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  • 1
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Springer
    Digestive diseases and sciences 43 (1998), S. 170-177 
    ISSN: 1573-2568
    Keywords: GALLSTONES ; CALMODULIN ; BILE ACIDS ; PHOSPHOLIPIDS ; SECRETION ; PRAIRIE DOG
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Abstract Hepatic bile synthesis is altered duringexperimental gallstone formation. In response tocholesterol, there is a hydrophobic shift in hepaticbile acid synthesis and hypersecretion of phospholipids.These changes decrease the vesicular capacity forcholesterol and favor crystallization. The mechanism forthese changes in hepatic bile formation is unknown.Calmodulin (CaM), a Ca2+ receptor proteininvolved in cellular secretion, regulates gallbladdertransport and may play an important role in alterationsof hepatic bile formation during cholelithiasis. Wehypothesized that biliary CaM activity is altered during gallstone formation and may beassociated with changes in bile acid and phospholipidsynthesis. Prairie dogs were fed either control (N = 22)or 1.2% cholesterol-enriched ( N 26) diets for one to six weeks. Cholecystectomy was performed; thecommon bile duct was cannulated, and hourly bile sampleswere collected. CaM was measured in bile and gallbladdertissues by radioimmunoassay. Bile samples were analyzed for cholesterol, phospholipids,total bile acids, total protein, calcium, and individualbile acid composition. Compared to controls, gallstoneanimals had elevated hepatic bile levels of CaM, phospholipids, and cholesterol.Hydrophobic bile acid synthesis was also stimulated,with increased levels of taurochenodeoxycholic acid(TCDCA) and decreased taurocholic acid (TCA).Gallbladder bile demonstrated similar changes. Althoughgallbladder bile CaM levels were increased, tissuelevels were unchanged, suggesting that increased CaMconcentration is a hepatic phenomenon. Hepatic bile CaMactivity correlated linearly with TCDCA concentration (r= 0.64, P 〈 0.004) and phospholipid hypersecretion (r= 0.53, P 〈 0.03). The relationship between biliaryCaM and increased concentrations of TCDCA andphospholipids suggests a role for CaM in alterations ofhepatocyte secretion that may promote gallstoneformation.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 2
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Springer
    Digestive diseases and sciences 45 (2000), S. 1422-1430 
    ISSN: 1573-2568
    Keywords: second messengers ; calcium ; trifluoperazine ; ionophore ; ion flux ; electrophysiology ; Ussing chamber
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Abstract Gallbladder absorption is increased prior to gallstone formation in prairie dogs and may promote cholesterol crystallization. Recent studies indicate that Ca2+-calmodulin (CaM) tonically inhibits gallbladder electrolyte absorption in prairie dogs fed a nonlithogenic diet. We hypothesized that dietary cholesterol alters CaM-dependent regulation of gallbladder ion transport, a possible link between increased gallbladder absorption and gallstone formation. Gallbladders from prairie dogs fed control (N = 24) or 1.2% cholesterol-enriched chow (N = 32) were mounted in Ussing chambers. Electrophysiology and ion flux were measured while exposing the epithelia sequentially to trifluoperazine (TFP), a CaM antagonist, followed by the calcium ionophore A23187. Animals fed the high cholesterol diet developed crystals and gallstones in a time-dependent fashion. Mucosal addition of 50 μM TFP decreased short-circuit current (Isc), transepithelial potential, and tissue conductance in control, crystal, and gallstone animals, but the magnitude of its effect was significantly decreased in animals fed cholesterol. TFP stimulated mucosa-to-serosa Na+ flux by 6.9 ± 0.9 μeq/cm2/hr in control animals but only 3.1 ± 0.8 μeq/cm2/hr in gallstone animals. Similarly, TFP increased mucosa-to-serosa Cl− flux by 11.9 ± 1.4 μeq/cm2/hr in controls but only 4.9 ± 1.4 μeq/cm2/hr in cholesterol-fed animals. TFP effects were not reversed by A23187, which caused differential effects on Isc and ion transport in cholesterol-fed animals. In conclusion, CaM-mediated inhibition of gallbladder Na+ and Cl− transport is diminished in prairie dogs fed cholesterol. We conclude that gallbladder ion transport is partially released from basal inhibition during gallstone formation and propose that dysfunctional CaM regulation may be a stimulus to increased gallbladder absorption.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 3
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Weinheim : Wiley-Blackwell
    Zeitschrift für anorganische Chemie 359 (1968), S. 220-224 
    ISSN: 0044-2313
    Keywords: Chemistry ; Inorganic Chemistry
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Notes: Es wird über die Bestimmung der ersten Bildungskonstanten der Silberkomplexe der O,O-Diäthylester der Arylsulphonamide-thiophosphorsäuren berichtet und die Gültigkeit der HAMMETT-Gleichung festgestellt. Die zweite Bildungskonstante konnte nur im Falle des Vertreters, in welchem sich als Substituent im Benzolkern Jod befindet, bestimmt werden. Zur Bestimmung der Bildungskonstanten wurde LEDENS Methode verwendet.The first stability constants of the the O, O-diethyl-thiophosphoryl-arylsulfonamidate silver complexes were determined, establishing the validity of the HAMMETT equation. The second stability constant could be determined only for a complex with iodine as substituent in the benzene nucles. LEDEN's method was used to determine the stability constants.
