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  • 1
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    Brasília: Instituto de Pesquisa Econômica Aplicada (IPEA)
    Publication Date: 2019-01-24
    Description: This work deals with the issue of urban sprawl within the context of the São Paulo Metropolitan Area. We define urban sprawl as leapfrogging, not concentrated and not dense urban growth. We analyze urban area maps between the year of 1962 and 2002, the evolution of population and jobs density and the evolution of density gradients. We propose the construction of a sprawl index. Its evolution is analyzed using Markov chain models, while we search its determinants using econometric tools. Results point out that there was urban sprawl in the most recent period of time. The determinants show the link between this phenomenon and the occupation of suburbs by low income families.
    Keywords: R32 ; ddc:330
    Language: Portuguese
    Type: doc-type:workingPaper
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  • 2
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    Brasília: Instituto de Pesquisa Econômica Aplicada (IPEA)
    Publication Date: 2019-01-24
    Description: Deficiencies of housing and urban infrastructures are heterogeneous in Brazil, making territorial analyses necessary. In this article we analyze data of the 2010 Census regarding "aglomerados subnormais" (AS), a national classification of census tracts that generally correspond to slums. We try to identify different behaviors taking into account the occurrence of AS in municipalities according to their position in the urban network, as well as their regional insertion. Using the classification of municipalities of Regiões de Influência das Cidades 2007, a study by the national statistical office (IBGE), we find four trends. Firstly, the phenomenon of AS in 2010 is not as predominantly metropolitan as it was ten years before. A second trend refers to the intensification of the presence of AS in municipalities on the outskirts of metropolises. The third trend is a move of AS towards the country's hinterland, more accentuated in the North, while the presence of AS increases in municipalities in the coast of the Southeast and the Northeast. The fourth trend is the finding that AS are present in "networks of influence" of metropolises, comprising chains of centers at different levels. The identification of such trends adds complexity to the analysis of slums, and serves as an input to policies aimed at the urban development with regional and spatial equity.
    Keywords: R21 ; ddc:330 ; aglomerados subnormais ; Brazilian urban network ; territory ; slums
    Language: Portuguese
    Type: doc-type:workingPaper
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  • 3
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    Brasília: Instituto de Pesquisa Econômica Aplicada (IPEA)
    Publication Date: 2019-01-24
    Description: The correct detection of the phenomena of slums is critical to the formulation of several public policies. The main sources used in Brazil are data available from population censuses, which are not comparable over time. Accordingly, the statistics office (IBGE) alerts that changes in classification procedures improved considerably the identification of slums in the 2010 Census compared to the previous census. This article presents a methodology that enables the construction of estimates of areas and populations living in slums that are comparable between 2000 and 2010. The method explores the matching of census tracts of 2000 and 2010, and then reclassifies slum areas of 2000 based on more accurate information of slum areas of 2010. Having constructed a comparable classification, we analyze the growth of population in slums and their socioeconomic indicators, both in Brazil as a whole and in the country's main metropolitan areas. The results show that while the comparison of the original data indicates that the population living in slums would have grown 75%, the corrected data show an increase of only 8,6% between 2000 and 2010. We also show that there has been a general improvement of socioeconomic indicators in slums. Generally these improvements exceeded those observed in non-slum areas.
    Keywords: O18 ; ddc:330 ; slums ; subnormal agglomerations ; Brazilian census
    Language: Portuguese
    Type: doc-type:workingPaper
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  • 4
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    Brasília: Instituto de Pesquisa Econômica Aplicada (IPEA)
    Publication Date: 2019-01-24
    Description: São Paulo's metropolitan area is one of the largest urban spaces in the world. As it ha ppens with any other large metropolitan area, understanding its structure, problems and dynamics is not a simple task. The structure of cities has been studied by urban economics ever since von Thünen's land use theory was adapted to urban contexts. Research on property and housing markets have followed a related but different approach. On the one hand, housing markets have been modeled with emphasis on the specific features of properties such as durability, heterogeneity, and construction costs. On the other hand, research on real estate finance has been developing and applying a variety of valuation methods, focusing on the supply and demand adjusting mechanisms and considering properties as assets. These three areas of investigation have not always been connected in a systematic manner. Yet, we argue that there is a case for integrating them due to their intrinsic spatial dimension. [...]
