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  • 1
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Oxford, UK : Blackwell Publishing Ltd
    ISSN: 1440-1681
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: 1. The effects of atropine administration during anticholinesterase poisoning on heart rate, blood pressure and electrocardiographic changes (ECG) were studied in the cat.2. Administration of atropine intravenously during anticholinesterase poisoning caused a significant increase in heart rate and blood pressure; ECG changes were also seen.3. The simultaneous intravenous administration of atropine and labetalol during anticholinesterase poisoning abolished the increase in blood pressure and heart rate; ECG readings remained normal.4. It is suggested that labetalol may be a useful adjuvant in the treatment of anticholinesterase poisoning especially in patients with compromised heart function.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 2
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Oxford, UK : Blackwell Publishing Ltd
    ISSN: 1440-1681
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: 1. The effects of 4-methyl-2-thiouracil (MTU, 0.1% in drinking water) on the composition and cross-sectional area of muscle fibres of the rat soleus muscle were studied.2. The percentage of fast twitch-oxidative-glycolytic (FOG) fibres fell after 2 weeks of treatment with MTU to zero at 8 weeks. In contrast the percentage of FOG fibres in untreated animals fell to 19.2±2.1% during this period.3. The mean cross-sectional area of FOG and slow twitch-oxidative (SO) fibres were respectively 39.9% and 23.8% smaller than those of their respective controls 6 weeks after treatment. At 8 weeks the percentage reduction of SO fibre area was 26.8% of the control value.4. This study indicates that MTU treatment causes atrophy and redistribution of fibre type in the soleus muscle.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 3
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Oxford, UK : Blackwell Publishing Ltd
    ISSN: 1440-1681
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: 1. The effects of chronic thyroxine treatment on cat soleus muscle contractions were studied.2. Maximum twitch tension, contraction time, half relaxation time and tensiontime integral of maximal twitches of the soleus muscles of thyroxine treated cats were significantly decreased. Consequently, there was a decrease in tension and degree of fusion of incomplete tetanic contractions of the soleus muscle. The maximum tetanic tension was not statistically significantly changed, suggesting that the effects may be due to a decrease in the duration of the active state of the muscle.3. Isoprenaline given intravenously during incomplete tetanic contractions of the soleus muscle caused a statistically significant depression of tension in the control group but not in the thyroxine treated group. This further suggests reduction in the duration of the active state of soleus muscles of thyroxine treated cats.4. Propranolol injected chronically with thyroxine reversed or prevented the depression of tension caused by thyroxine treatment, suggesting the involvement of β-adrenoceptors in these effects.5. The decrease in tension and degree of fusion during incomplete tetanic contractions of the thyroxine treated soleus could be responsible, at least partly, for the muscle weakness and tremor of thyrotoxicosis. Cyclic AMP may possibly be the mediator of these effects.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 4
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Oxford, UK : Blackwell Publishing Ltd
    ISSN: 1440-1681
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: 1. Cyclic AMP and cyclic GMP levels were determined in bovine splenic nerve segments in the absence and presence of (±) - isoprenaline, (-)-phenylephrine, clonidine and ICI 63 197 (a phosphodiesterase inhibitor). The chosen concentrations of adrenoceptor agonists were those which are known to affect stimulation-induced overflow of noradrenaline from nerve terminals.2. The mean levels of cyclic AMP ranged from 229 to 555 pmol/g of microwave irradiated tissue. Mean cyclic GMP levels ranged from 27.9 to 42.2 pmol/g.3.Isoprenaline enhanced cyclic AMP levels but did not affect cyclic GMP levels. The effect was blocked with (±)-propranolol. ICI 63 197 increased cyclic AMP levels but did not change cyclic GMP. Phenylephrine and clonidine caused no consistent changes in cyclic AMP or cyclic GMP levels or in the concentration ratio between these two nucleotides.4.The results support the involvement of cyclic AMP in the enhancing effect of β-adrenoceptor agonists and phosphodiesterase inhibitors on stimulation-induced release of noradrenaline from sympathetic nerves.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 5
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Oxford, UK : Blackwell Publishing Ltd
    ISSN: 1440-1681
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: 1. Cyclic AMP levels have been determined in the soleus muscles of anaesthetized cats in the absence of drugs, and during depression of incomplete tetanic contractions produced by (-)-isoprenaline, ICI 63,197 (a phosphodiesterase inhibitor) or levodopa.2. Cyclic AMP levels were elevated at the peak of tension depression produced by isoprenaline. Effects of isoprenaline on cyclic AMP and on contractions were dose dependent and statistically significantly related one to the other. Both effects were blocked by propranolol.3. ICI 63,197 and levodopa produced isoprenaline-like effects on contractions but times to peak effect and recovery were longer. Cyclic AMP levels estimated during the depressant action were elevated.4. The results support the involvement of cyclic AMP in the depressant effect of β-adrenoreceptor agonists on slow-contracting mammalian skeletal muscle.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 6
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Oxford, UK : Blackwell Publishing Ltd
    ISSN: 1440-1681
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: 1. The effects of thyroxine treatment on soleus and extensor digitorum longus (EDL) muscle contractions and their cyclic adenosine 3′,5′-monophosphate (cyclic AMP) levels were examined in anaesthetized cats.2. Thyroxine treatment decreased the tension of incomplete tetanic contractions of the soleus as well as the EDL muscles. The effect on tension of these muscles was not associated with an increase in the cyclic AMP level of the muscle as is the case with a β2-adrenoceptor agonist effect.3. The results do not support the involvement of cyclic AMP in the tension depressant effect of thyroxine on contractions of skeletal muscle.4. It is suggested that the muscle weakness and tremor observed in thyrotoxicosis and during administration of β-adrenoceptor agonists are mediated by different mechanisms.
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  • 7
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Oxford, UK : Blackwell Publishing Ltd
    ISSN: 1440-1681
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: 1. The depressant effects of β-adrenoceptor agonists and phosphodiesterase inhibitors on contractions of slow-contracting mammalian skeletal muscles are associated with increased muscular cyclic AMP levels.2. A strong correlation was found to exist between the percentage depression of contraction and the percentage increase in cyclic AMP level, irrespective of the drug used and regardless of the mechanism of cyclic AMP production.3. The results strongly support the mediatory role of cyclic AMP in the depressant effects of β-adrenoceptor agonists and phosphodiesterase inhibitors on slow-contracting mammalian skeletal muscle contractions.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 8
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Oxford, UK : Blackwell Publishing Ltd
    ISSN: 1440-1681
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: SUMMARY1. The roles of, and interactions between, steroids and naloxone, an opioid antagonist, in the reversal of experimental hypotensive shock were studied in normal and adrenalectomized rats.2. In normal rats treated with dexamethasone or deoxycorticosterone or 17-hydroxyprogesterone the hypotension and shock caused by 1% bodyweight and 2% bodyweight haemorrhage could be substantially reversed by naloxone in a dose-related manner. In contrast, the reversal of hypotension by naloxone was markedly less in adrenalectomized rats.3. It is concluded that there is a co-ordinate release of pressor catecholamines and depressor enkephalins from adrenal glands in hypovolaemic shock. Eventually, the use of naloxone would be of much less value in the treatment of hypotension or shock in patients with Addison's disease.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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