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  • 1
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    Prague: Charles University in Prague, Institute of Economic Studies (IES)
    Publication Date: 2013-10-01
    Description: This paper aims to quantify the impact of the minimum wage on labour market performance in the Czech Republic. Using regional data for 1995-2004, it estimates the effect of the minimum wage adjusted for regional wage differential on the regional unemployment. Consequently, using detail individual data from 2004/2005, we analyze the annual hikes in the minimum wage that allow us to estimate employment probabilities for workers with wage level at, or close to, the new minimum wage. The aim is to reveal whether the most endangered groups of workers exhibited significantly different employment probabilities. Our results reveal that the minimum wage has had a significant impact on increasing regional unemployment and reducing the employment probabilities of low-paid workers.
    Keywords: E24 ; J38 ; J64 ; ddc:330 ; minimum wage ; employment probability ; unemployment ; Mindestlohn ; Arbeitsmarkt ; Arbeitslosigkeit ; Tschechische Republik
    Language: English
    Type: doc-type:workingPaper
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  • 2
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    Prague: Charles University in Prague, Institute of Economic Studies (IES)
    Publication Date: 2013-10-01
    Description: This study analyses the income distribution within couples in the Czech Republic and ten European countries using the EU-SILC 2005 database. Data from the Luxembourg Income Study (LIS) database supplement the analysis with previous period (1986 - 2000). Women, on average, contribute less to a couple's income than men. Among the included countries, within-couple income inequality tends to be lower in the new EU member states than in the old ones, with the Czech Republic being the exception. Within-couple income inequality has two crucial factors: employment of female partners and, subsequently, their wages. In the context of the first, the inter-generational transmission of the traditional model of the family proved to have a significant negative impact on the female employment decision mainly in the old EU member states. Finally, gender wage gaps between men and women who live in a couple were examined and compared with the gender wage gaps for single individuals. The gender wage gap proved to be higher for cohabiting individuals than for singles even after adjusting for gender differences in individual and job characteristics.
    Keywords: D19 ; J31 ; J79 ; ddc:330 ; gender wage gap ; traditional family model ; within-couple inequalities ; Lohndifferenzierung ; Geschlecht ; Lebensgemeinschaft ; Weibliche Arbeitskräfte ; Tschechische Republik ; EU-Staaten
    Language: English
    Type: doc-type:workingPaper
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  • 3
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    Vienna: Austrian Institute of Economic Research (WIFO)
    Publication Date: 2016-03-05
    Description: This paper contributes to the debate about the impact of the transition to subjective well-being. After reviewing the relevant literature the authors draw on the surveys of the European Values Study between 1991 and 2008 to describe the trends in life satisfaction in 13 "Western" and 11 "Eastern" countries. The analysis finds that life satisfaction levels in transition countries have come to approach those in the West: the "rather unhappy" 1990s were followed by the "rather happy" 2000s. The correlation between life satisfaction and GDP reflects this process of convergence: the two separate lines in 1991 merge to become a single continuum later on. The characteristics of respondents are however more important than GDP, and a regression of life satisfactions with basic demographic and stratification variables shows their reinforcing effect in both Eastern and Western countries. As a result, the explained variance of life satisfaction was increasing. The findings of other surveys reporting on developments of attitudes since 2008 vary but are far from proving a uniform negative impact of economic recession on life satisfaction. The paper concludes by suggesting that various surveys have to be compared in order to obtain more reliable information on the development and factors of subjective well-being.
    Keywords: ddc:330 ; Strukturwandel ; Sozialer Wandel ; Gesundheit ; Zufriedenheit ; Soziale Lage ; Europa
    Language: English
    Type: doc-type:workingPaper
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  • 4
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    Prague: Charles University in Prague, Institute of Economic Studies (IES)
    Publication Date: 2013-10-01
    Description: This paper aims to quantify the impact of social benefits on labor market participation in the Czech Republic. It applies the logistic regression to estimate the probability of labor market participation depending on social benefits related to net wage of the individuals, controlling for individual and household characteristics (age, presence of spouse and children etc.). The work disincentives via social benefits do exist and proved to be relatively strong. When trying to understand the reasons for recently decreasing participation rate in the Czech Republic, the often called generous Czech social benefit system appears to be relevant.
    Keywords: I38 ; J21 ; ddc:330 ; inactivity trap ; labor market participation ; social benefits ; Soziale Sicherung ; Erwerbstätigkeit ; Ökonomischer Anreiz ; Tschechische Republik
    Language: English
    Type: doc-type:workingPaper
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  • 5
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    Prague: Charles University in Prague, Institute of Economic Studies (IES)
    Publication Date: 2015-10-02
    Description: Using Spain and the Czech Republic as examples of two EU countries with remarkably different youth labour market performance, we apply a gross flow analysis based on EU-SILC longitudinal data. While in Spain increases in youth unemployment rate are driven mostly by young people losing their jobs, in the Czech Republic, this is mainly due to new labour market entrants who failed to find a job. Furthermore, the analysis of flow transition rates suggests that the job-loss rates of young workers are persistently higher than those established for prime-age workers. But the analogous result applies, though less uniformly, also to the jobfinding rates. Survival functions estimates point to prolonged unemployment duration and increasing long term unemployment, while both these tendencies apply relatively more to the young unemployed. Proportional hazard models generally indicate that shorter unemployment spells are more likely to be terminated by finding a job in comparison with those spells lasting for more than one year, while the hazard ratios for duration intervals under one year are typically higher for prime-age unemployed. Finally, we examine education, gender, household size, etc. as determinants of exits from unemployment, with uniform evidence found for tertiary education only.
