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  • 1
    Book
    Book
    Wiesbaden : Gabler
    Keywords: Entscheidung ; Organisation ; Entscheidungsprozess ; Organisation ; Unternehmen ; Organisation ; Entscheidungstheorie ; Entscheidungsprozess ; Organisation ; Unternehmen ; Entscheidungsprozess ; Entscheidung bei Unsicherheit ; Entscheidung ; Unternehmen ; Organisation ; Aufsatzsammlung ; Entscheidung ; Organisation ; Entscheidungsprozess ; Organisation ; Unternehmen ; Organisation ; Entscheidungstheorie ; Entscheidungsprozess ; Organisation ; Unternehmen ; Entscheidungsprozess ; Entscheidung bei Unsicherheit ; Entscheidung ; Unternehmen ; Organisation
    Type of Medium: Book
    Pages: XIII, 498 S. , graph. Darst.
    ISBN: 3409131256
    Uniform Title: Decisions and organizations
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    Language: German
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  • 2
    Book
    Book
    Stanford, Calif. : Stanford Univ. Press
    Keywords: Stanford University ; Stanford University ; Stanford University By-laws ; Stanford University Administration ; Administration ; Changement organisationnel ; Organisatieverandering ; Regels ; Statut administratif ; États-Unis ; Stanford University ; USA ; Organisationsverhalten ; Regel ; Organisationstheorie ; Organisationsverhalten ; Regelung (Organisation) ; Organisationswandel ; Organizational change United States ; Case studies ; By-laws United States ; Case studies ; Changement organisationnel - États-Unis - Cas, Études de ; Sociétés - Statuts - États-Unis - Cas, Études de ; Stanford University - Administration ; Stanford University - By-laws ; Stanford University - Statuts ; Fallstudiensammlung ; Stanford University 1885- ; Organisationsverhalten ; Regel ; Organisationstheorie ; Stanford University 1885- ; Organisationsverhalten ; Regelung 〈Organisation〉 ; Organisationswandel
    Type of Medium: Book
    Pages: XI, 228 S. , graph. Darst.
    ISBN: 0804737444 , 080473996X
    DDC: 302.3/5 21
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    Language: English
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  • 3
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Cambridge : Cambridge University Press
    Journal of public policy 6 (1986), S. 341-370 
    ISSN: 0143-814X
    Source: Cambridge Journals Digital Archives
    Topics: Political Science
    Notes: This paper is about criteria for assessing alternative political institutions in a society committed to popular sovereignty. The issues are classic, and we do not attempt a comprehensive review of the ways in which they run through political and economic thought since Aristotle. An aggregative perspective on political institutions, which describes politics in terms of aggregating exogenous, prior preferences of citizens, is contrasted with an integrative perspective, which describes politics more in terms of the development of preferences within a framework of rights and norms. The evaluation of aggregative processes and institutions highlights questions of efficiency, preferences, and endowments. The evaluation of integrative institutions focuses on questions of competence and integrity. Many of the most influential contemporary discussions of political institutions are based on an aggregative framework that is relatively inattentive to issues of political integration. This contemporary emphasis on metaphors of aggregation, however, represents a phase in a history of oscillation between aggregation and integration in politics and political theory, and there are signs that the emphasis may shift in the next few decades to a greater consciousness of integration. Although the cyclic process is not escaped through awareness of it, such awareness may provide a basis for a more thoughtful approach to the search for appropriate institutions within a political system dedicated to popular sovereignty.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 4
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Oxford, UK : Blackwell Publishing Ltd
    Governance 9 (1996), S. 0 
    ISSN: 1468-0491
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Political Science
    Notes: This article examines some basic assumptions about the nature of political institutions, the ways in which practices and rules that comprise institutions are established, sustained, and transformed, and the ways in which those practices and rules are converted into political behavior through the mediation of interpretation and capability. We discuss an institutional approach to political life that emphasizes the endogenous nature and social construction of political institutions, identities, accounts, and capabilities.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 5
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Oxford, UK : Blackwell Science Ltd
    Freshwater biology 50 (2005), S. 0 
    ISSN: 1365-2427
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: 1. Harvest-related poisoning events are common in tropical streams, yet research on stream recovery has largely been limited to temperate streams and generally does not include any measures of ecosystem function, such as leaf breakdown.2. We assessed recovery of a second-order, high-gradient stream draining the Luquillo Experimental Forest, Puerto Rico, 3 months after a chlorine-bleach poisoning event. The illegal poisoning of freshwater shrimps for harvest caused massive mortality of shrimps and dramatic changes in those ecosystem properties influenced by shrimps. We determined recovery potential using an established recovery index and assessed actual recovery by examining whether the poisoned reach returned to conditions resembling an undisturbed upstream reference reach.3. Recovery potential was excellent (score = 729 of a possible 729) and can be attributed to nearby sources of organisms for colonisation, the mobility of dominant organisms, unimpaired habitat, rapid flushing and processing of chlorine, and location within a national forest.4. Actual recovery was substantial. Comparison of the reference reach with the formerly poisoned reach indicated: (1) complete recovery of xiphocaridid and palaemonid shrimp population abundances, shrimp size distributions, leaf breakdown rates, and abundances of oligochaetes and mayflies on leaves, and (2) only small differences in atyid shrimp abundance and community and ecosystem properties influenced by atyid shrimps (standing stocks of epilithic fine inorganic and organic matter, chlorophyll a, and abundances of chironomids and copepods on leaves).5. There was no detectable pattern between any measured variables and distance downstream from the poisoning. However, shrimp size-distributions indicated that the observed recovery may represent a source-sink dynamic, in which the poisoned reach acts as a sink which depletes adult shrimp populations from surrounding undisturbed habitats. Thus, the rapid recovery observed in this study is consistent with results from other field studies of pulse chlorine disturbances, harvest-related fish poisonings, and recovery of freshwater biotic interactions, but it is unlikely to be sustainable if multiple poisonings deplete adult populations to the extent that juvenile recruitment does not offset adult shrimp mortality.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 6
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Oxford UK : Blackwell Science Ltd.
