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  • 1
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    Louvain-la-Neuve: European Regional Science Association (ERSA)
    Publication Date: 2018-02-14
    Description: Research and development (R&D) is an important driver of productivity, competitiveness and economic growth, both nationally and regionally. In Romania all national development strategies acknowledged R&D as a priority sector, but the territorial component of the national innovation system is still underdeveloped. Moreover, research and development activity might be among the factors accountable for the increasing regional economic disparities, as the territorial distribution of its potential and performance is extremely unbalanced, the capital region (Bucharest-Ilfov) concentrating over half of R&D endowment. Romania is still lacking a strong regional R&D policy to address such disparities and the recent economic crisis brought about new hardships on the Romanian innovation system. Following a significant rise in research and development funding prior to the crisis, R&D intensity declined from 0.58 % in 2008 la 0.38 % in 2014, placing Romania at the bottom of European Union hierarchy. The convergence of the regional R&D and innovation system is as an essential component of successful regional development because, on the one hand, it provides a key asset to improve local economic competitiveness and, on the other hand, facilitates cohesion in the social sector. In this context our paper explored the convergence patterns of R&D in Romania over 1995-2014 and several subperiods, with a focus on the recent economic crisis, applying the 'sigma' and "beta" convergence methods, as introduced by Barro and Sala-i-Martin (1995). We used county level (NUTS3) data provided by the National Institute of Statistics. The diagnostics for spatial dependence have been performed, but Moran's I test for errors could not reject spatial randomness (on all time spans considered), therefore classic OLS model has been applied as the best fit for our data. We found a discontinuous sigma convergence trend, with some temporary periods of divergence that disrupted the convergence process, and conditional beta convergence over 1995-2014. When exploring the relevant subperiods of this time span, the results indicated absolute (unconditional) beta convergence until 2008, but no evidence of either convergence or divergence afterwards. The annual average speed of convergence declined from 6.97% over 1995-2000 to 2.65% over 2000-2008. Sigma convergence has been also reversed during the crisis, but seems to have resumed in the last couple of years. Our findings clearly show the disruptive impact of the economic crisis on the convergence path, from the perspective of both sigma and beta technique. The persistence of high R&D regional inequalities and low convergence calls for adequate policies, able to stimulate the regional innovation potential and underpin faster development of the Romanian regional research and innovation system.
    Keywords: R11 ; C51 ; ddc:330 ; research and development ; sigma and beta convergence ; Romania
    Language: English
    Type: doc-type:conferenceObject
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  • 2
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    Bucharest: European Institute of Romania
    Publication Date: 2013-06-08
    Keywords: ddc:330 ; Internationale Wanderung ; EU-Politik ; Migrationspolitik ; Asylrecht ; Flüchtlinge ; EU-Staaten ; Rumänien ; Einwanderung ; Auswanderung ; Rumänien
    Language: English
    Type: doc-type:report
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  • 3
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    Louvain-la-Neuve: European Regional Science Association (ERSA)
    Publication Date: 2017-08-04
    Description: Although migration and religion studies have traditionally developed as separate research topics, in the current context of globalization and transnationalism attention begins to focus on the way they may interconnect. Consequently, recent studies of migration raise the importance and role of religion in the international migration flows, distinguish between the socio-economic and religious inclusion of the immigrants in the host country or discuss the role that migration plays in the reconfiguration of religions in the contemporary world. Religion often inspires migration, as religious minority groups facing persecutions in the homeland may decide to move to more religious tolerant places. Conversely, migration almost always affects religion as the religion tradition and practice is usually modified following the resettlement and immigrants' daily life routines irremediably alter. In Romania religion also received some attention in recent theoretical and empirical analyses of migration, but there are only a few studies undertaken so far. Using the results of our online survey conducted during August-December 2010 among Romanian international migrants of different religious faiths, this paper aims to raise interest in migration-religion relationship and, at the same time, to improve the understanding of the factors of economic performance in a migration context by focusing on the distinctive characteristics of Romanian religious minorities. We address both the theoretical and the empirical dimension of this topic, making use of various statistical methods. Our main findings are consistent with the assumption that religious belief is reflecting upon the behavior and economic performance of Romanian migrants.