    Keywords: R31 ; ddc:330 ; vacancy rates ; housing ; city center ; hedonic modeling
    Language: Portuguese
    Type: doc-type:workingPaper
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  • 5
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    Brasília: Instituto de Pesquisa Econômica Aplicada (IPEA)
    Publication Date: 2019-01-24
    Description: This paper presents the results of the research project carried over by the Ministry of Cities and the Institute of Applied Economic Research, entitled "Central urban areas of Brazilian cities". The research investigates the population and employment dynamics in central urban areas of twelve selected capitals. Thus, central areas are conceptualized and delimited for each city. Their perimeters are then made compatibility with the census tracts for the years 1991, 2000 and 2010. The analysis of the dynamics of jobs was based on Kernel heat maps, using data from the Annual Social Information of the Ministry of Labor for the years 2003 and 2012. These analyses allowed the definition and concept of centralities and its comparison with the central areas. The main methodological contribution of the research is the analysis of georeferenced intraurban jobs. However, it is clarifying that the availability of the database impeded the analysis of public positions Results indicate that there is loss of population in central areas for the period 1991-2000. However, recovery of population is observed in the next decade. Jobs decentralization over urban tissue is verified for the period 2003-2012. Indications of future research are also presented.
    Keywords: R12 ; J6 ; C14 ; ddc:330 ; metropolitan regions ; intraurban jobs ; urban central areas ; population mobility ; urban centers ; kernel density
    Language: Portuguese
    Type: doc-type:workingPaper
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  • 6
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    Brasília: Instituto de Pesquisa Econômica Aplicada (IPEA)
    Publication Date: 2019-01-24
    Description: Social housing large-scale production through Minha Casa Minha Vida Program (MCMV) is impacting the form of the urban space in Brazilian cities as well as bringing important consequences on life conditions of its beneficiaries. This paper aims to assess into which extent MCMV developments for the lowest income bracket implemented before the launch of the program's phase 3 have impacted beneficiaries' quality of life, focusing on urban insertion characteristics such as urban mobility, land use and access to jobs' opportunities. For this purpose, extensive fieldwork and survey were conducted to understand residents' perception of costs and benefits of the housing location in five MCMV developments in Rio de Janeiro, São Paulo and Uberlândia. Furthermore, urban insertion of each development was assessed considering proximity to formal jobs' opportunities, access to transit, public equipment, commerce and services as well as urban design and integration. Although the majority of the residents surveyed declared that they prefer to live in the new housing developments, the research demonstrated differences in transport conditions and costs according to their locations. In most analyzed cases, the move to new locations contributed to increase residents' transport costs. It also influenced modal distribution towards a reduction of the use of active transportation modes (walking and biking) and increase of the use of motorized modes, reinforcing potential environmental negative impacts as well as increase of crash and collision risks. On the other hand, the evolution of travel time varied significantly according to the location, with important increase of time spent by residents located in most peripheral neighborhoods. Urban insertion assessment demonstrated that none of the analyzed developments presented fully acceptable conditions of urban integration and access to opportunities of urban life. Finally, formal jobs' accessibility analysis showed significant difference of employment opportunities availability according to the developments' locations. These results contributed to identify important shortcomings in urban insertion of MCMV developments arising against beneficiaries' quality of life and access to urban opportunities. Beyond its specifics results, this research contributed to elaborate an effective method to assess new social housing and uncover areas for improvement to the overall program.
