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  • 1
    Online Resource
    Online Resource
    Berlin, Heidelberg : Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg
    Keywords: Allergy ; Dermatology ; Family medicine ; Internal medicine ; Nursing
    Type of Medium: Online Resource
    Pages: 1 Online-Ressource
    ISBN: 9783540009030
    Language: English
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  • 2
    Online Resource
    Online Resource
    Berlin, Heidelberg : Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg
    Keywords: Dermatology ; Emerging infectious diseases ; Geriatrics ; Internal medicine ; Surgery
    Type of Medium: Online Resource
    Pages: 1 Online-Ressource
    ISBN: 9783540212751
    Language: English
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  • 3
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Springer
    Archives of toxicology 67 (1993), S. 85-91 
    ISSN: 1432-0738
    Keywords: Atrazine ; Percutaneous absorption ; Distribution ; Metabolism (human skin) ; Polar metabolites
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Abstract Atrazine is an extensively used herbicide in the USA. Our objective was to determine the absorption and metabolism (detoxification) of atrazine in human skin. Percutaneous absorption of atrazine in human skin from four sources was examined utilizing a flow-through in-vitro diffusion system. About 16.4% of the applied dose was absorbed by the skin. Radioactivity in the receptor fluid at 20 h was less than 5% of the administered dose. The highest concentration of the applied dose was found in the skin supernates, where 12.0% of the dose (68 nmol) was recovered. Some metabolites of atrazine were identified by thin layer and high pressure liquid chromatography after extraction of receptor fluid and the skin supernates. Two metabolites of atrazine [2-chloro-4-ethylamino-6-amino-striazine (desisopropylatrazine) and 2-chloro-4,6-diamino-s-triazine] were found in the receptor fluid and the skin supernates. An additional metabolite (2-chloro-4-amino-6-isopropylamino-s-triazine) was found in the skin supernates. Since desisopropylatrazine represented about 50% of the total metabolites formed during percutaneous absorption, cleavage of the N-isopropyl to the amino product was a key step in the metabolism of atrazine. Further metabolism may proceed by cleavage of the N-deethyl group to give totally dealkylated atrazine. The biotransformation of atrazine was studied in skin microsomal fraction supplemented with an NADPH-generating system. In analogy to metabolism during percutaneous absorption, atrazine was metabolized to its deisopropyl and deethylpropyl derivatives. In addition, 2-hydroxy derivatives of atrazine were formed by the skin microsomal fractions. The biotransformation of atrazine by skin microsomal enzymes indicates the metabolic capacity of the tissue. Cutaneous metabolism of atrazine may be an additional route by which human skin detoxifies the pesticide following topical exposure.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 4
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Springer
    Archives of dermatological research 267 (1980), S. 229-235 
    ISSN: 1432-069X
    Keywords: Percutaneous Absorption ; Regional ; Repetitive Application ; Percutane Absorption ; Lokalisation ; wiederholte Anwendung
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Description / Table of Contents: Zusammenfassung Bei dieser Untersuchung wurde der Einfluß verschiedener anatomischer Bereiche auf die percutane Absorption bestimmt, wobei der Rhesusaffe als ein Tiermodell mit einigen Beziehungen zum Menschen verwendet wurde. Für die percutane Absorption von Testosteron (13.3 μg/cm2) vom ventralen Unterarm wurde ein Wert von 8,8±2,5% gefunden. Von der Brust war die Aufnahme etwas niedriger (5,3±0,6%), während sie von der Wange etwa dasselbe betrug (9,6±0.2%). Die Absorption von der Kopfhaut war bedeutend erhöht (20,4±2,7%) und von der Vagina erreichte sie ihr Maximum (63,1±2,6%). Es bestehen also anatomische Unterschiede bei der Hautabsorption von Rhesusaffen, so wie man sie schon früher beim Menschen beobachtete. Das Absorptionsverhältnis Kopfhaut/ventraler Unterarm war beim Rhesus ähnlich wie bei Menschen. Die nächste Aufgabe bestand darin, die perkutane Testosteronabsorption nach einzelnen bzw. wiederholten Behandlungen zu bestimmen Es ergab sich kein wesentlicher Unterschied der Gesamtabsorption ob 13,3 μg/cm2 einmal oder dreimal bis zu einer Gesamtmenge von 40 μg/cm2 stieg die Absorption jedoch bedeutend über die, welche nach einmaliger oder wiederholter Anwendung von 13,3 μg/cm2 gefunden wurde. Diese Resultate bestätigen frühere Beobachtungen nach einzelnen bzw. wiederholten Behandlungen mit Hydrocortison.
