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  • 1
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Springer
    European journal of nuclear medicine 26 (1999), S. 573-580 
    ISSN: 1619-7089
    Keywords: Key words:Helicobacter pylori ; Carbon-14 urea breath test ; Biokinetics ; Dosimetry ; Children
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Abstract. The long-term biokinetics and dosimetry of carbon-14 were studied in nine adults and eight children undergoing carbon-14 urea breath test for Helicobacter pylori (HP) infection. The elimination of 14C via exhaled air and urine was measured with the liquid scintillation counting technique and with accelerator mass spectrometry. After the subjects had been given 110 kBq 14C-urea (children: 55 kBq) orally, samples of exhaled air were taken up to 180 days after administration and samples of urine were collected up to 40 days. Sixteen of the subjects were found to be HP-negative. In these subjects a total of 91.1%±3.9% (mean of adults and children ± standard error of the mean) of the administered 14C activity was recovered. The majority of the administered activity, 88.3%±6.2% in adults and 87.7%±5.0% in children, was excreted via the urine within 72 h after administration. A smaller fraction was exhaled. In adults 4.6%±0.6% of the activity was exhaled within 20 days and in children 2.6%±0.3%. Uncertainties in the biokinetic results are mainly due to assumptions concerning endogenous CO2 production and urinary excretion rate and are estimated to be less than 30%. The absorbed dose to various organs and the effective dose were calculated using the ICRP model for urea and CO2. The urinary bladder received the highest absorbed dose: in adults, 0.15±0.01 mGy/MBq and in children of various ages (7–14 years), 0.14–0.36 mGy/MBq. The findings indicate that an investigation with 14C-urea gives an effective dose to adults of 2.1±0.1 µSv (for 110 kBq) and to children of 0.9–2.5 µSv (for 55 kBq). From a radiation protection point of view, there is thus no reason for restrictions on even repeated screening investigations with 14C-urea in whole families, including children.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 2
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Springer
    Plant and soil 164 (1994), S. 221-229 
    ISSN: 1573-5036
    Keywords: acidification ; drought ; forest fertilisation ; irrigation ; nitrogen uptake ; nitrogen utilisation efficiency ; nitrogen saturation ; Picea abies
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Agriculture, Forestry, Horticulture, Fishery, Domestic Science, Nutrition
    Notes: Abstract The above-ground accumulation of N,N uptake and litter quality resulting from improved or deteriorated availability of water and nutrients in a 25 year old Norway spruce stand in SW Sweden (as part of the Skogaby project) is presented. Treatment include irrigation; artificial drought; ammonium sulphate addition; N-free-fertilisation and irrigation with liquid fertilisers including a complete set of nutrients according to the Ingested principle (fertigation). At start of the experiment the stand contained 86.5 t dry mass and 352 kg N ha−1. The following three years the annual N uptake in untreated trees was 32 kg N ha−1 to be compared with the annual N throughfall of 17 kg ha−1. Simultaneously, the treatment with ammonium sulphate and liquid fertilisation resulted in 48 and 56 kg ha−1 y−1, respectively, in treatment specific N-uptake following an application of 100 kg N ha−1 y−1. Addition of a N-free fertiliser resulted in improved N-uptake by 19 kg N ha−1 y−1 and irrigation by 10 kg N ha−1 y−1, compared to control. A linear relation between total above-ground dry mass production and N-uptake was found for trees growing with similar water availability. Dry mass production increased with increased water availability given the same N-uptake. It is concluded that the studied stand this far is not N saturated', as N fertilisation resulted in both increased N uptake and increased growth. Addition of a N-free-fertiliser resulted in increased uptake of N compared to the control, indicating an increased mineralisation rate or uptake capacity of the root system. The linear relation between N uptake and biomass production shows that at this study site N is a highly limiting factor for growth.
