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  • 1
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Springer
    Chemoecology 4 (1993), S. 165-173 
    ISSN: 1423-0445
    Keywords: growth inhibition ; phytochemical prospecting ; Meliaceae ; Lepidoptera ; Noctuidae ; Peridroma saucia ; Orthoptera ; Acrididae ; Melanoplus sanguinipes
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: Summary Thirty-one species in twenty genera of the plant family Meliaceae were assayed for the production of growth-inhibiting phytochemicals, using the generalist herbivorePeridroma saucia. Most species were inhibitory when methanolic extracts were incorporated into artificial diets at concentrations at or below those occurring naturally. In general members of the subfamily Melioideae were more inhibitory than members of the Swietenioideae. Extracts of deciduous species with short leaf lifetimes were significantly more inhibitory than those of evergreen species with longer leaf lifetimes. In a smaller sample of species, evergreen species showed a trend towards having tougher leaves than deciduous species. These results support the resource availability hypothesis of Coleyet al. (1985), and suggest that life history attributes may be of some value in selecting plants for phytochemical prospecting.
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  • 2
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    s.l. : American Chemical Society
    Journal of agricultural and food chemistry 38 (1990), S. 1406-1411 
    ISSN: 1520-5118
    Source: ACS Legacy Archives
    Topics: Agriculture, Forestry, Horticulture, Fishery, Domestic Science, Nutrition , Process Engineering, Biotechnology, Nutrition Technology
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 3
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Springer
    Journal of chemical ecology 14 (1988), S. 1787-1787 
    ISSN: 1573-1561
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 4
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Springer
    Journal of chemical ecology 16 (1990), S. 1911-1920 
    ISSN: 1573-1561
    Keywords: Peridroma saucia ; variegated cutworm ; Lepidoptera ; Noctuidae ; feeding behavior ; growth inhibitors ; conversion efficiency ; asarones ; Acorus calamus ; antifeedants
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Notes: Abstract Asarones (2, 4, 5-trimethoxypropenylbenzenes) isolated from the essential oil ofAcorus calamus L. rhizomes, are potent growth inhibitors and antifeedants to the variegated cutworm,Peridroma saucia Hubner.cis-Asarone added to artificial diet significantly inhibited growth and feeding by first-, third-, and fourth-instar larvae, whereas thetrans isomer produced an antifeedant effect alone. Gross dietary utilization (efficiency of conversion of ingested food, ECI) was decreased when the diet was supplemented withcis-asarone or when this compound was topically applied to fourth-instar larvae. Inhibition of growth occurred even at a moderate topical dose (5 μg/larva) primarily as a result of decreased efficiency of conversion of digested food (ECD), even though the approximate digestibility (AD) of the food was unchanged. Oral or topical treatment withtrans-asarone also significantly inhibited larval growth, but in this case the effect can be strictly attributed to decreased consumption, as dietary utilization (ECI) was not affected. Both isomers displayed a direct antifeedant effect based on leaf disk choice tests. Thecis isomer was 7.0 and 5.5 times more potent thant thetrans isomer against fourth- and fifth-instar larvae, respectively. Our data suggest that the two asarone isomers have different modes of action.cis-Asarone is toxic in addition to having strong antifeedant activity, whereas thetrans isomer acts only as an antifeedant with no appreciable toxicity.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 5
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Springer
    Journal of chemical ecology 19 (1993), S. 249-266 
    ISSN: 1573-1561
    Keywords: Brassica campestris ; B. juncea ; B. napus ; Bertha armyworm ; canola ; glucosinolate ; insect-plant interactions ; isothiocyanate ; Mamestra configurata ; Lepidoptera ; Noctuidae ; mustard ; Sinapis alba ; thiocyanate
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Notes: Abstract The relationship between host plant glucosinolate profile and feeding and growth of the Bertha armyworm,Mamestra configurata Walker was investigated using eight cultivated rape and mustard varieties. Mean larval weights of neonates reared on intact rosette-stage plants were significantly different on the different species in the orderBrassica juncea 〈Sinapis alba 〈B. napus 〈B. campestris. WhileB. juncea was least preferred,S. alba was significantly more attractive to neonate larvae in choice tests. Relative consumption and growth rates of fourth-instar larvae were also reduced onB. juncea foliage. Other differences were dependent on the plant growth stage. Neonate preference was not correlated to total glucosinolate levels, but rather to the concentrations of isothiocyanate-releasing glucosinolates. However, the relationship between consumption and glucosinolate levels was inconsistent. Relative growth rate was negatively correlated to total glucosinolate content for stage 3 and 4 foliage—mainly due to the concentration of isothiocyanatereleasing glucosinolates. The relative importance of isothiocyanate-releasing glucosinolates was verified by rearing neonates on meridic diets containing equimolar concentrations of sinigrin, its metabolite, allyl isothiocyanate, and indole-3-carbinol, metabolite of 3-indolylmethyl glucosinolate. Sinigrin and allyl isothiocyanate in the diet produced virtually identical negative weight vs. concentration regression lines. No such dose-response effect was observed with indole-3-carbinol. The data suggest that foliar isothiocyanate-releasing glucosinolates may provide some degree of plant protection from polyphagous insects.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 6
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Springer
    Journal of chemical ecology 25 (1999), S. 1369-1382 
    ISSN: 1573-1561
    Keywords: Thiarubrines ; thiophenes ; allelochemicals ; Ambrosia chamissonis ; Lasionycta wyatti ; Manduca sexta ; Spodoptera litura