    Notes: Summary This study determines if the anatomic region affected percutaneous absorption in the rhesus monkey, an animal model with some relevance to man. Percutaneous absorption of testosterone (13.3 μ g/cm2) from the ventral forearm was 8.8±2.5%. Absorption from the chest was slightly less (5.3 ±0.6%) while that from the cheek was about the same (9.6±0.2%). Absorption from the scalp was greatly increased (20.4±2.7%), that from the vagina was the greatest (63.1±2.6%). As previously noted in man, anatomic variation in skin absorption exists in the rhesus. The ratio of scalp absorption to ventral forearm absorption in the rhesus was similar to that in man. The next objective was to determine the percutaneous absorption of testosterone when applied as a single dose or on a repetitive basis. There was no substantial difference in total absorption when 13.3 μg/cm2 was applied as a single dose or when the 13.3 μg/cm2 was applied three times, totaling 40 μg/cm2. However, when 40 μg/cm2 was applied as a single dose, absorption was substantially increased over 13.3 μg/cm2 applied either once or three times. These results confirm previously reported results done with single versus repetitive doses of hydrocortisone.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 5
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Springer
    Archives of dermatological research 267 (1980), S. 313-316 
    ISSN: 1432-069X
    Keywords: Percutaneous penetration ; Vulva ; Hydrocortisone in man ; Pharmacokinetics ; Percutane Penetration ; Vulva ; Hydrocortison beim Menschen ; Pharmakokinetik
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Description / Table of Contents: Zusammenfassung Die percutane Penetration von 14C Hydrocortison durch die normale Haut der Vulva (Labia majora) wurde bei sechs Probanden gemessen und mit den Verhältnissen auf der Beugeseite des Oberarmes verglichen. Vom lokal aufgetragenen Hydrocortison penetrieren 7,7% die Vulva, demgegenüber ist die Penetrationsrate am Unterarm 1,3%. Diese regionale Variation der percutanen Penetration dürfte von toxikologischer und therapeutischer Bedeutung sein.
    Notes: Summary Percutaneous penetration of 14C hydrocortisone through normal vulvar skin (labia majora) was measured in six subjects and compared with that of the forearm. Of the topically applied hydrocortisone 7.7% penetrated vulvar skin whereas 1.3% penetrated forearm skin. This regional variation of pecutaneous penetration may have toxicologic and therapeutic significance.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 6
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Springer
    Archives of dermatological research 272 (1982), S. 191-191 
    ISSN: 1432-069X
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 7
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Springer
    Archives of dermatological research 272 (1982), S. 351-362 
    ISSN: 1432-069X
    Keywords: Sebum production ; Skin surface lipids ; Sebaceous glands ; Lipid replacement ; Talgproduktion ; Sebum ; Lipid der Talgdrüsen ; Hautoberflächenlipide ; Talgexkretionsrate ; Talgsekretionsrate
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Description / Table of Contents: Zusammenfassung Oberflächenlipide von der Stirnhaut wurden mittels eines Lösungsmittelextraktionssystems und eines kolorimetrischen Verfahrens analysiert. Wiederholte Messungen zu verschiedenen Zeitpunkten wurden gemacht, um die Talgdrüsenleistung zu bestimmen. Die Untersuchungsergebnisse deuten darauf hin, daß häufigere Hautoberflächenlipidgewinnung zu einer größeren Nachschubmenge des Lipids (lipid replacement) führt. Die zunehmende Lipidmenge, die der häufigeren Entnahme folgt, ist nicht linear korreliert. Ebenso zeigt die Lipidmenge mit der Zeit eine allmähliche Abnahme. Diese Untersuchungen lassen darauf schließen, daß es einen multifunktionellen Talgdrüsenapparat gibt, in den die Talgproduktion (eine Geschwindigkeitsfunktion), die Talgspeicherung (eine Volumenfunktion) und der Talgabfluß zur Hautoberfläche (eine Geschwindigkeitsfunktion) involviert sind.
