Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
Abstract The proventriculus constitutes the glandular region of the chicken stomach. This organ is innervated by two parasympathetic networks, the myenteric and submucous plexus, and here we present a systematic study of this system by immunohistochemistry and electron microscopy. All the neurons and fibres were positive for the neural markers, protein gene product 9.5 and the amidating enzymes. Immunoreactivities for the constitutive neuronal isoform of the enzyme nitric oxide synthase and the vasoactive intestinal peptide were present in neuronal bodies suggesting an intrinsic origin for the similarly immunoreactive fibres found in the proventriculus. On the other hand, immunoreactivity to gastric inhibitory peptide was only found in varicose fibres making contact with the blood vessels and the glandular epithelium, but never in the neuronal somas, suggesting that this substance may be provided by an extrinsic nervous system whose neuronal bodies are located elsewhere. Electron microscopy revealed frequent neuromuscular and neuroepithelial connections in the muscle layers, the wall of the blood vessels and the epithelium. In addition, synapsis-like structures were identified in the proximity of cells belonging to the diffuse endocrine system, providing a new example of neuroendocrine contacts. No positivity was found for antibodies against other neural substances including somatostatin, peptide histidine–isoleucine, peptide tyrosine–tyrosine, neuropeptide tyrosine, bombesin, met-enkephalin, serotonin, substance P, galanin, calcitonin gene-related peptide and S-100 protein.
Type of Medium: