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  • 1
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Springer
    Psychopharmacology 96 (1988), S. 218-222 
    ISSN: 1432-2072
    Keywords: Mice ; Schedule-controlled behavior ; Tolerance ; Morphine ; Ketamine ; Ethylketazocine ; Metkephamid ; Levorphanol ; Cross-tolerance
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Abstract Key-press responding of mice was maintained under a fixed-ratio (FR) 30-response schedule of food presentation. Successive 3-min periods during which the experimental chamber was illuminated and the schedule was in effect were preceded by 10-min time-out (TO) periods during which all lights were out and responses had no scheduled consequences. Intraperitoneal (IP) injections of saline or of cumulative doses of drugs were given at the start of each TO period. Successive saline injections had little or no effect on response rates, whereas the μ-opioid agonists morphine (0.1–10.0 mg/kg) and levorphanol (0.1–3.0 mg/kg), the κ-opioid agonist ethylketazocine (0.03–3.0 mg/kg), the mixed μ-/δ-opioid agonist metkephamid (0.1–10.0 mg/kg), and the nonopioid dissociative anesthetic ketamine (1.0–100.0 mg/kg) generally produced dose-related decreases in response rates. Following chronic administration of morphine (100.0 mg/kg/6 h), tolerance developed to the effects of morphine on rates of responding. In addition, a comparable degree of cross-tolerance developed to the effects of levorphanol and metkephamid. On the other hand, there was no evidence of cross-tolerance to the effects of ethylketazocine or ketamine. These results are consistent with the evidence suggesting that different opioid agonists exert their behavioral effects through distinct classes of opioid receptors.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 2
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    [s.l.] : Nature Publishing Group
    Nature structural & molecular biology 11 (2004), S. 816-821 
    ISSN: 1545-9985
    Source: Nature Archives 1869 - 2009
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: [Auszug] Cells respond to changes in environmental conditions via orchestrated modifications in gene expression. For example, in response to heat shock, cells execute a program of gene-specific transcriptional activation and repression. Although the activation of genes upon heat shock has been widely ...
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 3
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    [s.l.] : Nature Publishing Group
    Nature structural & molecular biology 11 (2004), S. 822-829 
    ISSN: 1545-9985
    Source: Nature Archives 1869 - 2009
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: [Auszug] B2 RNA is a small noncoding RNA polymerase III transcript that represses mRNA transcription in response to heat shock in mouse cells. Here we define the mechanism by which B2 RNA inhibits RNA polymerase II (Pol II) transcription. Using a purified Pol II transcription system, we found that B2 RNA ...
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  • 4
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    s.l. : American Chemical Society
    Inorganic chemistry 26 (1987), S. 3424-3426 
    ISSN: 1520-510X
    Source: ACS Legacy Archives
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 5
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    s.l. : American Chemical Society
    Organometallics 4 (1985), S. 798-800 
    ISSN: 1520-6041
    Source: ACS Legacy Archives
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 6
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Springer
    Child's nervous system 12 (1996), S. 720-726 
    ISSN: 1433-0350
    Keywords: Plagiocephaly ; Lambdoid stenosis ; Synostosis ; Sclerosis, craniofacial ; Positional deformation ; Sudden infant death syndrome
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Abstract We recently reviewed our series of craniofacial cases involving lambdoid stenosis (posterior plagiocephaly) and positional deformation. We now have 22 cases (who underwent surgery) with greater than 1 year follow up (range 1–7 years). We were impressed by the potential severity of the craniofacial deformity that can occur in what is often considered a positional deformation caused either by intrauterine conditions or by postnatal positioning. To decide which children were candidates for craniofacial reconstruction, we reviewed our cases and determined what we considered were appropriate criteria for craniofacial surgery. Among the 22 patients selected for surgery, 16 patients had changes in facial characteristics secondary to skull base and petrous ridge deformation, which often led to mandibular malalignment. In addition, 11 children were found to have developed scolosis of the face, similar to that seen in anterior plagiocephaly. The long-term severity of these selected craniofacial deformities may be markedly reduced if these children are operated on early with craniofacial reconstruction techniques. The removal of the lambdoid sutures, which appear to apply a twisting or torque effect on the facial structures and skull base, assisted in the children's further normal cranial development. In the children that were operated on before 1 year of age, most of the facial asymmetry was corrected. In addition, we observed that several of the children showed correction of the malignment of the ears, a common finding in these cases. Three-dimensional reconstructions have been extremely helpful in documenting the abnormalities of the skull base and sutural patterns and in planning the surgical approaches. All the patients had either a Marchac transposition or a bandeau/forehead type reconstruction. There were no long-term complications, and the esthetic results were considered good to excellent.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 7
