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  • 1
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Oxford, UK : Blackwell Science Ltd
    Molecular microbiology 35 (2000), S. 0 
    ISSN: 1365-2958
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: N-acetyl neuraminic acid (NANA) is a common constituent of Campylobacter jejuni lipo-oligosaccharide (LOS). Such structures often mimic human gangliosides and are thought to be involved in the triggering of Guillain–Barré syndrome (GBS) and Miller–Fisher syndrome (MFS) following C. jejuni infection. Analysis of the C. jejuni NCTC 11168 genome sequence identified three putative NANA synthetase genes termed neuB1, neuB2 and neuB3. The NANA synthetase activity of all three C. jejuni neuB gene products was confirmed by complementation experiments in an Escherichia coli neuB-deficient strain. Isogenic mutants were created in all three neuB genes, and for one such mutant (neuB1) LOS was shown to have increased mobility. C. jejuni NCTC 11168 wild-type LOS bound cholera toxin, indicating the presence of NANA in a LOS structure mimicking the ganglioside GM1. This property was lost in the neuB1 mutant. Gas chromatography–mass spectrometry and fast atom bombardment–mass spectrometry analysis of LOS from wild-type and the neuB1 mutant strain demonstrated the lack of NANA in the latter. Expression of the neuB1 gene in E. coli confirmed that NeuB1 was capable of in vitro NANA biosynthesis through condensation of N-acetyl-d-mannosamine and phosphoenolpyruvate. Southern analysis demonstrated that the neuB1 gene was confined to strains of C. jejuni with LOS containing a single NANA residue. Mutagenesis of neuB2 and neuB3 did not affect LOS, but neuB3 mutants were aflagellate and non-motile. No phenotype was evident for neuB2 mutants in strain NCTC 11168, but for strain G1 the flagellin protein from the neuB2 mutant showed an apparent reduction in molecular size relative to the wild type. Thus, the neuB genes of C. jejuni appear to be involved in the biosynthesis of at least two distinct surface structures: LOS and flagella.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 2
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Oxford, UK : Blackwell Publishing Ltd
    FEMS microbiology letters 197 (2001), S. 0 
    ISSN: 1574-6968
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: The lipopolysaccharide (LPS) from eight strains of Yersinia pestis which had been cultured at 28°C appeared to be devoid of an O-antigen when analysed by sodium dodecyl sulfate–polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. LPS isolated from three of these strains which had been cultured at 37°C also appeared to be devoid of an O-antigen. When the LPS from Y. pestis strain CO92 was purified and analysed by matrix-assisted laser desorption-ionisation time-of-flight mass spectrometry, the observed signals were in the mass range predicted for molecules containing lipid A plus the core oligosaccharide but lacking an O-antigen. The nucleotide sequence of Y. pestis strain CO92 revealed the presence of a putative O-antigen gene cluster. However, frame-shift mutations in the ddhB, gmd, fcl and ushA genes are likely to prevent expression of the O-antigen thus explaining the loss of phenotype.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 3
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Oxford, UK : Blackwell Science Ltd
    Molecular microbiology 37 (2000), S. 0 
    ISSN: 1365-2958
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: Ganglioside mimicry by Campylobacter jejuni lipo-oligosaccharide (LOS) is thought to be a critical factor in the triggering of the Guillain–Barré and Miller–Fisher syndrome neuropathies after C. jejuni infection. The combination of a completed genome sequence and a ganglioside GM1-like LOS structure makes C. jejuni NCTC 11168 a useful model strain for the identification and characterization of the genes involved in the biosynthesis of ganglioside-mimicking LOS. Genome analysis identified a putative LOS biosynthetic cluster and, from this, we describe a putative gene (ORF Cj1139c), which we have termed wlaN, with a significant level of similarity to a number of bacterial glycosyltransferases. Mutation of this gene in C. jejuni NCTC 11168 resulted in a LOS molecule of increased electrophoretic mobility, which also failed to bind cholera toxin. Comparison of LOS structural data from wild type and the mutant strain indicated lack of a terminal β-1,3-linked galactose residue in the latter. The wlaN gene product was demonstrated unambiguously as a β-1,3 galactosyltransferase responsible for converting GM2-like LOS structures to GM1-like by in vitro expression. We also show that the presence of an intragenic homopolymeric tract renders the expression of a functional wlaN gene product phase variable, resulting in distinct C. jejuni NCTC 11168 cell populations with alternate GM1 or GM2 ganglioside-mimicking LOS structures. The distribution of wlaN among a number of C. jejuni strains with known LOS structure was determined and, for C. jejuni NCTC 12500, similar wlaN gene phase variation was shown to occur, so that this strain has the potential to synthesize a GM1-like LOS structure as well as the ganglioside GM2-like LOS structure proposed in the literature.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 4
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Oxford, UK : Blackwell Science Ltd
    Molecular microbiology 55 (2005), S. 0 
    ISSN: 1365-2958
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: We describe in this report the characterization of the recently discovered N-linked glycosylation locus of the human bacterial pathogen Campylobacter jejuni, the first such system found in a species from the domain Bacteria. We exploited the ability of this locus to function in Escherichia coli to demonstrate through mutational and structural analyses that variant glycan structures can be transferred onto protein indicating the relaxed specificity of the putative oligosaccharyltransferase PglB. Structural data derived from these variant glycans allowed us to infer the role of five individual glycosyltransferases in the biosynthesis of the N-linked heptasaccharide. Furthermore, we show that C. jejuni- and E. coli-derived pathways can interact in the biosynthesis of N-linked glycoproteins. In particular, the E. coli encoded WecA protein, a UDP-GlcNAc: undecaprenylphosphate GlcNAc-1-phosphate transferase involved in glycolipid biosynthesis, provides for an alternative N-linked heptasaccharide biosynthetic pathway bypassing the requirement for the C. jejuni-derived glycosyltransferase PglC. This is the first experimental evidence that biosynthesis of the N-linked glycan occurs on a lipid-linked precursor prior to transfer onto protein. These findings provide a framework for understanding the process of N-linked protein glycosylation in Bacteria and for devising strategies to exploit this system for glycoengineering.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 5
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Oxford, UK : Blackwell Science Ltd
    Molecular microbiology 44 (2002), S. 0 
    ISSN: 1365-2958
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: The two-component regulatory system PhoPQ has been shown to regulate the expression of virulence factors in a number of bacterial species. For one such virulence factor, lipopolysaccharide (LPS), the PhoPQ system has been shown to regulate structural modifications in Salmonella enterica var Typhi-murium. In Yersinia pestis, which expresses lipo-oligosaccharide (LOS), a PhoPQ regulatory system has been identified and an isogenic mutant constructed. To investigate potential modifications to LOS from Y. pestis, which to date has not been fully characterized, purified LOS from wild-type plague and the phoP defective mutant were analysed by mass spectrometry. Here we report the structural characterization of LOS from Y. pestis and the direct comparison of LOS from a phoP mutant. Structural modifications to lipid A, the host signalling portion of LOS, were not detected but analysis of the core revealed the expression of two distinct molecular species in wild-type LOS, differing in terminal galactose or heptose. The phoP mutant was restricted to the expression of a single molecular species, containing terminal heptose. The minimum inhibitory concentration of cationic antimicrobial peptides for the two strains was determined and compared with the wild-type: the phoP mutant was highly sensitive to polymyxin. Thus, LOS modification is under the control of the PhoPQ regulatory system and the ability to alter LOS structure may be required for survival of Y. pestis within the mammalian and/or flea host.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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