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  • 1
    Online Resource
    Online Resource
    München : Verlag C.H. Beck
    Keywords: Markenrecht ; Deutschland ; Kommentar ; Deutschland 03.10.1990- ; Markenrecht
    Type of Medium: Online Resource
    Pages: 1 Online-Ressource
    Edition: 12. Edition, Stand: 01.01.2018
    Series Statement: Beck-online
    RVK:
    RVK:
    Language: German
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  • 2
    Online Resource
    Online Resource
    München : Verlag C.H. Beck
    Keywords: Markenrecht ; Deutschland ; Kommentar ; Deutschland 03.10.1990- ; Markenrecht
    Type of Medium: Online Resource
    Pages: 1 Online-Ressource
    Edition: 20. Edition, Stand: 01.01.2020
    Series Statement: Beck-online
    RVK:
    RVK:
    Language: German
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  • 3
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Springer
    Russian chemical bulletin 26 (1977), S. 968-972 
    ISSN: 1573-9171
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Notes: Conclusions 1. A study has been made of the mass spectra of13C-labeled 2-chloromethyl-, 2-hydroxymethyl-, and 2-methylnaphthalenes. Formation of C9H7 +ions from 2-methyl-, 2-chloromethyl-, and 2-hydroxymethylnaphthalenes is accompanied by the loss of the α-C and C atoms from both of the naphthalene rings, the first type of loss being increased, and the second reduced, by replacing the CH3 group H by a chlorine atom or hydroxy group. 2. Formation of C10Hg9 + ions in the mass spectrum of 2-hydroxymethylnaphthalene differs from the formation of C9H7 + ions insofar as it arises from processes of selective α -C atom loss which do not affect the naphthalene ring C atoms in any way.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 4
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Springer
    Molecular genetics and genomics 221 (1990), S. 411-420 
    ISSN: 1617-4623
    Keywords: Integration host factor ; IHF binding to ihf ; Phage λ late promoter p′R ; Repression of transcription ; Gel retardation assay
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: Summary A limited number of deletion/insertions and a point mutation in the −35 region of the p′R promoter of phage λ were examined and found to influence both transcription and its repression by the integration host factor (IHF). Positive effects on transcription (in the absence of IHF) are small (up to 1.4-fold) and are caused by a deletion-substitution upstream of the −35/ihf site. Up to three base changes in the −35 promoter element seem to be tolerated, with only a small negative effect on transcription. In some cases, effective transcription requires supercoiling of such mutant template. Since an ihf sequence overlaps the −35 region of p′R, IHF represses transcription. Repression is correlated with IHF binding and consequent DNA bending, as assessed by gel retardation experiments. Nine p′R mutants were tested for their IHF binding and repression; the results confirm the consensus sequence, 5′-W2 WWWWN7 WWWWCARNWN2 TTR derived from the hydroxyl radical footprinting, where the bold letters indicate the IHF-protected bases and W is A or T, R is A or G and N represents A, T, G or C. Perhaps surprisingly, some mutations just upstream or downstream of this ihf sequence also affect IHF binding, as observed not only for the p′R/ihf but also for the att H′ site of λ. Supercoiling in some cases permits the IHF-mediated repression to be overcome, probably by increasing the RNA polymerase binding and/or decreasing the interaction with IHF. All our data are consistent with a model which assumes that IHF initially binds to one or two ihf contact points depending on preexisting DNA topology, bends DNA, and completes the remaining contacts while finally adjusting the DNA conformation to establish the best fit within the minor groove of the double helix. Effective IHF repression of transcription would thus depend on several factors, including: (1) the sequence, and (2) the initial conformation of the ihf site, together with (3) the capacity of IHF to compete with RNA polymerase for the overlapping binding sites.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 5
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Springer
    Journal of consumer policy 5 (1981), S. 88-100 
    ISSN: 1573-0700
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Economics
    Description / Table of Contents: Abstract The present article deals with the results of a study on “litigation value” and the costs of unfair competition litigation. In German procedural law, “litigation value” is the sum representing the value of the plaintiff's interests involved in the case, or — if it is not a personal interest, but, as is the case with claims made by consumer associations, rather a general one — the public interest involved in the claim as expressed in monetary value. This value determines the magnitude of the costs (court costs and lawyer fees) that the losing party has to pay. According to the prevailing opinion, litigation value in unfair competition litigation is usually very high, compared with normal litigation in civil cases. By gathering the data of more than 3000 cases, the study was able to verify this impression. For consumer associations, which, according to § 13 sec. 1 a UWG, have the right to act as a plaintiff in cases of special interest for consumers, this means that the costs of losing a case, even one of average importance, can be ruinous. Courts have, however, the possibility to “split up” the litigation value, that is, fix a low sum as litigation value regarding the “poor party” (which in this case would be the consumer association), while the normal value remains valid for the other party. The main effect of the splitting-up is that the poor party, if the case should be lost, only has to pay both court costs and lawyer's fees according to the “low” value, while the other party, even if he won the case, has to pay the difference. As the study reveals, this regulation meets with varying degrees of approval from the courts' side; some courts seem to be fairly restrictive in handling it. Due to this, consumer associations cannot know beforehand if they will be granted the benefit of “value-splitting,” and thus have to refrain from any further procedural activities if they do not feel able to take the full risk — this effect, of course, from the consumer's point of view, is a very unfavourable one. On the other hand, it is argued that the obligation to bear part of the costs will place an unfair burden on the “innocent” winner. However, an enumeration of those cases in which one important consumer association, the Verbraucherschutzverein in Berlin, had to take advantage of the above mentioned litigation value assessment, shows that the effect for the opponent has not been as damaging as could have been expected.
