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  • 1
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Springer
    Journal of neurocytology 17 (1988), S. 727-744 
    ISSN: 1573-7381
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Summary Axonal and glial reactions at the site of optic nerve section and at the junctional zone between optic nerve and normal or acellular peripheral nerve grafts have been studied. Following optic nerve section, no axons grew into the distal optic nerve stump. Similarly, no axons invaded the acellular peripheral nerve grafts, although in both instances fibres did regenerate into the junctional zone and a few remained there at least until 30 days post lesion (dpl, the duration of the experiments). Axons regenerated into normal peripheral nerve grafts by 3–5 dpl and by 10 dpl large numbers had penetrated deeply into the grafts. The glial response to injury appeared similar in both groups of grafted animals. Astrocytes and oligodendrocytes grew out into the junctional zone over the 5–7 day period and invaded the margins of the cellular grafts by 10 dpl. They did not penetrate the acellular nerves or distal optic nerve stumps. We were unable to determine whether Schwann cells invaded the junctional zone from the normal peripheral nerve grafts. Schwann cells are both GFAP+ and Vim+, especially when reacting after injury, and Lam− when not associated with axons: it is therefore possible that Schwann cells from the cellular grafts contributed to the population of GFAP+, Vim+ cells in the junctional zone of the cellular grafts. Anti-laminin immuno-reactivity persisted in the basal lamina tubes of both the normal and acellular peripheral nerve grafts. Thus, the failure of axon regeneration into acellular peripheral nerve grafts can be correlated with the absence of Schwann cells and does not appear to be related to the presence of laminin.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 2
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Springer
    Neurochemical research 17 (1992), S. 861-867 
    ISSN: 1573-6903
    Keywords: Metalloprotease ; myelin basic protein ; peptide C
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Abstract A metalloprotease activity associated with myelin membrane preparations degrades myelin basic protein (MBP), generating a characteristic fragment designated peptide C (MBP 74-170). Using an immunoblotting assay, peptide C-generating activity was detected in mammalian, avian, reptilian, and amphibian brains. The activity was present in rat brain as early as postnatal day 1 and also in adult rat peripheral nerve. Immunohistochemistry with a monoclonal antibody to the purified enzyme revealed that the metalloprotease was present in oligodendrocytes of optic nerve, of both white and grey matter of spinal cord, and also in the cytoplasm of both myelinating and non-myelinating Schwann cells of peripheral nerve.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 3
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Oxford, UK : Blackwell Science Ltd
    Molecular microbiology 37 (2000), S. 0 
    ISSN: 1365-2958
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: Ganglioside mimicry by Campylobacter jejuni lipo-oligosaccharide (LOS) is thought to be a critical factor in the triggering of the Guillain–Barré and Miller–Fisher syndrome neuropathies after C. jejuni infection. The combination of a completed genome sequence and a ganglioside GM1-like LOS structure makes C. jejuni NCTC 11168 a useful model strain for the identification and characterization of the genes involved in the biosynthesis of ganglioside-mimicking LOS. Genome analysis identified a putative LOS biosynthetic cluster and, from this, we describe a putative gene (ORF Cj1139c), which we have termed wlaN, with a significant level of similarity to a number of bacterial glycosyltransferases. Mutation of this gene in C. jejuni NCTC 11168 resulted in a LOS molecule of increased electrophoretic mobility, which also failed to bind cholera toxin. Comparison of LOS structural data from wild type and the mutant strain indicated lack of a terminal β-1,3-linked galactose residue in the latter. The wlaN gene product was demonstrated unambiguously as a β-1,3 galactosyltransferase responsible for converting GM2-like LOS structures to GM1-like by in vitro expression. We also show that the presence of an intragenic homopolymeric tract renders the expression of a functional wlaN gene product phase variable, resulting in distinct C. jejuni NCTC 11168 cell populations with alternate GM1 or GM2 ganglioside-mimicking LOS structures. The distribution of wlaN among a number of C. jejuni strains with known LOS structure was determined and, for C. jejuni NCTC 12500, similar wlaN gene phase variation was shown to occur, so that this strain has the potential to synthesize a GM1-like LOS structure as well as the ganglioside GM2-like LOS structure proposed in the literature.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 4
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Oxford, UK : Blackwell Science Ltd
    Molecular microbiology 35 (2000), S. 0 
    ISSN: 1365-2958
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: Campylobacter jejuni, a Gram-negative spiral bacterium, is the most common bacterial cause of acute human gastroenteritis and is increasingly recognized for its association with the serious post-infection neurological complications of the Miller–Fisher and Guillain–Barré syndromes. C. jejuni lipopolysaccharide (LPS) is thought to be involved in the pathogenesis of both uncomplicated infection and more serious sequelae, yet the LPS remains poorly characterized. Current studies on C. jejuni suggest that all strains produce lipooligosaccharide (LOS), with about one-third of strains also producing high-molecular-weight LPS (referred to as O-antigen). In this report, we demonstrate the presence of the high-molecular-weight LPS in all C. jejuni strains tested. Furthermore, we show that this LPS is biochemically and genetically unrelated to LOS and is similar to group II and group III capsular polysaccharides. All tested kpsM, kpsS and kpsC mutants of C. jejuni lost the ability to produce O-antigen. Moreover, this correlated with serotype changes. We demonstrate for the first time that the previously described O-antigen of C. jejuni is a capsular polysaccharide and a common component of the thermostable antigen used for serotyping of C. jejuni.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 5
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Oxford, UK : Blackwell Science Ltd
    Molecular microbiology 35 (2000), S. 0 
    ISSN: 1365-2958
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: N-acetyl neuraminic acid (NANA) is a common constituent of Campylobacter jejuni lipo-oligosaccharide (LOS). Such structures often mimic human gangliosides and are thought to be involved in the triggering of Guillain–Barré syndrome (GBS) and Miller–Fisher syndrome (MFS) following C. jejuni infection. Analysis of the C. jejuni NCTC 11168 genome sequence identified three putative NANA synthetase genes termed neuB1, neuB2 and neuB3. The NANA synthetase activity of all three C. jejuni neuB gene products was confirmed by complementation experiments in an Escherichia coli neuB-deficient strain. Isogenic mutants were created in all three neuB genes, and for one such mutant (neuB1) LOS was shown to have increased mobility. C. jejuni NCTC 11168 wild-type LOS bound cholera toxin, indicating the presence of NANA in a LOS structure mimicking the ganglioside GM1. This property was lost in the neuB1 mutant. Gas chromatography–mass spectrometry and fast atom bombardment–mass spectrometry analysis of LOS from wild-type and the neuB1 mutant strain demonstrated the lack of NANA in the latter. Expression of the neuB1 gene in E. coli confirmed that NeuB1 was capable of in vitro NANA biosynthesis through condensation of N-acetyl-d-mannosamine and phosphoenolpyruvate. Southern analysis demonstrated that the neuB1 gene was confined to strains of C. jejuni with LOS containing a single NANA residue. Mutagenesis of neuB2 and neuB3 did not affect LOS, but neuB3 mutants were aflagellate and non-motile. No phenotype was evident for neuB2 mutants in strain NCTC 11168, but for strain G1 the flagellin protein from the neuB2 mutant showed an apparent reduction in molecular size relative to the wild type. Thus, the neuB genes of C. jejuni appear to be involved in the biosynthesis of at least two distinct surface structures: LOS and flagella.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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