    Keywords: E24 ; J6 ; ddc:330 ; flow transition rates ; gross labour market flows ; hazard function ; survival function ; unemployment
    Language: English
    Type: doc-type:workingPaper
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  • 6
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    Prague: Charles University in Prague, Institute of Economic Studies (IES)
    Publication Date: 2013-10-01
    Description: Employment or, more precisely, participation of women on the labor market is one of the most apparent gender inequalities on the labor market. Economic theories explaining the segregation can be divided into three broader categories: neo-classic and human capital theories, theory of discrimination and finally institutional theory and labor market segmentation theory. The elimination of causes of these inequalities by appropriate policies implementation would help the better use of women working potential and the higher labor market effectivity. There are applied several policies in the Czech Republic which not only does not support the female participation but have rather negative influence. In this study, I investigate the impact of the two policy means, which can negatively influence the labor supply of women in the Czech Republic. First, joint taxation of spouses was enabled. The marginal tax-rate of women increases very often in case of profiting spouses; women might therefore lower their labor supply. Second, the system of the parental leave influences the female participation. The current Czech system can create significant barrier to women in entry and return to the labor market. Therefore, it leads to an excessive loss of the women human capital which markedly lowers their further employability.
    Keywords: ddc:330 ; gender inequality ; female participation ; neo-classic theory ; human capital theory ; theory of discrimination ; institutional theory ; labor market segmentation theory ; joint taxation ; parental leave ; Weibliche Arbeitskräfte ; Arbeitsmarktsegmentierung ; Geschlechterdiskriminierung ; Familienbesteuerung ; Elternzeit ; Familienpolitik ; Tschechische Republik ; EU-Staaten
    Language: Czech
    Type: doc-type:workingPaper
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  • 7
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    Prague: Charles University in Prague, Institute of Economic Studies (IES)
    Publication Date: 2013-10-01
    Description: We analyze labor market flows and unemployment in the Czech Republic (CR), Slovakia and Poland over the period 2004-2007. Relative involvement of working-age population in gross labor market flows is approximately five times lower in central Europe than in the U.S. /UK. Yet, compared to neighboring countries, the CR suffers more from unemployment rigidity, as evidenced most convincingly by a relatively weakernet flowof workers from unemployment to employment. This net flow alone would cut the unemployment rate in Poland more than twice as fast as in the CR. The CR lags behind in creating jobs forthe unemployed, particularly for men, individuals with primary education, and for the 55-65 age group.
    Keywords: E24 ; J60 ; J63 ; J64 ; ddc:330 ; EU-SILC ; labor market flows ; longitudinal data ; unemployment
    Language: English
    Type: doc-type:workingPaper
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  • 8
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    Prague: Charles University in Prague, Institute of Economic Studies (IES)
    Publication Date: 2013-10-01
    Description: This paper analyzes the inequality of personal earnings in the Czech Republic since the early transition from communism, using relative distribution method. It applies data from two surveys, Microcensus and Living Conditions, covering the period from 1988 to 2008. The trend suggested by many recent empirics, hollowing of the middle, was confirmed in the early stages of transition, but later subsided. Earnings polarization was apparent for all sex and education subgroups between the years 1988 and 1996. For international comparison the European dataset EU-SILC 2008 has been used, focusing on four countries: Austria, Germany, Hungary, and Poland. Earnings distributions by gender and education have been analyzed, establishing that male earnings distribution is more homogenous than female, and earnings of highly educated people are more concentrated in the middle than earnings of less educated people.
    Keywords: D31 ; J39 ; O15 ; ddc:330 ; earnings distribution ; inequality ; transition
    Language: English
    Type: doc-type:workingPaper
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  • 9
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    Luxembourg: Luxembourg Income Study (LIS)
    Publication Date: 2014-04-04
    Description: This study analyses the income distribution within couples in the Czech Republic and ten European countries using the EU-SILC 2005 database. Data from the Luxembourg Income Study (LIS) database supplement the analysis with previous period (1986-2000). Women, on average, contribute less to a couple's income than men. Among the included countries, within-couple income inequality tends to be lower in the new EU member states than in the old ones, with the Czech Republic being the exception. Within-couple income inequality has two crucial factors: employment of female partners and, subsequently, their wages. In the context of the first, the inter-generational transmission of the traditional model of the family proved to have a significant negative impact on the female employment decision mainly in the old EU member states. Finally, gender wage gaps between men and women who live in a couple were examined and compared with the gender wage gaps for single individuals. The gender wage gap proved to be higher for cohabiting individuals than for singles even after adjusting for gender differences in individual and job characteristics.
    Keywords: D19 ; J31 ; J79 ; ddc:330 ; gender wage gap ; traditional family model ; within-couple inequalities ; Einkommensverteilung ; Weibliche Arbeitskräfte ; Fraueneinkommen ; Haushaltsökonomik ; Tschechische Republik ; EU-Staaten
    Language: English
    Type: doc-type:workingPaper
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  • 10
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    Warsaw: De Gruyter
    Publication Date: 2018-06-16
    Description: Using Spain and the Czech Republic as examples of two EU countries with different labour market performance, we apply a gross flow analysis based on EU-SILC longitudinal data. We find that while in Spain the increases in youth unemployment are driven mostly by young people who lose their jobs, in the Czech Republic, this is mainly due to new labour market entrants who failed to find a job. The analysis of flow transition rates suggests that youth labour markets with enormously high unemployment rates have not failed in all relevant respects. Their development seems to be hindered predominantly by high risk of job losses and diminishing employment prospects of the unemployed, rather than by impeded transitions from inactivity to employment. In countries with lower youth unemployment rates, unemployment policy agenda appears to be challenged by quite the opposite tendency
    Keywords: ddc:330
    Language: English
    Type: doc-type:article
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