    Keywords: ddc:330
    Language: English
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  • 4
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    Louvain-la-Neuve: European Regional Science Association (ERSA)
    Publication Date: 2017-01-25
    Description: Romania's communist regime used forced industrialization and urbanization policies as a solution for speeding-up the pace of development in the lagging areas, which resulted in reducing regional disparities. However, after 1989 there areas were the first that suffered the hardships of economic restructuring, the economic and social discrepancies at territorial level recording an important increase. The accession to the EU has created good opportunities for the economic regeneration of the lagging regions provided the European funds allocated to them be absorbed and employed in an effective and efficient manner. Based on these overall considerations this paper proposes a case study in the North-East region of Romania. This region, with the lowest GDP/capita in the country has an absorption rate higher than the Regional Operational Programme's national average and a commendable expertise in the implementation of the regional development projects. The research has investigated to what extent these promising results reflect the objectives of the strategy outlined in the programme documents of the 2007-2013 financial exercise, aiming at a balanced territorial development. The significance of the case study is twofold: on the one hand it offers a spotlight on a very sensitive area of Romania in terms of regional development level; on the other hand it discusses the added value, strategic quality and administrative capacity which have made it possible to record results above the average in the implementation process. In line with the regional problem and the identified needs and strengths, the enterprise support has been chosen as the policy heading for this study. There is a clear continuity between the priority axes and key areas of intervention focusing on enterprise support in the ROP 2007-2013 and the enhancement of the SME competitiveness in the Cohesion Policy for 2014-2020, as one of the key areas for economic growth and job creation. The desk research ? with inquiries into the most important programming documents and result reports relating to the ROP in Romania and, in particular in the North-East region, plus the large volume of data analysis ? have been accompanied by interviews with the persons involved in the implementation process ? from local authorities to experts and beneficiaries at national, regional and county level. The research has been undertaken under the auspices of the EU ? FP7 GRINCOH project.
    Keywords: R11 ; R28 ; R38 ; R58 ; ddc:330
    Language: English
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  • 5
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    Louvain-la-Neuve: European Regional Science Association (ERSA)
    Publication Date: 2017-08-04
    Description: In the past few years, there has been a renewed interest in remittances of international migrants, as their strong recent increase shed more light on the effects at both micro and macro level. The remittances not only contribute to the well-being of the receiving households, but are also a large source of external financing, second only to FDI. The remittances are particularly important for Romania as in 2010 it was on the 5th place in the European top of emigration countries and on the 4th place as remittance recipient country. Therefore the determinants of remittance behavior need to be better understood. Following increasing interest and significant public debate on migration in Romania, our paper examines the significance of selected economic and demographic factors associated with the remittance behavior of Romanian international migrants, as characterized by the propensity to remit and the amount remitted. In particular we address the question of the role played by the geographic distance, as potentially affecting the immigrants' ties with their homeland and consequently the remittance decisions. Our present work builds on a recent source of data on immigrant cohort resulting from an online survey conducted during August-December 2010. Respondents were asked questions on a variety of topics including income, employment, remittances, regions of origin and destination, graduated studies both in Romania and in emigration country, length of migration and intention to return to Romania. The final database consisted of 1514 Romanian immigrants from 55 destination countries. We developed several multivariate models to study the determinants of remittances by employing regression analysis. Among the main findings is that the geographic distance is not related to the remittances. Although contrasting with the existing literature, this result can be explained by factors such as modern instant communication and fast travel supporting very strong and resilient transnational links despite geographic distance.
