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  • 1
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    BMJ Publishing
    In: BMJ Open
    Publication Date: 2015-11-08
    Description: Introduction Clinical prediction rules have been validated and widely used in patients with atrial fibrillation (AF) to predict stroke and major bleeding. However, these prediction rules were not developed in the same population, and do not provide the key information that patients and prescribers need at the time anticoagulants are being considered—what is the individual patient-specific risk of both benefit (decreased stroke) and harm (increased major bleeding). In this study, our primary objective is to develop and validate a prediction model for patients’ individual combined benefit and harm outcomes (stroke, major bleeding and neither event) with and without warfarin therapy. Our secondary outcome is all-cause mortality. Methods and analysis We will use data from the Kaiser Permanente Colorado (KPCO) anticoagulation management databases and electronic medical records. Patients with a primary or secondary diagnosis during an ambulatory KPCO medical office visit, emergency department visit, or inpatient stay between 1 January 2005 and 31 December 2012 with no AF diagnosis in the previous 180 days will be included. Patients’ demographic characteristics, laboratory data, comorbidities, warfarin medication data and concurrent use of medication will be used to construct the prediction model. For primary outcomes (stroke with no major bleeding, and major bleeding with no stroke), we will perform polytomous logistic regression to develop a prediction model for patients’ individual combined benefit and harm outcomes, taking neither event group as the reference group. As regards death, we will use Cox proportional hazards regression analysis to build a prediction model for all-cause mortality. Ethics and dissemination This study has been approved by the KPCO Institutional Review Board and the Hamilton Integrated Research Ethics Board. Results from this study will be published in a peer-reviewed journal electronically and in print. The prediction models may aid in patient-physician shared decision-making when they are considering warfarin therapy.
    Keywords: Open access, Cardiovascular medicine, Epidemiology, Pharmacology and therapeutics, Public health
    Electronic ISSN: 2044-6055
    Topics: Medicine
    Published by BMJ Publishing
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  • 2
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    Nature Publishing Group (NPG)
    Publication Date: 2017-11-18
    Description: Müller glial microRNAs are required for the maintenance of glial homeostasis and retinal architecture Müller glial microRNAs are required for the maintenance of glial homeostasis and retinal architecture, Published online: 17 November 2017; doi:10.1038/s41467-017-01624-y Müller glia are a type of retinal glial cell important for maintaining retinal structure and implicated in response to retinal damage. Here the authors identify Brevican, a chondroitin sulfate proteoglycan, as a microRNA-modulated regulator of Müller glia function.
    Electronic ISSN: 2041-1723
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
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  • 3
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    Nature Publishing Group (NPG)
    In: Nature
    Publication Date: 2017-06-01
    Description: Beyond pairwise mechanisms of species coexistence in complex communities Nature 546, 7656 (2017). doi:10.1038/nature22898 Authors: Jonathan M. Levine, Jordi Bascompte, Peter B. Adler & Stefano Allesina The tremendous diversity of species in ecological communities has motivated a century of research into the mechanisms that maintain biodiversity. However, much of this work examines the coexistence of just pairs of competitors. This approach ignores those mechanisms of coexistence that emerge only in diverse
    Print ISSN: 0028-0836
    Electronic ISSN: 1476-4687
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
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  • 4
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    BioMed Central
    Publication Date: 2016-06-11
    Description: Canine intervertebral disc πherniation causes a naturally-occurring spinal cord injury (SCI) that bears critical similarities to human SCI with respect to both injury pathomechanisms and treatment. As such, it...
    Electronic ISSN: 1471-2202
    Topics: Medicine
    Published by BioMed Central
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  • 5
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    Oxford University Press
    Publication Date: 2016-02-20
    Description: The transcription start site (TSS) determines the length and composition of the 5' UTR and therefore can have a profound effect on translation. Yet, little is known about the mechanism underlying start site selection, particularly from promoters lacking conventional core elements such as TATA-box and Initiator. Here we report a novel mechanism of start site selection in the TATA- and Initiator-less promoter of miR-22, through a strictly localized downstream element termed DTIE and an upstream distal element. Changing the distance between them reduced promoter strength, altered TSS selection and diminished Pol II recruitment. Biochemical assays suggest that DTIE does not serve as a docking site for TFIID, the major core promoter-binding factor. TFIID is recruited to the promoter through DTIE but is dispensable for TSS selection. We determined DTIE consensus and found it to be remarkably prevalent, present at the same TSS downstream location in 20.8% of human promoters, the vast majority of which are TATA-less. Analysis of DTIE in the tumor suppressor p53 confirmed a similar function. Our findings reveal a novel mechanism of transcription initiation from TATA-less promoters.
