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  • 1
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Springer
    Anatomy and embryology 197 (1998), S. 143-153 
    ISSN: 1432-0568
    Keywords: Key words Renal development ; Renal interstitium ; Ecto-5′nucleotidase ; Alpha-smooth muscle actin ; Vimentin
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Abstract  The stromal cells in the renal cortex and medulla of adult rats reveal different phenotypes. Cortical peritubular fibroblasts are ecto-5′nucleotidase (5′NT)-positive and lack alpha-smooth muscle actin (αSMA) and vimentin immunoreactivity, whereas medullary fibroblasts are 5′NT-negative and vimentin-positive. We have studied by immunohistochemistry the postnatal (neonatal up to 8 weeks) development of renal cortical stromal cells with respect to 5′NT and to the cytoskeletal proteins αSMA and vimentin. Both αSMA and vimentin are characteristic for the renal myofibroblasts that replace stromal fibroblasts in interstitial nephritis. In new-born and 1-week-old rats, stromal cells in the cortex and medulla display αSMA and vimentin, but lack 5′NT. During the second postnatal week, αSMA and vimentin immunoreactivity in cortical interstitial cells gradually declines, whereas 5′NT reactivity becomes progressively apparent between the convoluted tubules in the juxtamedullary labyrinth. For a short time, all three proteins are found to be coexpressed in the same cells. At the end of the third week, interstitial 5′NT-immunoreactivity becomes evident also in the superficial cortical labyrinth, and αSMA and vimentin are no longer detectable in cortical peritubular cells. From the fourth week on, the distribution pattern and phenotype of 5′NT-positive cortical fibroblasts correspond to that in adult rats. The temporal pattern of maturation of cortical peritubular fibroblasts seems to parallel the functional maturation of cortical tubules. It is suggested that the local phenotype of peritubular fibroblasts in healthy and possibly also in injured kidneys may be controlled, at least in part, by the local tubular environment, conditioned by tubular metabolism and function.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 2
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Springer
    Anatomy and embryology 193 (1996), S. 303-318 
    ISSN: 1432-0568
    Keywords: Fibroblasts ; Dendritic cells ; Ecto-5′-nucleotidase ; MHC class II
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Abstract Renal interstitial cells play an important role in renal function and renal diseases. We describe the morphology of renal interstitial cells in the healthy kidney. We distinguish within the renal interstitium (1) renal fibroblasts and (2) cells of the immune system. Fibroblasts are in the majority and constitute the scaffold of the kidney; they are interconnected by junctions, and are attached to tubules and vessels. Although the phenotype of fibroblasts shows some variation depending on their location in the kidney and on their functional stage, their recognition as fibroblasts is possible on account of structural features. Among the cell types of the second group, antigen-presenting dendritic cells are the most abundant in in the peritubular interstitial spaces of healthy kidneys. Their incidence is highest in the inner stripe of the outer medulla. They share some morphological features with fibroblasts but lack others — junctional complexes, morphologically defined connections with tubules and vessels, and the prominent layer of actin filaments under the plasma membrane — that are characteristic for fibroblasts. Dendritic cells in healthy kidneys are morphologically different from macrophages, which are characterized by abundant primary and secondary lysosomes. In healthy kidneys macrophages are restricted to the connective tissue of the renal capsule and the pelvic wall, and to the periarterial connective tissue. Lymphocytes are rare in healthy kidneys. The distinction of cell types by morphology is supported by differences of membrane proteins. Among all interstitial cells in the renal cortex, fibroblasts alone exhibit ecto-5′-nucleotidase. Dendritic cells constitutively have a high abundance of MHC class II protein. Both proteins are mutually exclusive. Rat macrophages display the membrane antigen ED 2 and lymphocytes exhibit specific surface antigens, depending on their type and functional stage, e.g., CD4 or CD8.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 3
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Palo Alto, Calif. : Annual Reviews
    Annual Review of Physiology 68 (2006), S. 461-490 
    ISSN: 0066-4278
    Source: Annual Reviews Electronic Back Volume Collection 1932-2001ff
    Topics: Medicine , Biology
    Notes: The serum/glucocorticoid-induced kinase Sgk1 plays an important role in the regulation of epithelial ion transport. This kinase is very rapidly regulated at the transcriptional level as well as via posttranslational modifications involving phosphorylation by the MAP or PI-3 kinase pathways and/or ubiquitylation. Although Sgk1 is a cell survival kinase, its primary role likely concerns the regulation of epithelial ion transport, as suggested by the phenotype of Sgk1-null mice, which display a defect in Na+ homeostasis owing to disturbed renal tubular Na+ handling. In this review we first discuss the molecular, cellular, and regulatory aspects of Sgk1 and its paralogs. We then discuss its roles in the physiology and pathophysiology of epithelial ion transport.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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