    Notes: Zusammenfassung Der Beitrag berichtet über die Ergebnisse einer rechtstatsächlichen Untersuchung über Streitwert und Kosten in Verfahren wegen unlauteren Wettbewerbs, die vom Max-Planck-Institut für ausländisches und internationales Wettbewerbsrecht, München, durchgeführt wurde. Bei der Bestandsaufnahme von Streitwerten in Verfahren wegen unlauteren Wettbewerbs in über 3000 einschlägigen Fällen bestätigte sich der allgemein vorherrschende Eindruck, daß die Streitwerte in Wettbewerbssachen im Vergleich zu den «normalen» Zivilverfahren außerordentlich hoch sind. Für die gem. 13 Abs. 1 a UWK klagebefugten Verbrauchervereine folgt daraus, daß die Kostenbelastung bei einem Unterliegen im Prozeß schon bei durchschnittlicher Streitwerthöhe zu einem ernsten Problem werden kann. Die Einstellung der Gerichte zur Gewährung der Streitwertbegünstigung gem. § 23 a UWG ist uneinheitlich; von einigen Gerichten wird in dieser Hinsicht eine sehr restriktive Auffassung vertreten. Eine Auswertung der im Verlauf der Untersuchung bekanntgewordenen Fälle, in denen der Verbraucherschutzverein in Berlin von der ihm gewährten Streitwertbegünstigung wegen Unterliegens in der Sache Gebrauch machen mußte, hat ergeben, daß die Belastung der gewerblichen Wirtschaft weder nach ihrem Umfang noch den sachlichen Umständen ihrer Realisierung nach als unbillig oder gar unzumutbar angesehen werden kann.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 6
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Bradford : Emerald
    Management development review 9 (1996), S. 25-35 
    ISSN: 0962-2519
    Source: Emerald Fulltext Archive Database 1994-2005
    Topics: Economics
    Notes: Presents the faces model, a new model of team development which describes teams using five common patterns, called "faces". The model assumes that teams wear one face, then move to wearing another in a somewhat random order, unless members proactively drive their teams to wear a face or engage in a pattern which they believe is more desirable than the others. Describes the "performance" face in detail, since it is the most desirable pattern for most teams in organizations. Also describes approaches for moving typical teams from each of the other faces to the performance face. Takes issue with many popular development models which describe most groups as moving through a specific sequence of patterns.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 7
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Bingley : Emerald
    ISSN: 0143-7739
    Source: Emerald Fulltext Archive Database 1994-2005
    Topics: Economics
    Notes: Presents the faces model, a new model of team development which describes teams using five common patterns, called "faces". The model assumes that teams wear one face, then move to wearing another in a somewhat random order, unless members proactively drive their teams to wear a face or engage in a pattern which they believe is more desirable than the others. Describes the "performance" face in detail, since it is the most desirable pattern for most teams in organizations. Also describes approaches for moving typical teams from each of the other faces to the performance face. Takes issue with many popular development models which describe most groups as moving through a specific sequence of patterns.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 8
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Amsterdam : Elsevier
    FEBS Letters 139 (1982), S. 97-100 
    ISSN: 0014-5793
    Source: Elsevier Journal Backfiles on ScienceDirect 1907 - 2002
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Physics
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 9
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Amsterdam : Elsevier
    Gene 81 (1989), S. 1-15 
    ISSN: 0378-1119
    Keywords: DNA bending ; E. coli ; Recombinant DNA ; deletions ; footprinting ; gel retardation ; plasmids ; substitution
    Source: Elsevier Journal Backfiles on ScienceDirect 1907 - 2002
    Topics: Biology
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 10
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Amsterdam : Elsevier
    Gene 110 (1992), S. 1-7 
    ISSN: 0378-1119
    Keywords: (Methyltransferases ; DNA-binding protein ; Dam ; EcoRI ; HinfO ; pulsed-field gel electrophoresis ; recombinant DNA)
    Source: Elsevier Journal Backfiles on ScienceDirect 1907 - 2002
    Topics: Biology
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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