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  • 1
    Online Resource
    Online Resource
    Abingdon, Oxon ; : Routledge,
    Keywords: Party affiliation Case studies. ; Political participation Case studies. ; Political parties Case studies. ; New democracies Case studies. ; Party affiliation Case studies. ; Political participation Case studies. ; Political parties Case studies. ; New democracies Case studies. ; Electronic books. ; Electronic books.
    Description / Table of Contents: Party membership and its conceptualization in democratizing European countries : an introduction / Sergiu Gherghina, Alexandra Iancu and Sorina Soare -- Incentives and practices of mass-party membership in Albania / Anjeza Xhaferaj -- Stable and state subsidized party membership in Bosnia and Herzegovina / Jasmin Hasic and Mahir Sijamija -- Weak membership and personal networks in Georgia / Nanuli Silagadze -- Membership recruitment and propaganda in Macedonia / Dane Taleski, Viktor Dimovski and Muhamed Halili -- Volatile and election-based party membership in the Republic of Moldova / Igor Bucataru and Valeriu Mosneaga -- Oligarchic party structures and membership in Montenegro / Zlatko Vujovic -- Strong leaders, passive members, and state-dependency in Serbia / Dusan Spasojevic and Zoran Stojiljkovic -- The hidden game of party membership in Ukraine / Agnieszka K. Cianciara and Kamila Zacharuk.
    Abstract: Although party membership has been extensively analysed in the EU Members States from Western and Eastern Europe, there is a gap in systematic data collection and analyses for the other countries in the Balkans and post-Soviet region. This book provides new and innovative insights in the area of party membership research to analyse the evolution of membership organizations in political parties from under-investigated countries. Specifically, it seeks to understand the way in which political parties and the national legislation conceptualize the notion of membership within and across countries. It provides original data and affords a first comprehensive, comparative study of party members in the EU neighbouring countries, which resonate particular interest because some of them occupy the "precarious middle ground between a full-fledge democracy and outright dictatorship". In light of these relevant observations, this systematic analysis of membership evolutions in democratizing countries brings valuable insights for the study of party politics in general.
    Type of Medium: Online Resource
    Pages: 1 online resource.
    ISBN: 9781315201177 , 1315201178 , 9781351781206 , 1351781200 , 9781351781213 , 1351781219 , 9781351781190 , 1351781197
    Series Statement: Routledge studies on political parties and party systems
    DDC: 324.2/10947
    Parallel Title: Print version: Party members and their importance in non-EU countries.
    Language: English
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  • 2
    Online Resource
    Online Resource
    London : IntechOpen
    Type of Medium: Online Resource
    Pages: 1 Online-Ressource , Illustrationen
    ISBN: 9781789847291
    URL: Volltext  (kostenfrei)
    URL: Volltext  (kostenfrei)
    Language: English
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  • 3
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Springer
    ISSN: 1618-2650
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Notes: Zusammenfassung In der vorliegenden Arbeit wird eine colorimetrische Methode zur Bestimmung von Brucin, Strychnin, Chinin und Cinchonin beschrieben, die darauf beruht, daß mit Kaliumhexathiocyanatochromat(III), [Cr(SCN)6]K3, komplexe Verbindungen entstehen, die in Wasser unlöslich, in Aceton hingegen mit violetter Färbung leicht löslich sind. Die acetonischen Lösungen können mit einem Pulfrich-Spektrophotometer mit Gelbfilter colorimetriert werden. Das Maximum der Absorption liegt bei 574 nm. Die Extinktion zeigt keine Veränderungen mit der Zeit. Für die Extinktionskonstanten sind folgende Werte ermittelt worden: Chinin 220, Brucin 191, Cinchonin 189 und Strychnin 135.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 4
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Springer
    Journal of molecular histology 20 (1988), S. 499-509 
    ISSN: 1573-6865
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: Summary The distribution of ferritin antigenicity in control and iron-loaded rat hepatocytes was investigated with an immunogold-ferritin antibody technique. Antibody to horse spleen ferritin showed immunoreactivity as determined by dot blotting with immunogold/silver staining with purified rat liver ferritin but not with rat haemosiderin. The initial site of ferritin degradation was studied by analysing the density of gold labelling in the cytosol and lysosomes in combination with pre-embedding acid phosphatase cytochemistry. Immunoreactive ferritin was present in the cytosol, cytosolic clusters and lysosomes of normal hepatocytes. After iron-loading, the labelling density increased over tenfold in parenchymal cell cytosol with a smaller increase in Kupffer cells. Ferritin clusters contained substantially more immunoreactive ferritin than equivalent areas of lysosomes or cytosol. Analysis of the labelling density in hepatocyte lysosomes showed that, despite a striking increase in iron content, one-quarter of the lysosomes showed less immunolabelled ferritin than the cytosol. The existence of a wide range of ferritin labelling densities in the lysosomes with a large proportion unlabelled suggests that the ferritin protein shell is not degraded at a significant rate either in the cytosol or in clusters but only after incorporation into lysosomes.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 5
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Springer
    ISSN: 1588-2780
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Energy, Environment Protection, Nuclear Power Engineering
    Notes: Abstract The ion exchange between60Co2+ ions contained in residual radioactive water and zeolites of the NaA, NaX and CaA types was studied. The more advanced retaining of60Co2+ ions occurs for the NaA zeolite with the higher exchange capacity, as compared to NaX. With the CaA zeolite, a very weak ion exchange with60Co2+ ions was observed.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 6
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Springer
    ISSN: 1615-1488
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Mechanical Engineering, Materials Science, Production Engineering, Mining and Metallurgy, Traffic Engineering, Precision Mechanics
