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  • 1
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Springer
    Anatomy and embryology 184 (1991), S. 99-102 
    ISSN: 1432-0568
    Keywords: White matter ; Cerebral cortex ; Interstitial cells ; Association connections ; Fluorescent tracers ; NADPH-d histochemistry
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Summary Injection of Fast Blue into different cortical areas (frontal, parietal, anterior and posterior cingulate cortex) revealed that neurons in the white matter (interstitial neurons) give rise to association fibers which project mostly to the gray matter of the overlying cytoarchitectonic area, but which may extend also over different cytoarchitectonic areas. The rostrocaudal extent of the projecting axons was up to 1 mm in the frontal and parietal cortex, and up to 3.5 mm in the cingulate cortex. Concurrent processing for dihydronicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate diaphorase (NADPH-d) histochemistry showed that 70% of cortically projecting interstitial neurons were NADPH-d-positive. An analysis of neuronal morphology suggests that the Fast-Blue-labeled, NADPH-d-negative neurons may represent displaced pyramidal neurons of layer VIb; the Fast-Bluelabeled and NADPH-d-positive neurons have bipolar or multipolar dendritic trees, constituting a population of nonpyramidal interstitial neurons that project into the cortical gray matter.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 2
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Springer
    Anatomy and embryology 186 (1992), S. 245-250 
    ISSN: 1432-0568
    Keywords: Superior colliculus ; Periaqueductal gray ; NADPH-diaphorase ; Golgi method ; Neuronal types ; Rat
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Summary We have studied the laminar distribution of reduced nicotinamide dinucleotide phosphate diaphorase (NADPH-d) activity and the morphology of positive neurons in the superior colliculus (SC) and the underlying periaqueductal gray (PAG) of the rat. The morphology of NADPH-d-positive neurons has been compared to that of Golgi-impregnated cells. The highest activity occurs in the stratum zonale and stratum griseum superficiale, contrasting with the pale neuropil in the stratum opticum, where only a few positive neurons are found. In the stratum griseum intermedium positive neurons are grouped in patches separated by narrow, NADPH-d-negative bands. In the deeper layers, the neuropil is NADPH-d-negative, and few neurons show enzymatic activity. In contrast, numerous neurons in the dorsolateral part of the PAG are intensely positive. They are continuous with the positive neurons in the stratum album profundum, with no clear border between the two centers. In both SC and PAG, only small and medium sized neurons are NADPH-d-positive. In comparison with Golgi material, all types of small neurons in the superficial layers show NADPH-d activity; NADPH-d histochemistry, however, does not visualize the characteristic dendritic appendages of these neurons. The large neurons of the SC and PAG, probably representing the long-projecting neurons of these centers, do not contain the enzyme.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 3
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Oxford, UK : Blackwell Publishing Ltd
    ISSN: 1460-9568
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: The substantia nigra (SN) receives afferents from cholinergic neurons of the pedunculopontine tegmental nucleus (PPTg), a neuronal population that shows high levels of nitric oxide synthase (NOS), the enzyme responsible for the synthesis of nitric oxide. We have investigated the effects of the injection in PPTg of two neurotoxins, kainic acid (an excitotoxic neurotoxin), and ethylcholine mustard azirinium ion (AF64A, a non-excitotoxic neurotoxin), upon the SN cells of the rat, by using choline acetyltransferase (ChAT) immunohistochemistry as a marker of cholinergic neurons, and nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate diaphorase (NADPHd) histochemistry and NOS immunohistochemistry as markers of nitric oxide-producing neurons. Our results show that in normal rats, the SN contains two populations of NOS-positive neurons: large cholinergic neurons of PPTg that invade the caudal region of the SN, and small elongated neurons lying in the SN pars compacta. After ipsilateral PPTg lesion, another population of nigral cells, constituted by medium sized neurons, became NADPHd/NOS-positive. This was much more evident in AF64A-injected rats, in which many medium sized neurons showed enzymatic activity and normal morphological features, at least during the 90 days after injection. Kainic acid-injected rats, in contrast, showed nigral cell degeneration, an effect not found in AF64A material, and only a few NOS-positive neurons. NADPHd/NOS activity was never present in degenerating neurons. These findings suggest that induction of NOS activity is not involved in nigral cell degeneration, and that nitric oxide could have a protective rather than a neurotoxic role. The possible role of nitric oxide in the pathogenesis of Parkinson's disease is discussed.