    Print ISSN: 0305-1048
    Electronic ISSN: 1362-4962
    Topics: Biology
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  • 6
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    Nature Publishing Group (NPG)
    Publication Date: 2014-02-12
    Description: Article The direct detection of metabolites secreted by cells can indicate how cellular dynamics affects population development. Here, the authors present an integrated circuit-based method for electrochemical imaging of redox-active signalling molecules with spatial resolution within bacterial colonies. Nature Communications doi: 10.1038/ncomms4256 Authors: Daniel L. Bellin, Hassan Sakhtah, Jacob K. Rosenstein, Peter M. Levine, Jordan Thimot, Kevin Emmett, Lars E. P. Dietrich, Kenneth L. Shepard
    Electronic ISSN: 2041-1723
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
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  • 7
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    Nature Publishing Group (NPG)
    Publication Date: 2012-11-09
    Description: Neural crest arises at the neural plate border, expresses a core set of regulatory genes and produces a diverse array of cell types, including ectomesenchyme derivatives that elaborate the vertebrate head. The evolution of neural crest has been proposed to be a key event leading to the appearance of new cell types that fostered the transition from filter feeding to active predation in ancestral vertebrates. However, the origin of neural crest remains controversial, as homologous cell types have not been unambiguously identified in non-vertebrate chordates. Here we show that the tunicate Ciona intestinalis possesses a cephalic melanocyte lineage (a9.49) similar to neural crest that can be reprogrammed into migrating 'ectomesenchyme' by the targeted misexpression of Twist (also known as twist-like 2). Our results suggest that the neural crest melanocyte regulatory network pre-dated the divergence of tunicates and vertebrates. We propose that the co-option of mesenchyme determinants, such as Twist, into the neural plate ectoderm was crucial to the emergence of the vertebrate 'new head'.〈br /〉〈br /〉〈a href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4257486/" target="_blank"〉〈img src="https://static.pubmed.gov/portal/portal3rc.fcgi/4089621/img/3977009" border="0"〉〈/a〉   〈a href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4257486/" target="_blank"〉This paper as free author manuscript - peer-reviewed and accepted for publication〈/a〉〈br /〉〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Abitua, Philip Barron -- Wagner, Eileen -- Navarrete, Ignacio A -- Levine, Michael -- NS 076542/NS/NINDS NIH HHS/ -- R01 NS076542/NS/NINDS NIH HHS/ -- England -- Nature. 2012 Dec 6;492(7427):104-7. doi: 10.1038/nature11589. Epub 2012 Nov 7.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉Center for Integrative Genomics, Division of Genetics, Genomics and Development, Department of Molecular and Cell Biology, University of California, Berkeley, California 94720, USA.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23135395" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Animals ; Cell Lineage ; Cell Movement ; Ciona intestinalis/*anatomy & histology/cytology/*embryology/genetics ; Forkhead Transcription Factors/genetics/metabolism ; Gastrulation ; Gene Expression Profiling ; Gene Expression Regulation, Developmental ; Limb Buds/embryology/metabolism ; Microphthalmia-Associated Transcription Factor/antagonists & ; inhibitors/genetics/metabolism ; Neural Crest/cytology/*embryology/metabolism ; Neural Plate/cytology/embryology/metabolism ; Phylogeny ; Twist Transcription Factor/genetics/metabolism ; Wnt Signaling Pathway
    Print ISSN: 0028-0836
    Electronic ISSN: 1476-4687
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
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  • 8
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    Nature Publishing Group (NPG)
    Publication Date: 2015-09-17
    Description: Understanding how species respond to climate change is critical for forecasting the future dynamics and distribution of pests, diseases and biological diversity. Although ecologists have long acknowledged species' direct physiological and demographic responses to climate, more recent work suggests that these direct responses can be overwhelmed by indirect effects mediated via other interacting community members. Theory suggests that some of the most dramatic impacts of community change will probably arise through the assembly of novel species combinations after asynchronous migrations with climate. Empirical tests of this prediction are rare, as existing work focuses on the effects of changing interactions between competitors that co-occur today. To explore how species' responses to climate warming depend on how their competitors migrate to track climate, we transplanted alpine plant species and intact plant communities along a climate gradient