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  • 1
    Online Resource
    Online Resource
    Wiesbaden : Springer VS
    Part of " Bildung und Sport"
    Keywords: Sportunterricht ; Bildungstheorie ; Education ; Educational sociology ; Teaching ; Education and sociology ; Sociology, Educational ; Education ; Sociology of Education ; Teaching and Teacher Education ; Learning & Instruction ; Sportunterricht ; Bildungstheorie
    Type of Medium: Online Resource
    Pages: 1 Online-Ressource (XIII, 396 Seiten) , Illustrationen
    ISBN: 9783658170967
    Series Statement: Bildung und Sport Band 9
    DDC: 306.43
    Language: German
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  • 2
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    Bonn: Institute of Labor Economics (IZA)
    Publication Date: 2019-03-01
    Description: We document how explicit employer requests for applicants of a particular gender enter the recruitment process on a Chinese job board. We find that 95 percent of callbacks to gendered jobs are of the requested gender; worker self-selection ("compliance" with employers' requests) and employer callback decisions from applicant pools ("enforcement") both contribute to this association, with compliance playing the larger role. Explicit gender requests account for over half of the gender segregation and gender wage gap observed on the board. Ad-level regressions with job title and firm fixed effects suggest that employers' explicit gender requests have causal effects on the gender mix of applications received, especially when the employer's likely gender preference is hard to infer from other contents of the ad. Application-level regressions with job title and worker fixed effects show that both men and women experience a callback penalty when applying to a gender-mismatched job; this penalty is significantly greater for women (44 percent) than men (26 percent).
    Keywords: J16 ; J63 ; J71 ; ddc:330 ; gender ; discrimination ; China ; internet search ; recruiting ; screening
    Language: English
    Type: doc-type:workingPaper
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  • 3
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    Bonn: Institute for the Study of Labor (IZA)
    Publication Date: 2015-05-22
    Description: We consider the welfare effects of the emigration of workers who produce a public good (knowledge). We distinguish between the knowledge diversion and knowledge creation effects of such emigration, and show that the remaining residents of a country can gain from emigration, even when tastes for knowledge goods exhibit a kind of 'home bias'. In contrast to existing models of beneficial brain drain (BBD), our results do not require agglomeration economies, education-related externalities, remittances, return migration, or an emigration lottery. Instead, they are driven purely by the public nature of knowledge goods, combined with differences in market size that induce greater knowledge creation by emigrants abroad than at home. BBD is even more likely in the presence of weak sending-country intellectual property rights (IPRs), or when source country IPR policy is endogenized.
    Keywords: ddc:330
    Language: English
    Type: doc-type:workingPaper
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  • 4
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    Bonn: Institute for the Study of Labor (IZA)
    Publication Date: 2015-05-22
    Description: We consider the welfare effects of skilled worker emigration in a context where skilled labor plays a role in product design. We show such emigration can benefit the residents left behind, even when consumers' tastes exhibit a form of home bias. This is because emigration improves the design of goods designed by skilled emigrants but consumed in the sending country. In contrast to existing models of beneficial brain drain, our results do not require agglomeration economies, education-related externalities, remittances, return migration, or an emigration lottery. Instead, they are driven purely by differences in market size that induce skilled emigrants to design better products abroad than at home.
    Keywords: F22 ; ddc:330 ; Brain drain ; international labor migration ; product quality ; Brain Drain ; Produktdesign ; Produktqualität ; Import ; Konsumtheorie ; Wohlfahrtseffekt ; Theorie
    Language: English
    Type: doc-type:workingPaper
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  • 5
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    Bonn: Institute for the Study of Labor (IZA)
    Publication Date: 2015-05-22
    Description: Using data spanning a half century for adjacent jurisdictions in the U.S. and Canada, we study the long-term effects of a very generous unemployment insurance (UI) program on weeks worked. We find large effects. For example, in 1990, about 6 percent of employed men in Maine's northernmost counties worked fewer than 26 weeks per year; just across the border in New Brunswick that figure was over 20 percent. According to our estimates, New Brunswick's much more generous UI system accounts for about two thirds of this differential. Even greater effects are found among women and less-educated men. We argue that our longer-run, cross-national perspective generates more substantial estimates of program effects because it captures workers' abilities to make a wider variety of adjustments to programs they expect to be permanent.
