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  • 1
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Oxford, UK : Blackwell Science Ltd
    Journal of neurochemistry 77 (2001), S. 0 
    ISSN: 1471-4159
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Parkin is a product of the Park2 gene the mutation of which causes autosomal recessive juvenile parkinsonism (AR-JP) characterized by selective dopaminergic neuronal death and absence of Lewy bodies. Recently we found that parkin is directly linked to the ubiquitin (Ub)-proteasome pathway as a Ub-protein ligase (E3) collaborating with a Ub-conjugating enzyme (E2) UbcH7. Here we analysed by in situ hybridization the expression of mRNAs for parkin and UbcR7 (rat orthologue of human UbcH7) in the developing rat brain. Parkin mRNA increased in parallel with neuronal maturation, but was unevenly distributed in various brain regions after four postnatal days. The expression pattern of the UbcR7 mRNA was almost identical to that of the parkin mRNA in all cases examined. Both parkin and UbcR7 mRNAs were distributed in neurones but not glial cells. Our findings indicate that parkin is expressed not only in the substantia nigra, but also uniformly in various brain regions in a development-dependent manner. Co-expression of UbcR7 with parkin suggests that UbcR7 may interact with parkin in vivo for ubiquitination of yet unidentified target protein(s).
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 2
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Oxford, UK : Blackwell Science Ltd
    Journal of neurochemistry 71 (1998), S. 0 
    ISSN: 1471-4159
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Abstract: We discuss neurochemical and neurogenetic correlates of Parkinson's disease (PD) based on the recent progress in the study of its etiology and pathogenesis. Nigral degeneration with the presence of Lewy bodies in the remaining neurons is the pathologic hallmark of PD, and the resultant loss of striatal dopamine is responsible for most of the clinical manifestations. Although the primary cause is still unknown, mitochondrial respiratory failure and oxidative stress appear to be two major contributors to the nigral cell death. Many endogenous and exogenous compounds with structural similarity to MPTP have been postulated as potential neurotoxins inducing nigral cell death in PD, but there is little evidence of accumulation of such compounds in the nigra. Genetic influence has increasingly been recognized as an important risk factor for PD. In this respect, genetic linkage analysis and molecular cloning of the disease genes in familial parkinsonism are of utmost importance today. Recently, the disease gene for one of the autosomal dominant forms of familial PD was identified, and we cloned the gene for an autosomal recessive type of familial parkinsonism that had been mapped to the long arm of chromosome 6 by our group. Information obtained on familial parkinsonism will contribute to the studies on sporadic PD as well.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 3
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    [s.l.] : Macmillan Magazines Ltd.
    Nature 392 (1998), S. 605-608 
    ISSN: 1476-4687
    Source: Nature Archives 1869 - 2009
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
    Notes: [Auszug] Parkinson's disease is a common neurodegenerative disease with complex clinical features. Autosomal recessive juvenile parkinsonism (AR-JP), maps to the long arm of chromosome 6 (6q25.2-q27) and is linked strongly to the markers D6S305 and D6S253 (ref. 4); the former is deleted in one ...
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  • 4
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    [s.l.] : Nature America Inc.
    Nature genetics 25 (2000), S. 302-305 
    ISSN: 1546-1718
    Source: Nature Archives 1869 - 2009
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: [Auszug] Autosomal recessive juvenile parkinsonism (AR–JP), one of the most common familial forms of Parkinson disease, is characterized by selective dopaminergic neural cell death and the absence of the Lewy body, a cytoplasmic inclusion body consisting of aggregates of abnormally accumulated ...
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  • 5
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Oxford, UK : Blackwell Science Ltd
    Journal of neurochemistry 67 (1996), S. 0 
    ISSN: 1471-4159
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Abstract: We have investigated the serial changes in the transcription and translation of the rat glucose transporter (GLUT) 1 and 3 genes after 3 h of middle cerebral artery (MCA) occlusion followed by reperfusion. Northern blot analysis and in situ hybridization study were performed to determine the chronological change and regional expression. In the ipsilateral anterior cerebral artery (ACA) cortex, GLUT1 mRNA expression was increased at 12 h (11.6-fold) of reperfusion, and its expression was detected not only in vascular endothelial cells but also in neurons. At 48 h of reperfusion, GLUT3 mRNA expression was increased in the ipsilateral ACA (8.6-fold) and in the contralateral MCA cortex (9.1-fold). Immunohistochemical study failed to show GLUT1 protein synthesis in neurons in the ipsilateral ACA cortex. The immunoreactivity of GLUT3 protein was increased in neurons in ipsilateral ACA cortex and contralateral MCA cortex. Our results suggest that the expression of GLUT1 and GLUT3 is controlled differently after transient focal ischemic conditions. Furthermore, the postischemic localizations of both GLUT1 and GLUT3 expressions may be altered from the normal physiological expression pattern, which may be of importance in investigating postischemic cell function.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 6
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Oxford, UK : Blackwell Science Ltd
    Journal of neurochemistry 78 (2001), S. 0 
    ISSN: 1471-4159
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: We recently identified a novel gene, parkin, as a pathogenic gene for autosomal recessive juvenile parkinsonism. Parkin encodes a 52-kDa protein with a ubiquitin-like domain and two RING-finger motifs. To provide a insight into the function of parkin, we have examined its intracellular distribution in cultured cells. We found that parkin was localized in the trans-Golgi network and the secretory vesicles in U-373MG or SH-SY5Y cells by immunocytochemical analyses. In the subsequent subcellular fractionation studies of rat brain, we showed that parkin was copurified with the synaptic vesicles (SVs) when we used low ionic conditions throughout the procedure. An immunoelectromicroscopic analysis indicated that parkin was present on the SV membrane. Parkin was readily released from SVs into the soluble phase by increasing ionic strength at neutral pH, but not by a non-ionic detergent. To elucidate its responsible region for membrane association, we transfected with green fluorescent protein-tagged deletion mutants of parkin into COS-1 cells followed by subcellular fractionation. We demonstrated the ability of parkin to bind to the membranes through a broad region except for the ubiquitin-like domain. The significance of SV localization of parkin is discussed.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 7
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Oxford, UK : Blackwell Science Ltd
    Journal of neurochemistry 89 (2004), S. 0 
    ISSN: 1471-4159
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Manganese as environmental factor is considered to cause parkinsonism and induce endoplasmic reticulum stress-mediated dopaminergic cell death. We examined the effects of manganese on parkin, identified as the gene responsible for familial Parkinson's disease, and the role of parkin in manganese-induced neuronal cell death. Manganese dose-dependently induced cell death of dopaminergic SH-SY5Y and CATH.a cells and cholinergic Neuro-2a cells, and that the former two cell types were more sensitive to manganese toxicity than Neuro-2a cells. Moreover, manganese increased the expression of endoplasmic reticulum stress-associated genes, including parkin, in SH-SY5Y cells and CATH.a cells, but not in Neuro-2a cells. Treatment with manganese resulted in accumulation of parkin protein in SH-SY5Y cells and its redistribution to the perinuclear region, especially aggregated Golgi complex, while in Neuro-2a cells neither expression nor redistribution of parkin was noted. Manganese showed no changes in proteasome activities in either cell. Transient transfection of parkin gene inhibited manganese- or manganese plus dopamine-induced cell death of SH-SY5Y cells, but not of Neuro-2a cells. Our results suggest that the attenuating effects of parkin against manganese- or manganese plus dopamine-induced cell death are dopaminergic cell-specific compensatory reactions associated with its accumulation and redistribution to perinuclear regions but not with proteasome system.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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