    Notes: Abstract This paper describes a non-gradient formulation for solving shape optimal design problems involving structures in plane stress or having an axially symmetric geometry. The minimization of the maximum von Mises stress value at a traction free boundary poses a non-linear optimization problem in which the design variables do not appear explicitly in the formulation. The most commonly used approach is to apply a standard non-linear programming technique. There exists in this field no universally accepted solution method. The major difficulty of shape optimization in connection with FEM is to perform an accurate and efficient sensitivity analysis. The perturbation analysis introduced here takes advantage of the character of the problem. It is based on methods from the theory of notches. The results are applied to an FE-model of the structural component. The iterative method with such a direction of search works efficiently even for a large number of design variables as shown by Schnack (1977b, 1978, 1979, 1980, 1983 and 1985). Using a dynamic programming formulation (see also Schnack and Spörl 1986), the existence of a solution for the shape optimal problem will be discussed. Examples of applications to structural components from mechanical engineering are presented to demonstrate the power of this approach.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 7
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Springer
    Biotherapy 4 (1992), S. 317-323 
    ISSN: 1573-8280
    Keywords: Adjuvant arthritis ; inflammation ; IL-1 ; M20 IL-1 inhibitor
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Abstract Cytokines, specifically IL-1 and TNF, have been implicated as important mediators of joint destruction in rheumatoid arthritis (RA). Elevated levels of IL-1 in the joint fluid of patients with RA have been reported, as well as the presence of IL-1 inhibitory activity. We have reported the characterization of an inhibitor derived from a myelomonocytic cell line cloned in our laboratory which is specific for IL-1. This IL-1 inhibitor is protein in nature which specifically inhibits activityin vitro andin vivo. Previous studies showed that the inhibitor reduced acute inflammatory reactions associated with IL-1 (fever, leukocytosis, local foot pad swelling, lymph node enlargement and acute phase reactants). Thus it was of interest to study whether the M20 IL-1 inhibitor could modify adjuvant-induced chronic inflammation in rats, which is often used as a model for human RA. Administration of complete Freund's adjuvant (CFA) into Lewis rats, resulted in a severe adjuvant arthritis (AA) which reached peak severity after 14 days. Daily administration of IL-1 inhibitor, beginning after injection of CFA, abolished the appearance of AA. The parameters investigated were: joint swelling (the increase in diameter of joints), peri-articular erythema, limping of the rats and histological examination. The effect of the M20 IL-1 inhibitor was shown to be dose dependent and the IL-1 inhibitor alone had no adverse effects. These results indicate that the M20 IL-1 inhibitor may have a role in the treatment of AA and may be used to reduce pathological processes in joint inflammation.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 8
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Springer
    Journal of clinical immunology 9 (1989), S. 287-295 
    ISSN: 1573-2592
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Abstract The role of B cells and regulatory T cells in the reducedin vitro IgG synthesis of cystic fibrosis (CF) patients was studied. Intact proportion, proliferation, and differentiation of B cells and reduced suppressor and helper T-cell function were found. To explore the T-cell defects further, CF sera or supernatant derived fromPseudomonas aeruginosa cultures (PA supernatant) was added to the relevant T helper- and suppressor-cell assays. Both CF sera derived from PA-positive patients and PA supernatant interfered with the appearance of interleukin 2 (IL-2) receptors and with the functional enhancement caused by exogenously added IL-2. PA-negative CF patients, however, also had functional T-cell defects and inhibitory sera, but these sera did not affect IL-2 pathways. Thus different serum factors and intrinsic T-cell defects in CF patients are suggested.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 9
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Springer
    Journal of inherited metabolic disease 10 (1987), S. 330-338 
    ISSN: 1573-2665
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Summary The liver ultrastructure of four patients with the peroxisomal disease primary hyperoxaluria type I has been investigated. In all cases, peroxisomes of normal appearance were present in the parenchymal cells, except that they were somewhat reduced in number and size. In all patients, conspicuous lipofuscin was present, presumably resulting from the various metabolic disturbances to which the livers were subjected during the course of their disease. Considerable hepatocyte iron overloading was found in the three patients who had been haemodialysed and/or had blood transfusion. Whether the relatively mild peroxisomal abnormalities (as compared to other peroxisomal diseases, such as Zellweger's syndrome) found in these hyperoxaluric patients are related directly to the peroxisomal deficiency of alanine:glyoxylate aminotransferase, or whether they are a secondary phenomenon, resulting from the consequent metabolic disturbance, remains to be elucidated.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 10
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Springer
    ISSN: 1573-3432
    Keywords: Sleep patterns ; actigraph ; autism ; questionnaire
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Psychology
    Notes: Abstract Sleep disturbances are regarded as a common clinical feature in autistic children. This concept is based primarily on informal observations or studies conducted with questionnaires. In this study we compared data obtained by questionnaires to that obtained with actigraphy. Among 22 autistic children, 12 were reported as having sleep problems and 8 patients completed 72 hours actigraphy. While the employment of questionnaires disclosed that autistic children had an earlier morning awakening time and multiple and early night arousals, actigraphic monitoring showed that with the exception of an earlier morning arousal time (p = .045), sleep patterns of autistic children were similar to that of normal children. Parental over-sensitivity to sleep disturbances of the autistic children may explain this phenomenon.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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