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  • 3
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Springer
    Plant and soil 147 (1992), S. 251-265 
    ISSN: 1573-5036
    Keywords: acidification ; air pollutants ; growth ; nitrogen saturation ; nutrient stress ; optimum growth ; Picea abies ; water stress
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Agriculture, Forestry, Horticulture, Fishery, Domestic Science, Nutrition
    Notes: Abstract A field experiment primarily designed for simulating the indirect effects of air pollutants for a 25-year-old Norway spruce stand in SW Sweden is presented (The Skogaby project). Treatment include irrigation; artificial drought; ammonium sulphate addition; nitrogen-free-fertilization and irrigation with liquid fertilizers including a complete set of nutrients. The experiment has a randomized block design with four replicates per treatment. Growth response on an areal basis of basal area, height and dry mass of stems, branches and needles after up to four years of treatment are presented. Dry mass is estimated using allometric equations based on destructive samplings of trees. The stand suffered from temporary water stress during all four years investigated despite 970– 1160 mm of annual precipitation. Irrigation resulted in improved above-ground dry mass production (stem, bark, branches, needles, litter fall) by 20% during the first 3 years of treatment, whereas 2 years of drought treatment followed by 1 year of recovery led to 10% reduced dry mass growth. During year 2 of recovery, however, basal area growth was only about half of that of the control. Nitrogen, markedly, was a growth limiting nutrient, although the stand got approx. 20 kg N ha-1 y-1 from deposition. Ammonium sulphate addition (100 kg N ha-1 y-1) resulted in 31% improved dry mass production whereas irrigation with liquid fertilization (100 kg N ha-1 y-1) including all important nutrient elements led to 57% increased dry mass growth after 3 years of treatment. Basal area growth of the latter treatment gradually increased and during year 4 of treatment was 123% larger than the control. Nitrogen-free-fertilization resulted in a small improvement of dry mass production (+10%). After 3 years of treatment, the amount of needles had increased markedly for both treatments including irrigation, whereas drought treated trees instead had decreased their needle amount vs control. The increase in needle amount occurred as a result of both larger formation of needles and higher preservence of old needles, the opposite relations being found for the drought treated trees. At the same point larger needle formation in combination with a higher shedding of older needles was found for trees treated with ammonium sulphate and nitrogen-free-fertilizer. It is concluded that there is no stage of N saturation in the Skogaby site as there is no leaching of N from the control plots and N fertilization results in both increased tree growth and N uptake.
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  • 4
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Springer
    Plant and soil 168-169 (1995), S. 161-165 
    ISSN: 1573-5036
    Keywords: ammonium sulphate ; drought ; fine-root biomass ; fine-root necromass ; fine-root chemistry ; monoliths ; Norway spruce ; root distribution ; roof experiment ; stumps
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Agriculture, Forestry, Horticulture, Fishery, Domestic Science, Nutrition
    Notes: Abstract Results of the spatial distribution of fine roots are reported from a Norway spruce (Picea abies (L.) Karst.) in SW Sweden stand subjected to drought (D) and ammonium-sulphate application (NS). The sampling was carried out by excavating monoliths in segments of 0.5 × 0.5 × 0.1 m to a depth of one meter. Root data also included in the study were obtained by excavating whole trees and soil coring. The data suggest a fairly deep distribution pattern of fine roots (〈 1 mm in diameter) in the study area compared with other forest sites in SW Sweden. The weight fraction of living fine roots in the LFH-horizon amounted to 53, 36 and 55% of the total fine-root biomass and 12, 30 and 32% of the total fine-root necromass (dead fine roots) in the control, D and NS-treatment areas respectively. Drought seemed to result in a redistribution of fine roots to deeper mineral soil horizons. Ammonium sulphate application led to the reverse, viz, a concentration of fine roots to the LFH-horizon. A significantly smaller fine-root necromass was indicated in the LFH-horizon of the control areas compared with both the D and NS-treatment areas, suggesting a high mortality of fine roots in these areas. A heavy dry matter fraction accumulates in roots 〉 1 mm in diameter and in stumps. These root fraction, were frequently found between the trees, although the stump constitutes an important fraction in terms of dry weight.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 5
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Springer
    Plant and soil 168-169 (1995), S. 437-446 
    ISSN: 1573-5036
