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  • 1
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    Brasília: Instituto de Pesquisa Econômica Aplicada (IPEA)
    Publication Date: 2018-04-18
    Description: Integrating information for the purpose of articulating social protection policies is hard work. It takes from political will, to capacity for institutional cooperation, to software development and direct communication channels with citizens. Because of that complexity, countries that pursue this objective often cooperate to exchange knowledge and the Brazilian case of Cadastro Único (Single Registry), the backbone of some 20 social protection programs, is frequently cited as a success case of integration. By means of the Cadastro Único experience, this text debates some of the essential elements to constitute such instruments of social policy integration. Bringing to light some of the challenges that are still on the way, to fulfill the promise of greater integration amongst social protection programs, as well as provide greater ease of access and respect to citizens.
    Keywords: I38 ; ddc:330 ; Cadastro Único ; Bolsa Familia program ; Unified Registry ; Assistance ; Entitlements ; Family Allowances ; Food Stamp ; Means Testing ; Poverty Alleviation ; Public Assistance ; Safety Net ; Social Welfare Programs ; SSI ; Transfer Payments ; Transfers ; Welfare Effects ; Welfare Policy ; Welfare Program ; Welfare Provision ; Work Welfare
    Language: Portuguese
    Type: doc-type:workingPaper
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  • 2
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    Brasilia: International Policy Centre for Inclusive Growth (IPC-IG)
    Publication Date: 2019-06-13
    Description: When countries in the Middle East and North Africa (MENA) achieved their independence, formal social protection schemes established by former colonial powers were, to varying degrees, assimilated or mimicked by the State, particularly pension systems for government and formal-sector workers. These systems, however, have proven to be highly subsidised and regressive in terms of income distribution in the face of large segments of the population engaged in the informal sector (or rural work), who have remained excluded from formal social protection unless eligible for some social assistance programmes, mostly with lower coverage and benefits. In fact, a significant share of the social expenditure with a social protection function in most of these countries was assigned to universal or quasi-universal subsidies of fuel and staple foods. [...]
    Keywords: ddc:330 ; Social protection ; Arab Spring
    Language: English
    Type: doc-type:report
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  • 3
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    Brasilia: International Policy Centre for Inclusive Growth (IPC-IG)
    Publication Date: 2019-07-23
    Description: Integrating information for the purpose of articulating social protection policies is hard work. It requires a combination of political will, capacity for institutional cooperation, software development and direct communication channels with citizens. Because of this complexity, countries that pursue this objective often cooperate to exchange knowledge, and the Brazilian Single Registry (Cadastro Único), the backbone of some 20 social protection programmes, is frequently cited as a successful example of integration. By sharing the experience of the Single Registry, this text discusses some of the essential elements required to design and operate such instruments of social policy integration. It brings to light some of the challenges that are still being faced to fulfil the promise of greater integration among social protection programmes and to provide greater ease of access and respect to citizens. [...]
    Keywords: ddc:330 ; Cadastro Único ; Bolsa Família programme ; Single Registry ; assistance ; entitlements ; family allowances ; means testing ; poverty alleviation ; public assistance ; safety net ; social welfare programmes ; SSI ; transfer payments ; transfers ; welfare effects ; welfare policy ; welfare programme ; welfare provision ; work welfare
    Language: English
    Type: doc-type:workingPaper
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  • 4
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    Brasilia: International Policy Centre for Inclusive Growth (IPC-IG)
    Publication Date: 2019-01-24
    Description: This paper investigates the concentration of access to safe water across income levels in Bolivia. In particular, it focuses on how privatisation has changed coverage, affordability and the concentration of access to water on the part of the poor. We compare the performance of cities in which the service was privatised (La Paz and El Alto) with a city in which it is managed as a cooperative (Santa Cruz de la Sierra) and one where the service is publicly provided (Cochabamba). We examine the pre- and post-privatisation periods. Close inspection of the household surveys reveals that access to water by low-income consumers increased in the periods when the service was provided under private concessions. Coverage has expanded significantly in the bottom quintiles of the population in the cities where water was privatised, and thus access to water is more equitable. The state, however, renationalised the water utility. What went wrong, then, in Bolivia’s water sector? The answer is that the private concessionaire failed to meet the targets stipulated in the concession contract. The tariff increases required for full cost recovery eventually led to public outrage that forced the government to terminate the contract.
    Keywords: L95 ; L33 ; L43 ; I39 ; ddc:330 ; access to water ; poverty ; privatisation ; utility regulation ; Wasserversorgung ; Privatisierung ; Armut ; Bolivien
    Language: English
    Type: doc-type:workingPaper
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  • 5
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    Brasilia: International Policy Centre for Inclusive Growth (IPC-IG)
    Publication Date: 2019-01-24
    Keywords: ddc:330
    Language: English
    Type: doc-type:report
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  • 6
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    Brasília: Instituto de Pesquisa Econômica Aplicada (IPEA)
    Publication Date: 2019-01-24
    Description: This text investigates, for 2004 and 2009, the characteristics and living conditions of four demographic categories defined by household per capita income values. These are the extreme poor (those whose per capita incomes were less than R$ 67 in 2009), the poor (between R$ 67 and R$ 134), the vulnerable to poverty (between R$ 134 and R$ 465) and the non-poor (per capita incomes greater than R$ 465). We investigate the size of each group, its labor market insertion, demographic characteristics, educational attainment, geographical distribution, as well as various characteristics of the house they live in. We also present a classification of types of family most likely to be found in extreme poverty. Our first conclusion is that, in spite of the strong reductions in the number of poor, the relative geographical, age, racial, and educational distribution of poverty has not changed much between 2004 and 2009. Our second conclusion is that the most important changes in poverty were a result of: i) inclusive growth through the labor market; ii) real increases in the minimum wage which have all but eradicated extreme poverty and even non-extreme poverty among families counting on at least one elderly person; iii) increases in coverage and benefits of targeted cash transfers that were for many families with at least some labor income the escape route from extreme poverty and even poverty.