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  • 4
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Oxford, UK : Blackwell Science Ltd
    ISSN: 1460-9568
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF) is a member of the transforming growth factor-β superfamily that when exogenously administrated exerts a potent trophic action on dopaminergic (DA) cells. Although we know a lot about its signalling mechanisms and pharmacological effects, physiological actions of GDNF on the adult brain remain unclear. Here, we have used morphological and molecular techniques, and an experimental model of Parkinson's disease in rats, to investigate whether GDNF constitutively expressed in the adult mesostriatal system plays a neuroprotective role on midbrain DA cells. We found that although all midbrain DA cells express both receptor components of GDNF (GFRα1 and Ret), those in the ventral tegmental area (VTA) and rostromedial substantia nigra (SNrm) also contain GDNF but not GDNFmRNA. The levels of GDNFmRNA are significantly higher in the ventral striatum (vSt), the target region of VTA and SNrm cells, than in the dorsal striatum (dSt), the target region of DA cells in the caudoventral substantia nigra (SNcv). After fluoro-gold injection in striatum, VTA and SNrm DA cells show triple labelling for tyrosine hydroxylase, GDNF and fluoro-gold, and after colchicine injection in the lateral ventricle, they become GDNF-immunonegative, suggesting that GDNF in DA somata comes from their striatal target. As DA cells in VTA and SNrm are more resistant than those in SNcv to intracerebroventricular injection of 6-OHDA, as occurs in Parkinson's disease, we can suggest that the fact that they project to vSt, where GDNF expression is significantly higher than in the dSt, is a neuroprotective factor involved in the differential vulnerability of midbrain DA neurons.
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  • 5
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Oxford, UK : Blackwell Science Ltd
    ISSN: 1460-9568
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Although dopamine has been considered as the only neurotransmitter in the nigrostriatal pathway, studies carried out in the last two decades have suggested the existence of a nondopaminergic nigrostriatal projection, and more recently, γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) has been identified as its neurotransmitter. In this study, we used the combination of immunocytochemistry for tyrosine hydroxylase (TH; a marker of dopaminergic neurons), in situ hybridization (ISH) for two different isoforms of glutamic acid decarboxylase (GAD65 and GAD67, the rate-limiting enzyme in GABA synthesis) and retrograde tracing techniques to investigate the possible existence of nigrostriatal neurons containing both neurotransmitters (dopamine and GABA) in the rat. Our results revealed that approximately 10% of mesostriatal dopaminergic neurons, most of them lying in the medial region of the substantia nigra pars compacta (SNC) and neighbouring A10 region, contain GAD65 mRNA. These findings reveal a third nigrostriatal pathway formed by dopaminergic/GABAergic neurons. Contrasting with the idea that in the basal ganglia, dopamine and GABA are released from different cell populations, the results suggest a more complex dopamine/GABA interaction than previously assumed, probably including cotransmission.
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  • 6
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Oxford, UK : Munksgaard International Publishers
    Journal of pineal research 37 (2004), S. 0 
    ISSN: 1600-079X
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Abstract:  The effect of different doses of 17β-estradiol (E2) on the pineal response to β-adrenoceptor stimulation in female rats was examined. Pinealocytes from 21-day-old ovariectomized rats were exposed to different estrogen doses and treated with β-adrenergic agonists. Estrogen treatment produced a dose-dependent, biphasic response to β-adrenoceptor-induced accumulation of cAMP. This effect was inhibitory at estrogen doses up to 0.1 nm and fitted to a negative exponential curve, while at doses from 0.1 to 100 nm the effect was stimulatory and fitted to a standard positive hyperbola. For in vivo studies, ovariectomized rats were treated with equivalent estrogen concentrations plus a single dose of progesterone (250 μg per rat), and their pineals exposed in vitro to β-adrenergic agonists. Low doses of E2 (0.1–100 ng per rat) reduced both pineal cAMP accumulation and N-acetyltransferase activity after β-adrenoceptor stimulation, while a high dose (10 μg per rat) induced the opposite response. Apparently, the final estrogen target was the pineal β-adrenergic receptor, as a low dose of E2 (which had diminished cAMP accumulation after β-adrenoceptor stimulation) also reduced its maximal binding capacity (Bmax) and its dissociation constant (Kd). We also found that the female rat pineal gland contains two different ER subtypes, α and β, which respond to estrogen exposure with nucleocytoplasmic shuttling. These results indicate that, in the female rat, estrogen directly modulates pineal sensitivity to adrenergic stimulation in a complex, dose-dependent manner that may be related to differential expression and activity of two estrogen receptor subtypes within pineal cells.
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