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  • 1
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    Brasília: Instituto de Pesquisa Econômica Aplicada (IPEA)
    Publication Date: 2019-01-24
    Description: The correct detection of the phenomena of slums is critical to the formulation of several public policies. The main sources used in Brazil are data available from population censuses, which are not comparable over time. Accordingly, the statistics office (IBGE) alerts that changes in classification procedures improved considerably the identification of slums in the 2010 Census compared to the previous census. This article presents a methodology that enables the construction of estimates of areas and populations living in slums that are comparable between 2000 and 2010. The method explores the matching of census tracts of 2000 and 2010, and then reclassifies slum areas of 2000 based on more accurate information of slum areas of 2010. Having constructed a comparable classification, we analyze the growth of population in slums and their socioeconomic indicators, both in Brazil as a whole and in the country's main metropolitan areas. The results show that while the comparison of the original data indicates that the population living in slums would have grown 75%, the corrected data show an increase of only 8,6% between 2000 and 2010. We also show that there has been a general improvement of socioeconomic indicators in slums. Generally these improvements exceeded those observed in non-slum areas.
    Keywords: O18 ; ddc:330 ; slums ; subnormal agglomerations ; Brazilian census
    Language: Portuguese
    Type: doc-type:workingPaper
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  • 2
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    Brasília: Instituto de Pesquisa Econômica Aplicada (IPEA)
    Publication Date: 2019-01-24
    Description: This work was developed in accordance with the principles of the international TEEB framework and is entitled The economics of ecosystems and biodiversity in Brazil (TEEB Brazil): gap analysis. Its main goal is to foster a better understanding of the economic value of Brazil's biodiversity and ecosystem services, with the intent that these factors be considered and properly incorporated into decision-making processes and public policies. This is an objective to be achieved in the medium term, which means that TEEB-Brazil needs to be developed in stages. In this paper we present the results of a bibliographic survey of studies published in the last ten years that have calculated the value or provided evidence of the importance of biodiversity and ecosystem services for the Brazilian economy. For the empirical studies identified, we analyzed their frequencies in the Brazilian biomes, the ecosystem services and economic sectors they encompassed, and the valuation methods they applied. In addition, we discuss the following topics: i) the institutional and political structure regarding conservation and management of biodiversity and ecosystem services in Brazil; ii) non-governmental initiatives focusing on the conservation of Brazil's natural capital; iii) current technical capacity related to the economics of ecosystems and biodiversity; and iv) data availability for some ecosystem services (water, carbon storage and sequestration, provision of wood and non-wood forest products). We also analyze gaps to the implementation of the TEEB-Brazil initiative and present some recommendations to overcome them.
    Keywords: Q57 ; ddc:330 ; natural capital ; ecosystem services ; biodiversity ; Brazilian biomes ; environmental valuation ; economics of ecosystems - TEEB
    Language: Portuguese
    Type: doc-type:workingPaper
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  • 3
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    Brasília: Instituto de Pesquisa Econômica Aplicada (IPEA)
    Publication Date: 2019-01-24
    Description: The lack of knowledge about the effects of deforestation on human health is an important gap for management of the environment and health in Brazil and worldwide. In order to assess its occurrence and magnitude, we performed a panel analysis, linking data on deforestation and reportable diseases, by municipality and year, covering 773 municipalities in the Amazon between 2004 and 2012. Estimates were conducted separately for each disease, with the inclusion of controls for fixed effects of municipality, socioeconomic features and provision of public health services. Among the diseases that had sufficient data for analysis, we found that deforestation has a significant effect on leishmaniasis and malaria: annual increases in the municipal deforested area lead to significant increases on incidence. On the other hand, statistically significant effects were not detected for diseases indicated as strong candidates by some authors. The results confirm the existence of health-related deforestation costs, although these do not apply to a wide range of diseases. We highlight the existence of deforestation costs related to health in the Amazon, which must be taken into account both in the management of public health and in making decisions regarding natural capital.
    Keywords: Q51 ; ddc:330 ; deforestation ; Amazon ; diseases ; public health
    Language: Portuguese
    Type: doc-type:workingPaper
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  • 4
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    Brasília: Instituto de Pesquisa Econômica Aplicada (IPEA)
    Publication Date: 2020-01-17
    Description: Despite being home to about 1 billion people (UN-Habitat, 2010) worldwide slums have received little attention in the economic literature. Data on slums is scarce and few studies have investigated the emergence of these pockets of poverty and inadequate housing scattered between otherwise regular urban areas. We bring some empirical grounding to this debate, by combining Census, terrain topography and water bodies data for Brazil. Thus, we provide the first consistent estimates on location, growth and the socio-economic characteristics of their inhabitants for every slum in Brazil. We show that while there is a strong association between income and distance to the city center for formal housing agents, the same association is less clear for informal housing agents. Moreover, the spatial dispersion of slums varies significantly between metropolitan areas. We propose one explanation for this: the role of geography. In fact, topographic and environmental conditions of informal housing areas are worse. In some extent, risky life conditions are the cost of having access to the opportunities only found with the proximity to the central formal city.
    Keywords: O15 ; O18 ; R31 ; ddc:330 ; slums ; intra urban location ; topography ; hydrography
    Language: Portuguese
    Type: doc-type:workingPaper
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  • 5
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    Brasília: Instituto de Pesquisa Econômica Aplicada (IPEA)
    Publication Date: 2020-01-17
    Description: This paper verified the predictive performance of probabilistic record linkage algorithms for the integration big sized real databases, evaluating the effects of the blocking key definition, as well as string metric functions and phonetic code pairing algorithms with respect to the prediction's quality and computational complexity. A bibliographical survey of the main deterministic and probabilistic record linkage methods was carried out, as well as of recent advances combining machine learning techniques and main packages and implementations available in open-source R language. The results can provide heuristics for problems of administrative records integration at national level and have potential value for the formulation and evaluation of public policies
    Keywords: C52 ; C55 ; C65 ; C80 ; C88 ; ddc:330 ; pairs linking ; blocking ; administrative records ; Big Data ; R
    Language: Portuguese
    Type: doc-type:workingPaper
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