in the Swiss Alps. Here we show that when alpine plants were transplanted to warmer climates to simulate a migration failure, their performance was strongly reduced by novel competitors that could migrate upwards from lower elevation; these effects generally exceeded the impact of warming on competition with current competitors. In contrast, when we grew the focal plants under their current climate to simulate climate tracking, a shift in the competitive environment to novel high-elevation competitors had little to no effect. This asymmetry in the importance of changing competitor identity at the leading versus trailing range edges is best explained by the degree of functional similarity between current and novel competitors. We conclude that accounting for novel competitive interactions may be essential to predict species' responses to climate change accurately.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Alexander, Jake M -- Diez, Jeffrey M -- Levine, Jonathan M -- England -- Nature. 2015 Sep 24;525(7570):515-8. doi: 10.1038/nature14952. Epub 2015 Sep 16.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉Institute of Integrative Biology, ETH Zurich, Universitatstrasse 16, 8092 Zurich, Switzerland. ; Department of Botany and Plant Sciences, University of California Riverside, 900 University Avenue, Riverside, California 92521, USA.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26374998" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: *Altitude ; *Ecosystem ; *Global Warming ; *Plant Physiological Phenomena ; Switzerland ; *Temperature
    Print ISSN: 0028-0836
    Electronic ISSN: 1476-4687
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
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  • 9
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    American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS)
    Publication Date: 2014-07-19
    Description: 〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Levine, Michael -- New York, N.Y. -- Science. 2014 Jul 18;345(6194):277. doi: 10.1126/science.1258143.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉Department of Molecular and Cell Biology, Center for Integrative Genomics, University of California, Berkeley, Berkeley, CA 94720-3200, USA. mlevine@berkeley.edu.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25035479" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Animals ; Developmental Biology/*history ; Drosophila melanogaster ; History, 20th Century ; History, 21st Century ; Switzerland
    Print ISSN: 0036-8075
    Electronic ISSN: 1095-9203
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Computer Science , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
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  • 10
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    MDPI Publishing
    Publication Date: 2018-08-11
    Description: Sustainability, Vol. 10, Pages 2840: Sustainable Waste Tire Derived Carbon Material as a Potential Anode for Lithium-Ion Batteries Sustainability doi: 10.3390/su10082840 Authors: Joseph S. Gnanaraj Richard J. Lee Alan M. Levine Jonathan L. Wistrom Skyler L. Wistrom Yunchao Li Jianlin Li Kokouvi Akato Amit K. Naskar M. Parans Paranthaman The rapidly growing automobile industry increases the accumulation of end-of-life tires each year throughout the world. Waste tires lead to increased environmental issues and lasting resource problems. Recycling hazardous wastes to produce value-added products is becoming essential for the sustainable progress of society. A patented sulfonation process followed by pyrolysis at 1100 °C in a nitrogen atmosphere was used to produce carbon material from these tires and utilized as an anode in lithium-ion batteries. The combustion of the volatiles released in waste tire pyrolysis produces lower fossil CO2 emissions per unit of energy (136.51 gCO2/kW·h) compared to other conventional fossil fuels such as coal or fuel–oil, usually used in power generation. The strategy used in this research may be applied to other rechargeable batteries, supercapacitors, catalysts, and other electrochemical devices. The Raman vibrational spectra observed on these carbons show a graphitic carbon with significant disorder structure. Further, structural studies reveal a unique disordered carbon nanostructure with a higher interlayer distance of 4.5 Å compared to 3.43 Å in the commercial graphite. The carbon material derived from tires was used as an anode in lithium-ion batteries exhibited a reversible capacity of 360 mAh/g at C/3. However, the reversible capacity increased to 432 mAh/g at C/10 when this carbon particle was coated with a thin layer of carbon. A novel strategy of prelithiation applied for improving the first cycle efficiency to 94% is also presented.
    Electronic ISSN: 2071-1050
    Topics: Energy, Environment Protection, Nuclear Power Engineering
    Published by MDPI Publishing
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