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  • 1
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Springer
    Acta neuropathologica 27 (1974), S. 201-213 
    ISSN: 1432-0533
    Keywords: Infantile Neuroaxonal Dystrophy ; Spheroids ; Perikaryon ; Electron Microscopy ; Membranous Profiles ; Dense Bodies ; Protein Syntheses
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Summary Electron microscopic findings of a cortical biopsy from a four-year-old child suffering from muscular weakness and psychomotor retardation are presented. Morphological evidence obtained in this study suggests a unique pathogenetic mechanism underlying INAD. The spheroids appear to be caused by an accumulation of a macromolecular substance synthesized in the neuron and transported to the nerve endings. The abnormal substance initially takes the form of an amorphous material, it eventually aggregates into highly characteristic angulated membranous profiles. The selective involvement of the nerve endings, synapses and motor end plates in this disease suggests a derangement of the metabolic pathway in the synthesis or packaging of the neurotransmitters or their receptors.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 2
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Oxford, UK : Blackwell Publishing Ltd
    Journal of neurochemistry 48 (1987), S. 0 
    ISSN: 1471-4159
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Abstract: The effects of 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahy-dropyridine (MPTP) and 1-methyl-4-phenylpyridinium ion (MPP+) on activities of enzyme complexes in the electron transport system were studied using isolated mitochondrial preparations from C57BL/6J mouse brains. Both MPTP and MPP+ dose-dependently inhibited activity of NADH-ubiquinone oxidoreductase (EC 1.6.5.3). The inhibition was reversible. Preincubation of freeze-thawed mitochondria with MPTP or MPP+ had no effect on the inhibition; however, when nonfrozen mitochondria were used, NADH-ubiquinone oxidoreductase activity was reduced to 46% of that in the nonincubated sample after a 5-min preincubation with MPTP and to 77% of that in the nonincubated sample after a 5-min preincubation with MPP+. Kinetic analyses revealed that inhibition of MPTP was non-competitive and that of MPP+ uncompetitive with respect to NADH. On the other hand, inhibition of MPTP was uncompetitive and that of MPP+ noncompetitive with respect to ubiquinone. Succinate – ubiquinone oxidoreductase (complex II), dihydroubiquinone-cytochrome c oxidoreductase (complex III), and ferrocytochrome c-oxygen oxidoreductase (EC 1.9.3.1) activities were either slightly inhibited or not inhibited by MPTP or MPP+. The significance of these findings is discussed in relation to the mechanism of MPTP-induced neuronal degeneration.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 3
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Oxford, UK : Blackwell Science Ltd
    Journal of neurochemistry 77 (2001), S. 0 
    ISSN: 1471-4159
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Parkin is a product of the Park2 gene the mutation of which causes autosomal recessive juvenile parkinsonism (AR-JP) characterized by selective dopaminergic neuronal death and absence of Lewy bodies. Recently we found that parkin is directly linked to the ubiquitin (Ub)-proteasome pathway as a Ub-protein ligase (E3) collaborating with a Ub-conjugating enzyme (E2) UbcH7. Here we analysed by in situ hybridization the expression of mRNAs for parkin and UbcR7 (rat orthologue of human UbcH7) in the developing rat brain. Parkin mRNA increased in parallel with neuronal maturation, but was unevenly distributed in various brain regions after four postnatal days. The expression pattern of the UbcR7 mRNA was almost identical to that of the parkin mRNA in all cases examined. Both parkin and UbcR7 mRNAs were distributed in neurones but not glial cells. Our findings indicate that parkin is expressed not only in the substantia nigra, but also uniformly in various brain regions in a development-dependent manner. Co-expression of UbcR7 with parkin suggests that UbcR7 may interact with parkin in vivo for ubiquitination of yet unidentified target protein(s).
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 4
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Oxford, UK : Blackwell Science Ltd
    Journal of neurochemistry 71 (1998), S. 0 
    ISSN: 1471-4159
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Abstract: We discuss neurochemical and neurogenetic correlates of Parkinson's disease (PD) based on the recent progress in the study of its etiology and pathogenesis. Nigral degeneration with the presence of Lewy bodies in the remaining neurons is the pathologic hallmark of PD, and the resultant loss of striatal dopamine is responsible for most of the clinical manifestations. Although the primary cause is still unknown, mitochondrial respiratory failure and oxidative stress appear to be two major contributors to the nigral cell death. Many endogenous and exogenous compounds with structural similarity to MPTP have been postulated as potential neurotoxins inducing nigral cell death in PD, but there is little evidence of accumulation of such compounds in the nigra. Genetic influence has increasingly been recognized as an important risk factor for PD. In this respect, genetic linkage analysis and molecular cloning of the disease genes in familial parkinsonism are of utmost importance today. Recently, the disease gene for one of the autosomal dominant forms of familial PD was identified, and we cloned the gene for an autosomal recessive type of familial parkinsonism that had been mapped to the long arm of chromosome 6 by our group. Information obtained on familial parkinsonism will contribute to the studies on sporadic PD as well.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 5
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Oxford, UK : Blackwell Publishing Ltd
    ISSN: 1460-9568
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: In the dentate gyrus neurons continue to be generated from late embryonic to adult stage. Recent extensive studies have unveiled several key aspects of the adult neurogenesis, but only few attempts have so far been made on the analysis of the early postnatal neurogenenesis, a transition state between the embryonic and adult neurogenesis. Here, we focus on the early postnatal neurogenesis and examine the nature and development of neural progenitor cells in Wistar rats. Immunohistochemistry for Ki67, a cell cycle marker, and 5-bromo-2-deoxyuridine (BrdU) labelling show that cell proliferation occurs mainly in the hilus and partly in the subgranular zone. A majority of the proliferating cells express S100β and astrocyte-specific glutamate transporter (GLAST) and the subpopulation are also positive for glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) and nestin. Tracing with BrdU and our modified retrovirus vector carrying enhanced green fluorescent protein (GFP) indicate that a substantial population of the proliferating cells differentiate into proliferative neuroblasts and immature neurons in the hilus, which then migrate to the granule cell layer (66.8%), leaving a long axon-like process behind in the hilus, and the others mainly become star-shaped astrocytes (12.0%) and radial glia-like cells (4.7%) in the subgranular zone. These results suggest that the progenitors of the granule cells expressing astrocytic and radial glial markers, proliferate and differentiate into neurons mainly in the hilus during the early postnatal period.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 6