    Keywords: R31 ; R41 ; ddc:330 ; social housing ; urban insertion ; urban mobility ; access to urban opportunities
    Language: Portuguese
    Type: doc-type:workingPaper
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  • 7
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    Brasília: Instituto de Pesquisa Econômica Aplicada (IPEA)
    Publication Date: 2019-01-24
    Description: Since the National Constitution of 1988, state governments are responsible for defining their own metropolitan areas in Brazil. However, the criteria for boundaries delimitation are not clearly defined as a rule. As a consequence, it is not possible to weigh the pros and cons of the employed methodologies. Furthermore, comparative analysis on the performance of social and economic indicators in these metropolitan areas can be compromised as result of using multiple methodologies for defining territorial limits. The discussion of this issue could not be more timely, as the National Congress is currently debating a bill (aka Statute of the Metropolis) that proposes one single method for defining national metropolitan areas and its boundaries. To contribute to this debate, we estimate in this paper the metropolitan areas Brazil would have in 2010 by applying to the whole country the same criteria and following one single method. For this purpose, we have adopted the same method and criteria originally used for the definition of the first metropolitan areas of the country in the 1970's, with minor adjustments. The obtained results are then compared with the official metropolitan areas showing rather different figures. Compared with official areas, our estimates show a metropolitan Brazil i) comprising a smaller number of metropolitan areas; ii) covering about half the number of municipalities; iii) with stronger commuting ties; iv) occupying a land area about three times more compact and dense; and yet v) with minor differences in terms of population size and GDP.
    Keywords: R52 ; R58 ; R12 ; C21 ; N96 ; ddc:330 ; metropolitan areas ; commuting ; metropolitan integration
    Language: Portuguese
    Type: doc-type:workingPaper
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  • 8
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    Unknown
    Brasília: Instituto de Pesquisa Econômica Aplicada (IPEA)
    Publication Date: 2019-01-24
    Description: São Paulo's metropolitan area is one of the largest urban spaces in the world. As it ha ppens with any other large metropolitan area, understanding its structure, problems and dynamics is not a simple task. The structure of cities has been studied by urban economics ever since von Thünen's land use theory was adapted to urban contexts. Research on property and housing markets have followed a related but different approach. On the one hand, housing markets have been modeled with emphasis on the specific features of properties such as durability, heterogeneity, and construction costs. On the other hand, research on real estate finance has been developing and applying a variety of valuation methods, focusing on the supply and demand adjusting mechanisms and considering properties as assets. These three areas of investigation have not always been connected in a systematic manner. Yet, we argue that there is a case for integrating them due to their intrinsic spatial dimension. [...]
    Keywords: R31 ; ddc:330 ; vacancy rates ; housing ; city center ; hedonic modeling
    Language: English
    Type: doc-type:workingPaper
    Location Call Number Limitation Availability
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  • 9
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    Brasília: Instituto de Pesquisa Econômica Aplicada (IPEA)
    Publication Date: 2020-01-17
    Description: Despite being home to about 1 billion people (UN-Habitat, 2010) worldwide slums have received little attention in the economic literature. Data on slums is scarce and few studies have investigated the emergence of these pockets of poverty and inadequate housing scattered between otherwise regular urban areas. We bring some empirical grounding to this debate, by combining Census, terrain topography and water bodies data for Brazil. Thus, we provide the first consistent estimates on location, growth and the socio-economic characteristics of their inhabitants for every slum in Brazil. We show that while there is a strong association between income and distance to the city center for formal housing agents, the same association is less clear for informal housing agents. Moreover, the spatial dispersion of slums varies significantly between metropolitan areas. We propose one explanation for this: the role of geography. In fact, topographic and environmental conditions of informal housing areas are worse. In some extent, risky life conditions are the cost of having access to the opportunities only found with the proximity to the central formal city.
    Keywords: O15 ; O18 ; R31 ; ddc:330 ; slums ; intra urban location ; topography ; hydrography
    Language: Portuguese
    Type: doc-type:workingPaper
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