    Additional Material: 2 Ill.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 4
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    New York, NY [u.a.] : Wiley-Blackwell
    Journal of Applied Polymer Science 59 (1996), S. 1507-1514 
    ISSN: 0021-8995
    Keywords: Chemistry ; Polymer and Materials Science
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Mechanical Engineering, Materials Science, Production Engineering, Mining and Metallurgy, Traffic Engineering, Precision Mechanics , Physics
    Notes: Block copolymers of polysulfone-poly(alkylene oxide)-poly(dimethylsiloxane) have been prepared by the addition of preformed α,ω-bis(hydrogensilyl)poly(dimethylsiloxane) oligomers to allyl end-capped poly(alkylene oxide)-polysulfone. The hydrosilylation reaction, catalyzed by platinum, was employed for incorporation of the siloxane chain into the copolymers in a 1 : 1 or 1 : 2 molar ratio of Si-H-terminated polydimethylsiloxane to allyl end-capped polysulfone. The products were characterized by IR, 1H-NMR, and gel permeation chromatography. The thermal stability was determined by thermogravimetric analysis. Differential scanning calorimetry was used to investigate microphase separation in the block copolymers. © 1996 John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
    Additional Material: 5 Ill.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 5
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Basel : Wiley-Blackwell
    ISSN: 0173-2803
    Keywords: Chemistry ; Polymer and Materials Science
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Physics
    Additional Material: 1 Ill.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 6
    facet.materialart.
    Unknown
    Bucharest: European Institute of Romania
    Publication Date: 2016-06-04
    Description: The present study aims, in the first part, to examine the trends evidenced at the level of international trade and extra-community trade flows and, at the same time, the new directions of the EU trade policy in relation with the rest of the world. In the second part, it brings to the forefront the main trends of the Romanian trade as well as the Romanian export competitiveness and ways towards their sustainable development. These issues are analyzed and presented in seven sections, as follows: I. Developments, trends and structural changes in international trade in goods II. Main characteristics of the extra-community trade in goods during 2000-2011. Romania's position in these exchanges III. EU trade policy and its impact on the Romanian foreign trade IV. General directions of the Romanian foreign trade during 2000-2011. Assessment of the Romanian export competitiveness. The role of FDI in promoting exports V. Benchmarking best practices in export support and promotion. Role played by national and international organizations VI. Challenges and perspectives of the Romanian exports VII. Ways towards sustainable export development. Role of the National Export Strategy. [...]
    Keywords: ddc:330 ; Export ; Außenhandel ; EU-Außenwirtschaftspolitik ; Außenwirtschaftspolitik ; Rumänien
    Language: Romanian
    Type: doc-type:report
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  • 7
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Springer
    Polymer bulletin 37 (1996), S. 329-336 
    ISSN: 1436-2449
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Mechanical Engineering, Materials Science, Production Engineering, Mining and Metallurgy, Traffic Engineering, Precision Mechanics , Physics
    Notes: Abstract The synthesis of polysulfone-polydimethylsiloxane (PSU-PDMS)linear block copolymers has been carried out in solution by condensation of chloro-terminated bisphenol A, diphenylsulfone and α, ω-di (hydrogensilyl)-polydimethylsiloxane with Si−C bond. 1H-NMR spectra of the block copolymers allow the estimation of siloxane and polysulfone ratio. The molecular weight of the polysulfone and polysiloxane oligomers and the block copolymers was determined by GPC. Thermogravimetric analysis indicates a thermal stability of block copolymers up to 400°C and allows estimation of the process activation energy. Microphase separation of the block copolymers was observed by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC).
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 8
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Amsterdam : Elsevier
    Solid State Communications 84 (1992), S. 651-655 
    ISSN: 0038-1098
    Source: Elsevier Journal Backfiles on ScienceDirect 1907 - 2002
    Topics: Physics
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 9
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Amsterdam : Elsevier
    Solid State Communications 40 (1981), S. iii-iv 
    ISSN: 0038-1098
    Source: Elsevier Journal Backfiles on ScienceDirect 1907 - 2002
    Topics: Physics
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 10
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Amsterdam : Elsevier
    Solid State Communications 34 (1980), S. 109-112 
    ISSN: 0038-1098
    Source: Elsevier Journal Backfiles on ScienceDirect 1907 - 2002
    Topics: Physics
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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