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Springer
    Child's nervous system 15 (1999), S. 281-284 
    ISSN: 1433-0350
    Keywords: Key words Ancient ; Edwin Smith Papyrus ; Egyptian ; History ; Neurosurgery
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Abstract  The Edwin Smith Surgical Papyrus is undoubtedly one of the most significant medical texts ever discovered. It is of particular interest to neurosurgeons because of its specific references to ancient neurosurgical cases and is the first written record of many terms of neurosurgical interest. This review describes the colorful and controversial history of the Edwin Smith Papyrus and gives translations of four cases of neurosurgical interest.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 8
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Springer
    Child's nervous system 10 (1994), S. 59-63 
    ISSN: 1433-0350
    Keywords: Silicone ; Rejection ; Ventriculoperitoneal shunts ; Allergies
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Abstract Reported are the cases of three hydrocephalic patients who developed a clinically heterogenous entity with an allergic rejection of their silicone ventriculoperitoneal shunts. All of the patients had an original presentation indicative of a shunt infection, but laboratory analysis revealed sterile cerebrospinal fluid in all three cases. The typical course included recurrent skin breakdowns over the shunt tract, subsequent infections and development of fungating granulomas. Treatment, with successful resolution of the symptoms, included changing the shunt material from silicone to polyurethane, with immunosuppression in one patient and removal of the shunt altogether in the other two patients. The roles of the immune system and silicone in the pathophysiology of this condition are discussed.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 9
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Springer
    Child's nervous system 12 (1996), S. 705-712 
    ISSN: 1433-0350
    Keywords: Secondary turricephaly ; Surgery ; Craniosynostosis ; Craniofacial syndrome
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Abstract In children with syndromic craniofacial disorders, such as Crouzon and Apert syndromes, who are managed surgically, a difficult problem that can occur is secondary turricephaly. One of the more widely accepted theories as to why this deformity occurs is that a lack of skull base growth results from fusion of the basal and facial sutures. Despite initial adequate forehead and orbital bandeau advancement, many of these patients require subsequent procedures, which do not always correct the characteristic deformity. We have identified a subset of 11 syndromic children who developed this characteristic deformity of turricephaly after primary reconstruction, 6 of whom required either secondary or tertiary procedures. Only 5 patients had a good outcome with a mean follow up of 4.5 years (range 1–8 years). Our surgical methods, and our rationale for the timing of surgery are discussed, and the literature on the management of this problem is reviewed.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 10
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Springer
    Child's nervous system 16 (2000), S. 669-685 
    ISSN: 1433-0350
    Keywords: Keywords Neurosurgical history ; History of medicine ; Skull base surgery ; Craniofacial surgery
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Abstract  Skull base surgery is a recent development in our history, in as much as most of the surgical techniques involved have been described within the last century. To provide an historical prospective the author reviews the development of this specialty, arbitrarily dating its beginning some five centuries ago with the work of Leonardo da Vinci. By picking this period we include the origin of scientific anatomy and personages interested in developing new ideas and concepts who were able to leave the stagnant period of the Middle Ages behind. In 1900 surgeons worked alone, with the concept of a skull base ”team” not yet existing. Endotracheal intubation and controlled respiration was just being introduced. Intraoperative monitoring of blood pressure, pulse rate and respiration was not yet known. Harvey Cushing was to introduce this concept in the first decade of the last century. This survey traces the origins of modern skull base surgery from its antecedents in the Renaissance to the beginning of this century. A paper of this length can only provide a sampling of themes and personalities; nevertheless, it will give the reader an impressive overview of how far we have come and some ideas of what the future holds.
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