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  • 1
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    [s.l.] : Nature Publishing Group
    Nature biotechnology 22 (2004), S. 529-531 
    ISSN: 1546-1696
    Source: Nature Archives 1869 - 2009
    Topics: Biology , Process Engineering, Biotechnology, Nutrition Technology
    Notes: [Auszug] The laboratory rat is the most widely used animal species for studying physiology, nutrition and metabolism. Last month, a large collaborative effort, the rat genome sequencing project consortium (RGSPC), succeeded in decoding the complete genome sequence of this higher eukaryotic species. With ...
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  • 2
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    New York, NY [u.a.] : Wiley-Blackwell
    ISSN: 1040-452X
    Keywords: Heat shock proteins ; Thermotolerance ; Temperature sensitivity ; Life and Medical Sciences ; Cell & Developmental Biology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: Eukaryotic and prokaryotic cells have been shown to respond to physical and chemical stress by the induction of proteins called heat shock proteins. Heat shock protein 70 (Hsp70), is the most ubiquitous of these proteins. Although heat shock proteins are generally thought to protect cells from physiologically stressful stimuli, it cannot be assumed that this is so, because several cases exist in which thermotolerance is acquired without the production of heat shock proteins, and in several other cases the hyperproduction of these heat shock proteins does not produce thermotolerance. In this study we show that unfertilized mouse oocytes are sensitive to elevated temperatures, and that the synthesis of Hsp70 cannot be induced in these oocytes. Furthermore, our data demonstrate that the expression of Hsp70 in mouse oocytes is sufficient for the acquisition of thermotolerance. Mouse oocytes were injected with mRNA for Hsp70, and the viability of these oocytes was determined after heating. The number of viable oocytes was significantly higher in the group injected with Hsp70 mRNA and then heated compared with oocytes injected with Hsp70 antisense mRNA and sham-injected controls treated in an identical manner. No significant differences in the number of viable oocytes were found between the group that had been injected with Hsp70 mRNA, heated, and then allowed to recover for 3 hr and the group maintained at 37°C throughout. This study demonstrates that the injection of Hsp70 mRNA into unfertilized mouse oocytes significantly enhances their thermotolerance, indicating that the thermolability of mouse oocytes is due to the lack of expression of Hsp70. This study provides direct evidence for the role of Hsp70 in the enhancement of thermotolerance of mammalian cells.
    Additional Material: 4 Ill.
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  • 3
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    New York, NY [u.a.] : Wiley-Blackwell
    ISSN: 1040-452X
    Keywords: Metaphase spreads ; Blastomeres ; Karyotyping ; Down syndrome ; Micromanipulation ; Mouse trysomy 16 ; Life and Medical Sciences ; Cell & Developmental Biology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: This paper describes an efficient technique for the production of metaphase spreads from single blastomeres biopsied from four-cell preimplantation mouse embryos. The karyotype obtained by chromosomal analysis of single biopsied cells is shown to be fully predictive of subsequent fetal karyotype. The data in this study also demonstrate that the entire process of embryo biopsy and karyotypic analysis of biopsied blastomeres does not adversely affect the ability of biopsied embryos to form fetuses after transfer into pseudopregnant recipients. This study has potential clinical relevance in that it demonstrates that chromosomally defective embryos can be accurately identified before implantation. In addition, the techniques developed in this study may facilitate more efficient procedures for the genesis of animal models for human disorders such as Down syndrome and Alzheimers disease.
    Additional Material: 3 Ill.
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  • 4
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    New York, NY [u.a.] : Wiley-Blackwell
    Molecular Reproduction and Development 39 (1994), S. 182-183 
    ISSN: 1040-452X
    Keywords: Life and Medical Sciences ; Cell & Developmental Biology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Biology
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  • 5
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    New York, NY [u.a.] : Wiley-Blackwell
    Molecular Reproduction and Development 39 (1994), S. 194-199 
    ISSN: 1040-452X
    Keywords: Pdha-2 Promoter ; Spermatogenesis ; Transcription factors ; MEP-BF ; Mouse ; Life and Medical Sciences ; Cell & Developmental Biology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: Precise temporal and tissue-specific expression of genes during spermatocyte differentiation is crucial for the formation of functional spermatozoa. However, the mechanisms that regulate gene expression during spermatogenesis are poorly understood. One testisspecific gene, Pdha-2, is beginning to emerge as a potentially important model for the study of these events. This review focuses on our current understanding of the expression and regulation of Pdha-2 during spermatogenesis. © 1994 Wiley-Liss, Inc.