    Freshwater biology 47 (2002), S. 0 
    ISSN: 1365-2427
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: 1. In tropical island stream ecosystems freshwater shrimps are often the dominant macroconsumers and can play an important role in determining benthic community composition. However, most studies of the ecological role of shrimps are limited to high-altitude shrimp-dominated sites where other biota (fishes and snails) are absent or significantly less abundant than at lower altitudes.2. We examined how effects of different shrimp assemblages on benthic communities changed along an altitudinal gradient in a tropical island stream in Puerto Rico. We used electroshocking and observations to quantify abundance and taxonomic composition of shrimp assemblages at three sites (300, 90 and 10 m a. s. l) along the Río Espíritu Santo. We also experimentally manipulated access of shrimps to the benthic environment simultaneously at each site using electric fences over a 35-day period.3. At the high-altitude site, exclusion of shrimps (predominantly Atya spp. and Xiphocariselongata) resulted in significantly greater accrual of organic and inorganic material, chlorophyll a and algal biovolume. In the absence of shrimps, the algal community was dominated by filamentous green algae (Chlorophyta: Oedogonium and Rhizoclonium). Excluding shrimps did not affect total insect biomass but significantly increased sessile chironomids (Diptera: Chironomidae). We observed similar treatment effects at the mid-altitude site where shrimps (primarily Macrobrachium spp. and X. elongata) occurred at lower densities. In contrast, at the low-altitude site there were no treatment differences in organic and inorganic material, chlorophyll a, algal biovolume, algal assemblage composition and insects.4. The lack of treatment differences at the low-altitude site was probably because of very high densities of grazing snails (Thiaragranifera and Neritina spp.) which reduced organic and inorganic resources and obscured potential shrimp effects.5. This study demonstrates that freshwater shrimps can play an important role in determining benthic community composition; however, their effects vary and appear to depend on the presence of other biota. This study suggests that loss of shrimps as a result of anthropogenic disturbances will have different effects on the stream community depending upon location along the altitude gradient.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 7
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Oxford, UK : Blackwell Publishing Ltd
    ISSN: 1475-6765
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Political Science
    Notes: Classical theories of omniscient rationality in organizational decision-making have largely been replaced by a view of limited rationality, but no similar concern has been reflected in the analysis of organizational learning. There has been a tendency to model a simple complete cycle of learning from unambiguous experience and to ignore cognitive and evaluative limits on learning in organizations. This paper examines some theoretical possibilities for assuming that individuals in organizations modify their understanding in a way that is intendedly adaptive even though faced with ambiguity about what happened, why it happened, and whether it is good. To develop a theory of learning under such conditions, we probably require ideas about information exposure, memory, and retrieval; learning incentives; belief structures; and the micro development of belief in organizations. We exhibit one example by specifying a structural theory of the relations among liking, seeing, trusting, contact, and integration in an organization. The argument is made that some understanding of factors affecting learning from experience will not only be important to the improvement of policy making in an organizational context, but also a necessary part of a theory of organizational choice.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 8
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Springer
    Research in higher education 3 (1975), S. 323-328 
    ISSN: 1573-188X
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Nature of Science, Research, Systems of Higher Education, Museum Science
    Notes: Abstract Returning to the same stratified random sample of American colleges and universities studied by Cohen and March (1974) during the 1969–1970 academic year, the authors explore the extent to which theoretical estimates of attrition rates presented by Cohen and March predict recent presidential departures within their sample. They find that in the past four years (1971–1974) there has been little change in the attrition pattern among college presidents in this national sample. If there has been any change it is very small and in the direction of slightly longer tenure among presidents of large universities.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 9
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    Mering: Rainer Hampp Verlag
    Publication Date: 2020-05-20
    Keywords: ddc:650
    Language: English
    Type: doc-type:article
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  • 10
    facet.materialart.
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    Mering: Rainer Hampp Verlag
    Publication Date: 2020-05-20
    Keywords: ddc:650
    Language: English
    Type: doc-type:article
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