    Keywords: ddc:330
    Language: English
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  • 6
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    Louvain-la-Neuve: European Regional Science Association (ERSA)
    Publication Date: 2017-08-04
    Description: In most decision making situations more than one criterion is involved and, as a consequence, confusion can arise if there is no logical and well structured decision-making process in place. The multi-criteria analysis (MCA) constitutes a tool that can help evaluate the relative importance of all criteria involved and reflect on their importance during project management and decision making. MCA is a management tool aiming at supporting decision makers faced with making numerous and conflicting evaluations by deriving a way to come to a compromise. This paper discusses the possibilities of applying MCA in the field of municipal property management, where the decision-makers have to find the most convenient destinations of municipal assets that can be used for various purposes such as: governmental, business, social use. In each case specific criteria and indicators are employed in the ranking and rating process, so as to get the corresponding weighted score. An application is also presented, as performed within a work package included in the project "Municipal Property Management in South- Eastern Cities (PROMISE)", aiming to develop a comprehensive system for municipal property classification for governmental use, social use and business use by means of criteria previously defined, processed by MCA operation. The resulted system is adapted to the strategic goals of the administrative authorities, contributing to an effective municipal property management by optimising and standardising the decision-making procedures. The framework created enables the municipalities to find an appealing combination between the use of properties for their own needs and for attracting investment and promoting sustainable development of their cities and regions. The project was initiated in 2009, being funded by the ERDF within the South-East Territorial Co-operation Programme.
    Keywords: ddc:330 ; multi-criteria analysis ; criteria ; indicators ; ranking ; municipal assets ; strategic management
    Language: English
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  • 7
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    Louvain-la-Neuve: European Regional Science Association (ERSA)
    Publication Date: 2017-01-25
    Description: Even if it has not a legal status yet, the Bucharest Metropolitan Area (BMA) project is in an advanced preparation phase, already producing effects in the real economy. Conventionally, BMA imbeds the entire Ilfov county (which surrounds it and form together the Bucharest-Ilfov region (NUTS 2)) as well as localities from other four counties of the South - Muntenia region (also NUTS 2). As Bucharest-Ilfov region appears as an enclave within South-Muntenia region, in a broader view it is considered that BMA influences all seven surrounding counties belonging to the South-Muntenia region. This region as a whole (apart from the localities of the four counties that are to be incorporated in the metropolitan area) plus Bucharest MA are viewed as the Bucharest metropolitan region, in other words the South-Muntenia region is the BMA external hinterland. In technical terms, the metropolitan area is a zone of direct city impact in which the relationships are strong and permanent (functional urban area, internal hinterland zone) whereas the metropolitan region is a zone in which the relationships are weaker, but the area is under the core city influence (macroregion, external hinterland zone). One of the main debates around BMA and metropolitan region refers to the effects of the BMA on its external hinterland, South-Muntenia region, by far less developed: are they / will they be spread or rather backwash effects? Our paper addresses this question focusing on a series of issues such as: examples of links between BMA and surrounding region, examples of positive and negative influences of the metropolis on its surrounding region, changes in regional settlement system and its drivers, changes in regional production system and main drivers, labour commuting patterns and drivers, policies with significant impact on metropolis ? region relationship, how external interventions address the needs of the metropolitan area and its external hinterland, to what extent the metropolitan area can contribute to the external hinterland regeneration, etc. The paper is the result of the research undertaken within the GRINCOH FP7 project.
    Keywords: R11 ; R23 ; ddc:330 ; metropolitan area ; hinterland ; spread effects ; backwash effects ; Bucharest-Ilfov ; South-Muntenia region
    Language: English
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  • 8
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    Louvain-la-Neuve: European Regional Science Association (ERSA)
    Publication Date: 2015-09-19
    Description: Various research studies addressing the specific problems and difficulties in the underdeveloped regions in the transition countries from Central and Eastern Europe have identified possible reactions regarding appropriate economic and social policy measures. Some of them take into consideration the role of cluster initiatives as a response to poor competitiveness, low level of innovation, high levels of unemployment and out-migration of the highly-skilled labour force. Though, the simple presence of clusters in a less developed region does not automatically mean more competitiveness and prosperity. A series of policy measures meant to improve the frame conditions for business firms and overall regional development should accompany clusters formation, as a coherent package including economic, legal, institutional, infrastructure, cultural and socio-political elements. Staring from these overall considerations our paper brings into discussion the capacity of cluster policies to offer viable solutions to the Romania's Eastern regions, lagging behind the Western ones. First, an overall image of the clusters existing in the Eastern part of Romania is provided based on statistical methods, mainly location quotients, Gini and Herfindahl indexes of regional specialisation and industrial concentration and cluster analysis. Second, GIS techniques are employed in order to provide a spotlight on cluster identity, location and borders by means of spatial, thematic data at locality level. Performance indicators are also included, so as to get an image on clusters' contribution to the development of the corresponding local economies as well as the county and region economy. Third, based on these results, the interviews with business environment representatives and policy makers in the envisaged regions point out the clusters with the highest chances of success. Also, the best practices are discussed and connected with successful solutions from other Central and East European countries. They will be differentiated in accordance with the characteristics of the North-East and South-East regions, bearing in mind that, however, South-East region has a higher development level and different profile compared with North-East. The paper is the result of a CERGE-GDN funded project.