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Notes: Abstract The larvae of a rare noctuid moth, Lasionycta wyatti, were found to be associated with the stems and roots of Ambrosia chamissonis, a species found along sandy beaches in western North America. High-performance liquid chromatographic (HPLC) analyses of L. wyatti larvae and their frass revealed significant amounts of thiarubrines, secondary compounds characteristic of this host plant. Artificial diet studies showed that thiarubrines were well tolerated by these larvae. These same diets, however, were toxic to larvae of Manduca sexta and inhibited larval growth of Spodoptera litura. Even in the presence of simulated sunlight, artificial diets containing thiarubrines did not affect larvae of L. wyatti. However, dietary incorporation of thiophenes, natural UV-activated breakdown products of thiarubrines, was deleterious to larvae of L. wyatti.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 7
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Springer
    Journal of chemical ecology 19 (1993), S. 1761-1773 
    ISSN: 1573-1561
    Keywords: Antifeedant ; Chaetosiphon fragaefolii ; aphids ; Homoptera ; Aphididae ; azadirachtin ; Azadirachta indica ; deterrent ; neem
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Notes: Abstract Leaf disk choice test bioassays demonstrated that formulated neem seed oil (NSO) was equally deterrent to first- and third-instar nymphs and adult strawberry aphids,Chaetosiphon fragaefolii (Cockerell). Concentrations of NSO resulting in 50% feeding deterrence were approximately 1.1% for this species. The rapid disruption of aphid feeding (〈1 hr) was not related to the presence of the limonoid azadirachtin, and deterrence likely results from the combined activity of several compounds. Activity toC. fragaefolii disappeared within 12–24 hr following application to strawberry in the greenhouse. NSO was deterrent to only half of the six aphid species tested. The antifeedant properties of neem do not appear to contribute significantly to the control of aphids and the viruses they transmit.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 8
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Springer
    Journal of chemical ecology 19 (1993), S. 1075-1084 
    ISSN: 1573-1561
    Keywords: Tall oil ; resin acids ; abietic acid ; dehydroabietic acid ; isopimaric acid ; Peridroma saucia ; Lepidoptera ; Noctuidae ; variegated cutworm ; bioactivity ; natural insecticide
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Notes: Abstract Tall oil, a by-product of the kraft process for pulping softwood, has been shown to have insecticidal properties. In the present study, the active principles in tall oil against the variegated cutworm,Peridroma saucia Hübner, were investigated. GC-MS analysis showed that abietic, dehydroabietic, and isopimaric acids were major resin acid components of crude tall oil and depitched tall oil. When crude tall oil samples of differing resin acid composition were incorporated into artificial diet at a concentration of 2.0% fresh weight, they suppressed larval growth by 45–60% compared to controls. This suppression was significantly (P≤0.05) correlated with the equivalent contents of abietic, dehydroabietic, isopimaric, and total resin acids. These results were also evident from a diet choice test, showing that the second-instar larvae obviously selected diets with low levels of resin acids when different diets were randomly arranged in a Petri dish. Bioassays with pure resin acids (abietic, dehydroabietic, and isopimaric acids) demonstrated that all individual chemicals have similar bioactivity against this insect. Comparison of the bioactivities of depitched tall oil and an equivalent mixture of pure resin acids in thePeridroma chronic growth bioassay indicated that pure resin acids and depitched tall oil share a common mode of action to this insect. This study confirms that resin acids are major active principles in tall oil against the variegated cutworm, but other chemicals likely also contribute to the bioactivity of tall oil.
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  • 9
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Springer
    Journal of chemical ecology 26 (2000), S. 2791-2800 
    ISSN: 1573-1561
    Keywords: Trichilia ; Meliaceae ; Spodoptera ; Noctuidae ; antifeedant ; desensitization ; crop protectant
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Notes: Abstract We investigated the desensitization of Asian armyworms, Spodoptera litura, to a crude methanolic extract of wood Trichilia americana. Following repeated exposures to the extract over four days, desensitization was observed under no-choice conditions at low extract concentration (0.5 μg/cm2). No desensitization was observed under choice conditions or at a higher concentration (5.0 μg/cm2). Repeated exposures of larvae to the extract over 7.5 hr showed that larvae increasingly tolerated the extract due to hunger, rather than showing true desensitization. When larvae were exposed to the extract in test arenas of different sizes, larvae showed reduced feeding and desensitization as arena size increased. Finally, treatment of whole cabbage plants with extract resulted in larvae abandoning the plant. The crude extract was effective at protecting the plants, although desensitization did not occur, because the larvae moved away from the plant.
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  • 10
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    New York, NY [u.a.] : Wiley-Blackwell
    ISSN: 0739-4462
    Keywords: azadirachtin ; tissue distribution ; elimination ; Chemistry ; Food Science, Agricultural, Medicinal and Pharmaceutical Chemistry
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: The excretion, retention, and tissue distribution of [3H]-dihydroazadirachtin was investigated in the variegated cutworm, Peridroma saucia (Noctuidae). The candidate compound was rapidly cleared from the hemolymph following either oral exposure or topical administration, with maximum concentrations at 6 h post-treatment and peak appearance of label in the frass at 12 h. However, approximately 45 and 55% of the labelled material was retained in the body at 72 h in respective treatments. Major depots for retained radioactivity were the gut (24% of the administered oral dose, 18.8% of the administered topical dose) and integument (12.2% of the oral dose and 30.7% of the topical dose). The variation in tissue distribution of dihydroazadirachtin with respect to the mode of application is discussed. A single polar metabolite fraction was obtained from the frass of dihydroazadirachtin-fed larvae. The physiological and behavioral effects of 22,23-dihydroazadirachtin and azadirachtin are quantitatively similar. © 1994 Wiley-Liss, Inc.
    Additional Material: 5 Ill.
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