    Keywords: J22 ; J64 ; ddc:330 ; unemployment insurance ; labor supply ; Canada ; income support
    Language: English
    Type: doc-type:workingPaper
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  • 6
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    Bonn: Institute for the Study of Labor (IZA)
    Publication Date: 2015-05-22
    Description: Using Census and Current Population Survey data spanning 1959 through 1999, we assess the relative contributions of two factors to the decline in the gender wage gap: changes across cohorts in the relative slopes of men's and women's age-earnings profiles, versus changes in relative earnings levels at labor market entry. We find that changes in relative slopes account for about one-third of the narrowing of the gender wage gap over the past 40 years. Under quite general conditions, we argue that this provides an upper bound estimate of the contribution of changes in work experience and other post-school investments (PSIs) to the decline of the gender wage gap.
    Keywords: J7 ; ddc:330 ; women ; United States ; experience ; wages ; Frauenarbeitslohn ; Lohndrift ; USA ; Frauenarbeitslohn ; Lohndrift ; USA ; Gleichberechtigung ; Geschlechterdiskriminierung
    Language: English
    Type: doc-type:workingPaper
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  • 7
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    Bonn: Institute for the Study of Labor (IZA)
    Publication Date: 2015-05-22
    Description: We study urban Chinese employers' preferences between workers with and without a local residence permit (hukou) using callback information from an Internet job board serving private sector employers. We find that employers prefer migrant workers to locals who are identically matched to the job's requirements; these preferences are especially strong at low skill levels. We argue that migrants' higher work hours and effort help to account for employers' preferences, and present evidence that efficiency wage and intertemporal labor substitution effects might explain these hours/effort gaps.
    Keywords: O15 ; R23 ; ddc:330 ; temporary migration ; China ; hukou ; undocumented migrants
    Language: English
    Type: doc-type:workingPaper
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  • 8
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    Bonn: Institute for the Study of Labor (IZA)
    Publication Date: 2015-05-22
    Description: After declining for most of the century, the share of employed American men regularly working more than 50 hours per week began to increase around 1970. This trend has been especially pronounced among highly educated, high-wage, salaried, and older men. Using two decades of CPS data, we rule out a number of factors, including business cycles, changes in observed labor force characteristics, and changes in the level of men's real hourly earnings as primary explanations of this trend. Instead we argue that increases in salaried men's marginal incentives to supply hours beyond 40 accounted for the recent rise. Since these increases were accompanied by a rough constancy in real earnings at 40 hours, they can be interpreted as a compensated wage increase.
    Keywords: J22 ; ddc:330 ; labor supply ; work hours ; Arbeitszeit ; Überstunden ; Angestellte ; USA
    Language: English
    Type: doc-type:workingPaper
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  • 9
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    Amsterdam and Rotterdam: Tinbergen Institute
    Publication Date: 2016-04-21
    Description: Each week, the Dutch Postcode Lottery (PCL) randomly selects a postal code, and distributes cash and a new BMWto lottery participants in that code. We study the effects of these shocks on lottery winners and their neighbors.Consistent with the life-cycle hypothesis, the effects on winners’ consumption are largely confined to cars and otherdurables. Consistent with the theory of in-kind transfers, the vast majority of BMW winners liquidate their BMWs.We do, however, detect substantial social effects of lottery winnings: PCL nonparticipants who live next door towinners have significantly higher levels of car consumption than other nonparticipants.
    Keywords: D12 ; C21 ; ddc:330 ; social interactions ; natural experiments ; Glücksspiel ; Wertzuwachssteuer ; Schock ; Konsumentenverhalten ; Zufriedenheit ; Wohnstandort ; Niederlande
    Language: English
    Type: doc-type:workingPaper
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  • 10
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    Bonn: Institute for the Study of Labor (IZA)
    Publication Date: 2016-06-03
    Description: When permitted by law, employers sometimes state the preferred age and sex of their employees in job ads. We study this practice using data from one Mexican and three Chinese job boards, showing that it is widely used to request both genders and is especially prevalent in jobs with low skill requirements. For example, on the job board serving less-skilled production and service workers in China, 72 percent of ads specified a preferred gender, and 77 percent listed both a minimum and maximum age. We also document a new stylized fact we call the age twist in gender profiling: firms' explicit gender requests shift dramatically away from women and towards men when firms are seeking older (as opposed to younger) workers. While some of this twist can be attributed to employers' age-dependent requests for (female) beauty and (male) leadership, the timing of the shift suggests that young women's movement into childbearing also plays a role.
    Keywords: J16 ; J63 ; J71 ; ddc:330 ; gender ; discrimination ; age ; China ; Mexico ; Internet ; beauty ; search ; recruiting ; screening
    Language: English
    Type: doc-type:workingPaper
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