    Keywords: ddc:330
    Language: English
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  • 9
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    Louvain-la-Neuve: European Regional Science Association (ERSA)
    Publication Date: 2015-09-04
    Description: Since 1990 the territorial mobility in Romania has recorded a series of particularities determined by major transformations in the political, economic and social life. The economic disparities already existing between the prosperous and the lagging regions have increased during the transition years, influenced by institutional renewal, restructuring, privatization, etc. Several regions display higher unemployment rates, lower activity rates, lower incomes per capita and higher out-migration rates compared with the average. These regions have adapted inadequately to the changing economic conditions, such as the decline of various industries (e.g. coal mining in the south part of Romania) and, as a result of this fact, their out-migration has been intensified. In the early 1990s were already noticed widespread regional disparities in terms of labour supply as well as the main demographic indicators. Starting from this overall image the present paper examines the main changes in the intensity, orientation and territorial distance of migration flows as well as their structure and the variable influence of the ?push / pull? factors involved in this process. As a preliminary step in the analysis of the main characteristics of interregional mobility in Romania, the most significant zones in terms of their contribution to total national migration have been selected. Population and labour mobility between regions has been studied using a set of indicators calculated for the 1990 - 2000 period: gross and net migration, in- and out-migration rates, in- and out-migration flows for the selected zones, their structure and dynamics and so on. Regression functions, input-output tables and gravitational models have been mainly employed. Analysing the results, the economic disparities seem to be the key issue in the question of population and labour mobility, as asserted by the neoclassical theory. Though, its mechanism is not confirmed by a series of concrete situations, such as the intense urban-rural flows, showing that, besides the economic factors, the institutional ones as well as the individual and family motivations are also very important for the persons that decide to migrate. In the next years is expected a decrease in the interregional migration in favour of the intra-regional one. The migration flows from urban to rural areas at the same time with those from rural to rural areas will continue to play a significant role. Finally, the paper discusses the economic policy measures able to reduce the long-distance migration and the intensity of the ?push? factors.
    Keywords: ddc:330
    Language: English
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  • 10
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    Louvain-la-Neuve: European Regional Science Association (ERSA)
    Publication Date: 2015-09-19
    Description: Among the EU countries, Romania displays the highest share of rural population (45%), most of it employed in agriculture. Moreover, there is a significant variation between the eight NUTS 2 regions with regards to the urban distribution and dynamics, with important intra-regional differences between the constituent counties. This paper proposes an inquiry into the capacity of urban centres to contribute to rural development in Romania from R&D and innovation perspective. First, the rural-urban gap is discussed, pointing at the consequences of the delay in implementing the reform of the production system in agriculture in terms of employment and income. Then, the positive influence of towns and cities on raising the share of employment in non-agricultural activities in rural areas is demonstrated by means of the available statistical data. Further on, the analysis of the regional dimension of R&D and innovation shows an increasing polarisation both between and within the eight development regions. The main conclusion is that the regions or counties with predominantly agricultural activities developed in subsistence households are not enough prepared to access R&D and innovation results. This conclusion is also confirmed by a regression model that analyses the influence of rural areas on regional growth. The above findings are examined in correlation with the expected positive contribution of the current rural development programme as well as of the regional operational programme and competitiveness sectorial programme funded by the EU.
    Keywords: ddc:330
    Language: English
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