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  • 1
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Springer
    Sexual plant reproduction 12 (1999), S. 43-52 
    ISSN: 1432-2145
    Keywords: Key words Apomixis ; Sexuality ; Day length ; Embryology ; Brachiaria ; Agamic complexes
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: Abstract  Meiotic and aposporous embryo sacs and the initial steps of parthenogenetic embryogenesis and endosperm formation were investigated in diploid and tetraploid accessions of Brachiaria decumbens in two environments, differing mainly in day length: early summer and late autumn. Both diploid and tetraploid accessions were facultative apomicts. Di(ha)ploids showed a much lower level of apomixis (10% to15%) than tetraploids (80% to 95%). No obligate sexual diploids were found; thus, their occurrence in natural populations is obscure. It is suggested that reproduction in B. decumbens, as in other agamic complexes of the Paniceae tribe, in general, approximates a diploid-tetraploid-(di)haploid reproductive cycle which does not involve triploids. The dihaploids were fertile and survived in nature. Development of the reproductive structures depended on the environment. In autumn, in contrast to early summer, many meiotic and aposporous embryo sacs degenerated during development, leading to a significant reduction in the proportion of parthenogenetic embryos. Whether this effect can be attributed to day length or simply to age remains to be investigated. The ratio of aposporous to sexual embryo sacs was relatively stable over the two seasons.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 2
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Oxford, UK : Blackwell Publishing Ltd
    Journal of neurochemistry 54 (1990), S. 0 
    ISSN: 1471-4159
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Abstract: Acute seizures and other stimuli that increase neuronal activity cause a rapid induction of the immediate-early genes c-fos and c-jun, also referred to as nuclear proto-on-cogenes, in the nervous system. In the present study, rats were administered one or more electroconvulsive seizures (ECS) and the responsiveness of c-fos and c-jun to an acute, “test” seizure was examined. Four hours after a single ECS, the induction of c-fos mRNA by a test seizure was blocked, in agreement with earlier findings, but by 18 h the levels of c-fos mRNA could be reinduced by the test seizure, suggesting that 1 day is sufficient to “reset” the responsiveness of this system. However, it was found that chronic, daily ECS treatments resulted in a time-dependent decrease in the expression of c-fos mRNA in response to a test seizure administered 18 h after the last daily ECS; this effect was maximal after 8–10 days of treatment, at which time the induction of c-fos mRNA by the test seizure was blocked dramatically. Chronic ECS also blocked the induction of c-jun in response to an acute, test seizure. The effect of chronic ECS on levels of Fos protein was also investigated. It was found that basal levels of Fos protein were reduced after chronic (10 days) ECS and were not induced by a test seizure. Because levels of Fos protein remain elevated 4 h after a single seizure this finding suggests that the mechanisms by which acute (4 h) and chronic (8–10 days) ECS block the induction of c-fos may differ.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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