    Keywords: air pollution ; boron ; calcium ; tertilisation ; irrigation ; nitrogen saturation ; nutrient imbalance ; nutrient accumulation ; magnesium ; Picea abies ; phosphorous ; potassium ; sulphur
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Agriculture, Forestry, Horticulture, Fishery, Domestic Science, Nutrition
    Notes: Abstract The nutrient balance and above ground accumulation of macro nutrients, except for N, resulting from improved or deteriorated availability of water and nutrients in a 25 year old Norway spruce stand in SW Sweden is presented. The site and the productivity of the stand is typical for the area. Treatment include irrigation (I); artificial drought (D1); ammonium sulphate addition (NS); N-free-fertilisation (V) and irrigation with liquid fertilisers including a complete set of nutrients according to the Ingestad principle (IF). At start of the experiment the stand contained 86.5 t dry mass, 342 kg N, 33 kg P, 142 kg K, 172 kg Ca, 36 kg Mg and 34 kg S ha-1. Enhanced accumulation vs control of S was seen in the NS and IF treatments. In the V and IF treatments P accumulation was 7–9 times higher and Ca and Mg, 2–4 times higher compared to the control. K accumulation was increased for the IF treatment. B that accumulated in the needles was decreased in the NS and D1 treatments and increased in the IF and V treatments, as compared to the control. The gross accumulation of nutrients relative to the amounts added was in the IF and V treatments 56 and 47% for P, 40 and 64% for K, 40 and 24% for Mg and, 22 and 8% for S, respectively. We conclude that application with N-free fertilizer, Skogvital (V), including macro nutrients and essential micro nutrients, results in a fast and efficient accumulation above ground of P, K, Ca, Mg and B. The treatment is efficient when aiming at restoring nutrient imbalances in Norway spruce. Application with ammonium sulphate at a rate of 5–6 times higher than the current deposition of N and S did not lead to decreased accumulation above ground of any of the macro nutrients P, K, Ca or Mg. The accumulation of B, however, was significantly reduced. Results from this and other studies indicate that today, N alone, generally is a growth limiting nutrient for Norway spruce in Southern Sweden.
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  • 6
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Springer
    Hydrobiologia 54 (1977), S. 109-112 
    ISSN: 1573-5117
    Keywords: Effects... ; Gammarus ; interspecific competition ; mortality ; Potamophylax ; Gammarus
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: Abstract Growth rates and mortality of Potamophylax cingulatus were studied at different densities, temperatures, and food items, as well as in the presence and absence of Gammarus pulex. When alder leaves were supplied as food as well as beech leaves at 15° C, an interspecific competition was observed. The potential influence of competition in a free living population as a component in the heavy ‘natural mortality’ was discussed.
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  • 7
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Springer
    Water, air & soil pollution 70 (1993), S. 177-186 
    ISSN: 1573-2932
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Energy, Environment Protection, Nuclear Power Engineering
    Notes: Abstract Carbon sequestration in 30 yr old Norway spruce in south Sweden following manipulation of nutrient and water availability is presented. The site has an annual precipitation of 1100 mm and a deposition of about 20 kg N and 25 kg S per ha−1 yr−1. The soil type is a poorly developed podzol. Treatment include irrigation; artificial drought; ammonium sulphate addition; nitrogen-free-fertilization and irrigation with liquid fertilizers including a complete set of nutrients. The experiment has a randomized block design with four replicates per treatment. A comprehensive investigation of the above ground C storage on an areal basis was made at the start of the experiment and after 3 yr of treatment. After 3 yr of treatment with simulated N-S deposition using ammonium sulphate (100 kg N, 114 kg S ha−1 yr−1), C accumulation rates in the above ground compartments had increased by 37%. Similarly, irrigation caused increased C accumulation rates by 25%, whereas simulated drought during the vegetation period during 2 yr followed by 1 yr of recovery caused a 15% reduction of the C accumulation rates. Irrigation combined with liquid fertilization (100 kg N ha−1 yr−1), including all important nutrient elements, led to 65% increase in C accumulation rates compared to the control. The C sequestration of the latter treatment gradually increased and, during yr 5 of treatment, 8.6 Mg C ha−1 accumulated in stems and branches, compared to 3.6 Mg ha−1 for the control. It is concluded that there is a strong interaction between N-deposition and C accumulation rates in Norway spruce in south Sweden. The C accumulation rates are also sensitive to water availability. The study indicates a great potential to cultivate Norway spruce in south Sweden as a renewable energy source. A shift in energy source from fossil fuels to renewable energy sources will directly reduce the net emissions of CO2 to the atmosphere.
