Konzentration in der Winterhemisphäre hoher Breiten. In der mittleren Stratosphäre befindet sich das Maximum über den äquatorialen Breiten. In der unteren Stratosphäre findet man die höchsten Ozonkonzentrationen während des ganzen Jahres über den polaren Breiten. Der Jahresgang des Gesamtgehaltes an Ozon über mittleren und hohen Breiten kann durch photochemische Einflüsse erklärt werden, die Zunahme des Gesamtozons mit zunehmender Breite nur durch ein Zusammenwirken von photochemischen und Transport-Prozessen. Mit 70% der Advektion vonMurgatroyd undSingleton haben wir eine beobachtete Frühjahrsverteilung des Ozons in der nördlichen Hemisphäre mit guter Annäherung reproduziert.
    Abstract: Résumé On examine ici la formation, la propagation et la destruction de l'ozone atmosphérique dans un profil méridien entre 15 et 45 km d'altitude. Pour cela, on admet une symétrie zonale et qui'il s'agit d'un problème non stationnaire. On considére les influences de la photochimie, de l'advection et de la turbulence en fonction du temps. On essaie d'étudier au moyen d'un modèle numérique l'importance des influences de la seule photochimie, des différents processus de transport ainsi que la combinaison des deux phénomènes. Dans ce but, on utilise les valeurs théoriques et expérimentales disponibles actuellement. Dans le calcul photochimique, on utilise aussi bien les équations de la photochimie pure de l'oxygène que des valeurs de l'énergie solaire disponible, obtenues au moyen de mesures effectuées avec des fusées. Comme mécanismes de transport, on prend en considération les résultats des études deMurgatroyd etSingleton sur une “circulation méridionale possible” ainsi que les valeurs de la turbulence des grands espaces utilisées parPrabhakara. Ces dernières découlent de la dissémination du wolfram radioactif. On fait figurer dans le modèle diverses combinaisons de ces grandeurs de transport et on compare les résultats ainsi obtenus aux observations les plus récentes. Les variations saisonnières relativement les plus importantes de la concentration d'ozone se rencontrent dans la stratosphère supérieure. La concentration maximale se situe dans les hautes latitudes de l'hémisphère hivernal. Dans la stratosphère moyenne, le maximum se rencontre au voisinage de l'équateur. Dans la basse stratosphère, on note les plus fortes concentrations d'ozone au voisinage des pôles et cela durant toute l'année. On peut expliquer par des influences photochimiques les fluctuations annuelles de la teneur globale en ozone dans les latitudes moyennes et élevées. L'augmentation de la teneur totale de l'ozone avec la latitude ne s'explique que par les effets conjugués des processus photochimiques et de transport. On a assez bien pu reproduire une répartition de l'ozone observée au printemps sur l'hémisphère nord en utilisant le 70% de l'advection calculée selonMurgatroyd etSingleton.
    Notes: Summary A time-dependent study of the formation, distribution and destruction of atmospheric ozone is made for a meridional plane between 15 km and 45 km under the assumption of zonal symmetry. Included are time-effects of photochemistry, advection and turbulence, using presently available information on theoretical and observational data. The attempt is made to investigate the important part played by pure photochemistry, by the various transport processes and by the combination of both. In the photochemical calculations the equations of a pure oxygen photochemistry and solar ultraviolet energy data obtained from recent rocket observations are used.Murgatroyd andSingleton's results of a “possible meridional circulation” andPrabhakara's pattern of large-scale eddy diffusion, derived from the spread of radioactive tungsten in the stratosphere, are assumed to be the basic transport meachanisms. Several combinations of these non-photochemical processes are tested in the model and compared with recent observations. The relatively largest seasonal variations of the O3-concentration take place in the upper stratosphere with a maximum concentration in the high-latitude winter-hemisphere. In the midstratosphere the maximum concentration appears over the equatorial latitudes following the sun's position. In the lower stratosphere the highest O3-concentrations are over the polar latitudes throughout the year. The seasonal variation of the total ozone at middle and high latitudes can be explained by photochemical effects, the increase of total ozone with increasing latitude by the combined effects of photochemistry and transport processes only. With an advective transport of 70% ofMurgatroyd andSingleton's circulation we have reasonably well reproduced an observed spring distribution of O3 in the northern hemisphere.
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  • 10
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Springer
    ISSN: 1435-702X
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Description / Table of Contents: Zusammenfassung Bei einem 56jährigen Mann, der an einer beiderseitigen rezidivierenden Iridocyclitis litt, konnte Herpes simplex-Virus aus dem Punktat der Vorderkammer isoliert werden.
    Notes: Summary Herpes simplex virus has been isolated from the anterior chamber of a 56-year-old man suffering from recurrent iridocyclitis.
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