    Notes: Summary Utilizing a solvent extraction system and colorimetric analysis, surface lipid levels were determined on the forehead. To understand the mechanisms involved in the sebaceous gland apparatus, repeated sampling at varying timed intervals were made. The data suggest that frequent surface samplings produce higher rates of lipid replacement. The increasing lipid replacement rates seen with sampling intervals of greater frequency do not follow a linear pattern. Also, lipid replacement rates show a gradual decline with time. This data suggest the existence of a multifunctional sebaceous apparatus involved in sebum production (a rate function), sebum storage (a volume function) and surface delivery (a rate function).
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 8
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Oxford, UK : Blackwell Publishing Ltd
    British journal of dermatology 95 (1976), S. 0 
    ISSN: 1365-2133
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: This double-blind study of an antibiotic corticosteroid combination, the antibiotic alone and the corticosteroid alone, compared their clinical and microbiological effect in infected atopic dermatitis. Combination therapy reduced the mean scores for infection, inflammation and overall severity to a greater extent than the antibiotic or corticosteroid alone. The clinical and microbiological data are discussed in terms of relevance to clinical use.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 9
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Oxford, UK : Blackwell Publishing Ltd
    British journal of dermatology 91 (1974), S. 0 
    ISSN: 1365-2133
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Fifty-one healthy human volunteers received intradermal injections of adrenaline. Sixty-five per cent of injected forearms and 36% of injected palms showed a positive sudorific response. Adrenaline-induced palmar sweating was not inhibited by atropine blockade or local anaesthesia. Pharmacologically proven atropine blockade completely suppressed emotional palmar sweating, but had no effect on spontaneous palmar sweating.Three groups of five healthy human volunteers were given intravenous doses of: (1) the alphablocker, phentolamine (Rogitine); (2) the alpha-blocker, phenoxybenzamine (Dibenyline); and (3) the beta-blocker, propranolol (Inderal). The blocking agents did not inhibit palmar sweating caused by either emotional stimuli or intradermal adrenaline, and did not suppress spontaneous (base line) sweating of the palmar glands.The failure of atropine to block spontaneous (or baseline) palmar sweating may represent either another pharmacological mediator or non-pharmacologically mediated eccrine gland water loss. If the former is the case, then these findings suggest that the palmar eccrine gland may be related to neither alpha- nor beta-receptors, but rather to a previously undescribed type of adrenergic receptor.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 10
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Oxford, UK : Blackwell Publishing Ltd
    British journal of dermatology 102 (1980), S. 0 
    ISSN: 1365-2133
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: 14C ring-labelled hydrocortisone, testosterone and benzoic acid dissolved in acetone were applied to the backs of guinea-pigs (4 μg/cm2). Percutaneous absorption was quantified by following the excretion of tracer in urine and faeces for 5 days. Absorption of hydrocortisone and benzoic acid was 2.4% (s. d. = 0.5; n = 3) and 31.4% (s. d. = 9.1; n = 3) of the applied dose respectively, similar to published human absorption data. Testosterone was absorbed to a greater extent in guinea-pigs (34.9%± 5.4; n = 5) than man.A thioglycollate based depilatory cream significantly increased the skin absorption of testosterone, while the absorption velocity was unaltered.Two analytical methods were compared, direct counting versus wet ashing; results were in the, same range for the three compounds. Two methods of quantifying skin absorption were compared; urine recovery corrected for incomplete urinary excretion after parenteral administration versus the addition of urine and faecal recovery. For benzoic acid, excreted mainly in the urine (88.1 %), the two methods gave similar results; for testosterone, excreted in the urine to a lesser extent (46.8%), the method of addition of urine and faecal recovery appeared to be more correct.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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