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  • 1
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Springer
    Instructional science 23 (1995), S. 351-380 
    ISSN: 1573-1952
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Education
    Notes: Abstract The role of natural language processing (NLP) techniques, such as parsing and semantic analysis, is described within current language tutoring systems. Significant trends are distinguished in the exploitation of these techniques, design issues and tradeoffs are examined, and current and potential contributions of NLP technology are discussed with respect to instructional theory and educational practice. Limitations and problems are addressed in using NLP tools for teaching, and approaches to assessment are considered.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 2
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    Unknown
    Milano: Fondazione Eni Enrico Mattei (FEEM)
    Publication Date: 2018-11-15
    Description: This paper analyses budget-constrained, nonpoint source (NPS) pollution control with costly information acquisition and learning. To overcome the inherent ill-posed statistical problem in NPS pollution data the sequential entropy filter is applied to the sediment load management program for Redwood Creek, which flows through Redwood National Park in northwestern California. We simulate the dynamic budget-constrained management model with informationacquisition and learning, and compare the results with those from the current policy. The analysis shows that the manager can reallocate resources from treatment effort to information acquisition, which in turn increases overall treatment effectiveness, and reduces sediment-related damage.
    Keywords: D61 ; D81 ; D83 ; Q28 ; ddc:330 ; Nonpoint Source Pollution ; pollution control budget ; information acquisition ; treatment effectiveness ; entropy ; Umweltschutz ; Informationsversorgung ; Entropie ; Theorie
    Language: English
    Type: doc-type:workingPaper
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  • 3
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    Unknown
    Amsterdam: Elsevier
    Publication Date: 2019-03-28
    Description: Despite the high likelihood of infection and substantial yield losses from trunk diseases, many California practitioners wait to adopt field-tested, preventative practices (delayed pruning, double pruning, and application of pruning-wound protectants) until after disease symptoms appear in the vineyard at around 10 years old. We evaluate net benefits from adoption of these practices before symptoms appear in young Cabernet Sauvignon vineyards and after they become apparent in mature vineyards to identify economic hurdles to early adoption. We simulate winegrape production in select counties of California and find widespread benefits from early adoption, increasing vineyard profitable lifespans, in some cases, by close to 50%. However, hurdles may result from uncertainty about the cost and returns from adoption, labor constraints, long time lags in benefits from early adoption, growers' perceived probabilities of infection, and their discount rate. Development of extension resources communicating benefits and potential hurdles to growers likely reduces uncertainty, increasing early adoption. Improvements in efficacy of preventative practices, perhaps by detecting when pathogen spores are released into the vineyard, will increase early adoption. Lastly, practice cost reductions will increase early adoption too, especially when the time it takes for adoption to payoff and infection uncertainty are influential in adoption decisions.
    Keywords: ddc:330 ; Early adoption ; Grapevine trunk diseases ; Plant-disease management ; Preventative practices
    Language: English
    Type: doc-type:article
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