    Additional Material: 3 Ill.
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  • 6
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    New York, NY [u.a.] : Wiley-Blackwell
    Molecular Reproduction and Development 39 (1994), S. 208-214 
    ISSN: 1040-452X
    Keywords: ETS ; Ets-1 ; Ets-2 ; DNA-binding domain ; Life and Medical Sciences ; Cell & Developmental Biology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: The ETS family of transcription factors have a DNA-binding domain in common that binds a core GGA(A/T) DNA sequence. A large number of proteins have now been identified that contain an ETS DNA-binding domain (see review by Wasylyk et al., 1993). Ets-1 was first described as the cellular homolog of v-ets, which is translated as a 135-kDa gag-myb - ets fusion protein from the replication-deficient retrovirus E26 in chickens. Ets-2 was subsequently described as a closely related protein that contains the highly conserved ETS DNA-binding domain. This paper considers the manner by which the two closely related genes, Ets-1 and Ets-2, apparently play distinct roles in embryo development and in the immune system of adult mice. Although both Ets-1 and Ets-2 transform fibroblasts (Seth et al., 1989), the temporal and tissue-specific expression patterns suggest that these two proteins play distinct biological roles and consequently transactivate different downstream cellular target genes. © 1994 Wiley-Liss, Inc.
    Additional Material: 3 Ill.
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  • 7
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    New York, NY [u.a.] : Wiley-Blackwell
    Molecular Reproduction and Development 39 (1994), S. 226-232 
    ISSN: 1040-452X
    Keywords: Interferons ; Development ; Differentiation ; Proliferation ; Gene regulation ; Transcription factors ; Life and Medical Sciences ; Cell & Developmental Biology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: There now appears to be evidence to support the view that the type I IFNs are naturally produced negative regulators of growth that also modify cell differentiation. Consistent with this, it appears that the ability to produce and respond to IFN is suppressed in early embryonic development when cell proliferation and differentiation are essential. In the later stages of fetal development, IFN production is de-repressed, and cells show increased sensitivity to IFN, which may be important in regulating cell proliferation and/or differentiation processes or the interaction between fetal and maternal tissues. Interestingly, the IFN system can also be suppressed in disease states such as the development of tumours or in the establishment of a (chronic) viral infection. Therefore, understanding the developmental regulation of the IFN system may be important to understanding and controlling the IFN system in disease. More extensive studies of the developmental stage and tissue-specific expression of type I IFNs and their receptors are necessary, as well as more direct in vivo experiments to further elucidate the role of the IFN system in reproduction and development. © 1994 Wiley-Liss, Inc.
    Additional Material: 2 Ill.
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  • 8
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Oxford, UK : Blackwell Publishing Ltd
    Birth 15 (1988), S. 0 
    ISSN: 1523-536X
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Medicine
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 9
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    [s.l.] : Nature Publishing Group
    Nature 379 (1996), S. 534-537 
    ISSN: 1476-4687
    Source: Nature Archives 1869 - 2009
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
    Notes: [Auszug] The constructs shown in Fig. 1 were used to generate three founder lines that overexpressed Ets2 (Fig. \b-d) and gave progeny with a characteristic phenotype (Fig. la). Ets2 transgenic mice had shortened snouts, abnormally shaped heads, shorter necks, and kyphosis (Fig. 2a). X-ray analysis showed ...
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  • 10
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    [s.l.] : Nature Publishing Group
    Nature genetics 16 (1997), S. 8-9 
    ISSN: 1546-1718
    Source: Nature Archives 1869 - 2009
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: [Auszug] Humans in general have long been curious about the basis of acquisition or development of traits such as learning, memory and behaviour, as testified by the ‘nature versus nurture’ debate. With increasingly sophisticated molecular tools, the scale of scrutiny has become more minute and ...
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