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Oxford, UK : Blackwell Science Ltd
    ISSN: 1460-9568
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH) has long been recognized as a classical glycolytic protein; however, previous studies by our group and others have demonstrated that GAPDH is a general mediator initiating one or more apoptotic cascades. Our most recent findings have elucidated that an expression of a pro-apoptotic protein GAPDH is critically regulated at the promoter region of the gene. Apoptotic signals for its subsequent aggregate formation and nuclear translocation are controlled by the respective functional domains harboured within its cDNA component. In this study, coexpression of GAPDH with either wild-type or mutant (A53T) α-synuclein and less likely with β-synuclein in transfected COS-7 cells was found to induce Lewy body-like cytoplasmic inclusions. Unlike its full-length construct, the deleted mutant GAPDH construct (C66) abolished these apoptotic signals, disfavouring the formation of inclusions. The generated inclusions were ubiquitin- and thioflavin S-positive appearing fibrils. Furthermore, GAPDH coimmunoprecipitated with wild-type α-synuclein in this paradigm. Importantly, immunohistochemical examinations of post mortem materials from patients with sporadic Parkinson's disease revealed the colocalized profiles immunoreactive against these two proteins in the peripheral zone of Lewy bodies from the affected brain regions (i.e. locus coeruleus). Moreover, a quantitative assessment showed that about 20% of Lewy bodies displayed both antigenicities. These results suggest that pro-apoptotic protein GAPDH may be involved in the Lewy body formation in vivo, probably associated with the apoptotic death pathway.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 7
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Springer
    Mammalian genome 11 (2000), S. 417-421 
    ISSN: 1432-1777
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: Abstract. We have isolated mouse cDNA clones that are homologous to human Parkin gene, which was recently found to be responsible for the pathogenesis of autosomal recessive juvenile parkinsonism (AR-JP). One of these cDNA clones had the 1,392-bp open reading frame encoding a protein of 464 amino acids with presumed molecular weight of 51,615. The amino acid sequence of mouse parkin protein exhibits 83.2% identity to human Parkin protein, including the ubiquitin-like domain at the N-terminus (identity = 89.5%) and the RING finger-like domain at the C-terminus (identity = 90.6%). Two other clones had the 783-bp open reading frame encoding a truncated protein of 261 amino acids without RING finger-like domain. It was proved to be a novel splicing variant by 3′-RACE method. Northern blot analysis revealed that mouse parkin gene is expressed in various tissues including brain, heart, liver, skeletal muscle, kidney, and testis. It is notable that mouse parkin gene expression appears evident in 15th day mouse embryo and increases toward the later stage of development. These mouse parkin cDNA clones will be useful for elucidating the essential physiological function of parkin protein in mammals.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 8
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    [s.l.] : Macmillan Magazines Ltd.
    Nature 392 (1998), S. 605-608 
    ISSN: 1476-4687
    Source: Nature Archives 1869 - 2009
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
    Notes: [Auszug] Parkinson's disease is a common neurodegenerative disease with complex clinical features. Autosomal recessive juvenile parkinsonism (AR-JP), maps to the long arm of chromosome 6 (6q25.2-q27) and is linked strongly to the markers D6S305 and D6S253 (ref. 4); the former is deleted in one ...
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  • 9
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    [s.l.] : Nature America Inc.
    Nature genetics 25 (2000), S. 302-305 
    ISSN: 1546-1718
    Source: Nature Archives 1869 - 2009
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: [Auszug] Autosomal recessive juvenile parkinsonism (AR–JP), one of the most common familial forms of Parkinson disease, is characterized by selective dopaminergic neural cell death and the absence of the Lewy body, a cytoplasmic inclusion body consisting of aggregates of abnormally accumulated ...
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  • 10
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Oxford, UK : Blackwell Science Ltd
    Journal of neurochemistry 91 (2004), S. 0 
    ISSN: 1471-4159
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: To elucidate the role of α-synuclein in the pathogenesis of Parkinson's disease, both human α-synuclein transgenic mice and targeted overexpression of human α-synuclein in rat substantia nigra using viral vector-based methods have been studied, however, little is known about the pathogenetic changes of dopaminergic neuron loss. Therefore, it is necessary to address whether the pathogenetic changes in brains with Parkinson's disease are recapitulated in these models. Here, we used the recombinant adeno-associated viral (rAAV) vector system for human α-synuclein gene transfer to rat substantia nigra and observed approximately 50% loss of dopaminergic neurons at 13 weeks after infection, which was comparably slower than the progression of neurodegeneration reported in other studies. In the slower progression of neurodegeneration, we identified several important features in common with the pathogenesis of Parkinson's disease, such as phosphorylation of α-synuclein at Ser129 and activation of caspase-9. Both findings were also evident in cortical tissues overexpressing α-synuclein via rAAV. Our results indicate that overexpression of α-synuclein via rAAV apparently recapitulates several important features of brains with Parkinson's disease and dementia with Lewy bodies, and thus α-synucleinopathy described here is likely to be an ideal model for the study of the pathogenesis of Parkinson's disease and dementia with Lewy bodies.
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