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  • 8
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Springer
    Water, air & soil pollution 85 (1995), S. 1557-1562 
    ISSN: 1573-2932
    Keywords: Carbon dioxide ; forests ; greenhouse effect ; interaction ; methane ; N deposition ; nitrous oxide
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Energy, Environment Protection, Nuclear Power Engineering
    Notes: Abstract Interactions between N deposition and the fluxes between atmosphere and forest ecosystems of the greenhouse gases CO2, CH4 and N2O are examined. It is argued that forest productivity has increased due to increased N deposition since the industrial revolution in areas where N has been limiting to forest production. It is shown that most boreal and large parts of temperate forests growing on mineral soils are N limited still today. The increased above ground production due to improved N availability seems to result in an equal sized build-up of the C pool of at least boreal forest soils, in the first place in the humus layer. This is explained by an increased litter production of needles and roots and a decreased decomposition rate in an N rich environment. N deposition thus contributes to reduce the atmospheric levels of CO2. In areas where N is still limiting forest growth, a decreased N deposition, thus, logically, would result in decreased forest productivity and act as a source of increased CO2 levels to the atmosphere. Increased N deposition results in decreased CH4 oxidation of forest mineral soils and thus, acts to increase the greenhouse effect. However, this mechanism expressed as greenhouse contribution probably is small in relation to the reduction caused by increased CO2 fixation. From most forest mineral soils there seem to be small rates of N2O formation independently of deposition rates.
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  • 9
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Springer
    Water, air & soil pollution 85 (1995), S. 1613-1622 
    ISSN: 1573-2932
    Keywords: Deposition ; ecosystem ; nitrogen ; Norway spruce ; nutrient cycling ; production ; root function ; sulphur
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Energy, Environment Protection, Nuclear Power Engineering
    Notes: Abstract In this paper we try to interpret results from different investigations where an ecosystem with Norway spruce was manipulated with increased N and S deposition via the soil system. The site, in Skogaby in Southwest Sweden, had 1989–93 an annual deposition of 9 kg NH4-N; 7 kg NO3-N and 20 kg SO4-S ha−1. The stand was treated during 6 years with 100 kg N and 114 kg S ha− y−1 in the form of ammonium sulphate (NS treatment). The stand reacted with increased above ground production of 31% after 3 years of treatment. The uptake above ground of N was 155 kg ha−1 higher than in the control. Those trends were even stronger after 6 years of treatment. There were no decreases in the uptake of P, K, Ca or Mg (but for B) after 3 or 6 years of NS-treatment. Needle macro nutrient concentrations in relation to N decreased for several nutrients due to dilution effects. As result of the NS treatment pH increased markedly in the litter layer, and less, but significantly, in the humus layer. A decrease in pH value by about 0.3 units was found in the rest of the soil profile down to 50 cm. Dry mass of needle litter fall and litter layer both increased as a result of 6 years of NS-treatment. After three years of treatment 77–80% of all living fine roots in both control and NS treatment were found in the humus layer and the upper 10 cm of the mineral soil. The amount of living fine roots in the humus layer of NS-treated trees decreased to about one third of the control, and the amount of dead fine roots increased by 150% compared with untreated trees after 6 years of treatment. It is argued that the decreased amount of living and increased amount of dead fine roots not necessarily are indications of decreased root vitality. It can also be explained by increased root turnover rate and decreased decomposition rates of N rich new and old fine root litter. No inorganic N was leached from the control plots whereas the NS treated plots started to leach NO3 the second year of treatment. During 1989–1993 a total of 44 kg NO3-N and 30 kg NH4-N per ha was lost from the system which means that 88% of the N supplied was retained by the ecosystem. At first SO4 was adsorbed in the soil, but after five years of treatment the output was almost equal to the input.
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  • 10
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Springer
    Transport in porous media 25 (1996), S. 335-350 
    ISSN: 1573-1634
    Keywords: Cauchy-Schwarz-Bunjakovskij inequality ; computational fluid dynamics ; effective diffusivity ; permeability ; pore-size distribution ; specific surface area
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Geosciences , Technology
    Notes: Abstract The effects of parallel-type and serial-type pore nonuniformities on the effective diffusivity and the permeability of a porous material were evaluated, constant porosity and constant specific surface area being assumed. Two structural models were considered. In the first model, the porous structure was described as a bundle of cylindrical capillaries penetrating the whole thickness of the material and in the other it was described instead as a collection of randomly distributed obstacles hindering transport. Both models predicted that parallel-type pore nonuniformities produce an increase in permeability compared with uniform structures having the same porosity and specific surface area. Both models also predicted that the increase in permeability due to parallel-type pore nonuniformities would be larger than the increase in effective diffusivity. Regarding serial-type pore nonuniformities, both models predicted a decrease in permeability and that this decrease would be greater than the decrease in effective diffusivity. The predicted changes in effective diffusivity due to nonuniformities of the sample differed for the two structural models.
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