    Keywords: I32 ; ddc:330 ; Armut ; Haushaltseinkommen ; Brasilien
    Language: Portuguese
    Type: doc-type:workingPaper
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  • 7
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    Brasilia: International Poverty Centre (IPC)
    Publication Date: 2019-01-24
    Description: This paper characterises income poverty in Honduras during the first half of 2007, and assesses the impact that some government transfers have had on it. The characterisation of income poverty shows that it is possible to eradicate poverty in Honduras solely through redistribution, despite its being a low-income country. The analysis of the incidence and impact of government transfers reveals that they do reach the poor, but that they are not very effective in reducing the poverty headcount ratio or in alleviating poverty by reducing its intensity and severity. Nonetheless, the counterfactual simulations presented here show that improvements in targeting and increases in the amount transferred could significantly enhance the impact of government transfers on poverty in Honduras.
    Keywords: ddc:330 ; Armut ; Armutspolitik ; Öffentlicher Transfer ; Honduras
    Language: English
    Type: doc-type:workingPaper
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  • 8
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    Brasilia: International Policy Centre for Inclusive Growth (IPC-IG)
    Publication Date: 2019-01-24
    Description: Despite the recovery of economic growth in Latin America during the 1990s, rising unemployment, high informality rates and sluggish wages lie at the root of high inequality and poverty. This paper looks at changes in hourly earnings from the early 1990s to the early 2000s in three relatively stable countries: Brazil, Chile and Mexico. Using econometric techniques, the paper decomposes the change in earnings per worker into changes in the demographic and socio-occupational characteristics of workers, changes in the returns to such characteristics, and changes in unobservable factors. The paper attempts to address the link between labour markets and the dynamics of inequality and poverty by comparing the average performance of the entire working labour force with the performance of the 20 per cent of workers with the lowest earnings. The paper finds that earnings per worker are the result of slow-moving changes in the structure of employment and the characteristics of workers, as well as rapid changes in the prices of labour for specific workers. Demographic changes, better education and the decline of agricultural labour are among the most significant changes in the structure of employment, and they contribute to observed changes in earnings. Among the most important changes in prices contributing to the change in earnings are changes in the returns to formal and informal employees relative to the self-employed; changes to full-time employment relative to part-time workers; changes in the returns to urban workers relative to rural workers; and change in the earnings of workers in services relative to workers in agriculture. In general, changes in earnings frequently favoured low-earning workers, mostly because of the change in the returns for their labour. This is in contrast to the changes in the structure of employment, which tended to favour high-earning workers.
    Keywords: C13 ; D31 ; J21 ; J24 ; J31 ; ddc:330 ; Einkommensverteilung ; Armut ; Beschäftigung ; Brasilien ; Chile ; Mexiko
    Language: English
    Type: doc-type:workingPaper
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  • 9
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    Brasília: Instituto de Pesquisa Econômica Aplicada (IPEA)
    Publication Date: 2019-01-24
    Description: In this text we address measurement, monitoring and cost issues relating to the eradication of extreme poverty in Brazil. We argue that, for the purpose of ending extreme poverty, income poverty is the relevant concept, and that an administrative extreme poverty line, decided upon politically, is the best criterion. For computational purposes, we use a R$ 67 extreme poverty line. The extreme poverty line should be updated using food inflation (INPC-alimentos) and progress should be assessed using the upcoming quarterly continuous household survey. We finally argue that families report incomes strategically, that even if correctly reported, all incomes are measured with error, and that those of poor people are also highly volatile. Given these limitations, the only way to ensure the end of extreme poverty is to give to extremely poor families a benefit close to the poverty line itself. We finally propose an incremental strategy that will cost less that 0,5% of GDP, using a R$ 67 line.
    Keywords: I38 ; ddc:330 ; Armutsbekämpfung ; Brasilien
    Language: Portuguese
    Type: doc-type:workingPaper
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  • 10
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    Brasília: Instituto de Pesquisa Econômica Aplicada (IPEA)
    Publication Date: 2019-01-24
    Description: This paper aims to describe recent changes in the characteristics and living conditions of four income groups - extremely poor, poor, vulnerable and non-poor - in the state of Bahia between 2004 and 2009. We investigate the size of each group; their distribution between urban and rural areas; the coverage and impacts of the Bolsa Família and BPC programs; educational attainment; labor market insertion; age structure; size and composition of families; gender and race of household heads; access to sanitation and durable consumer goods. The first major conclusion is that there was a marked reduction in poverty and extreme poverty in Bahia during this period, although at a slower pace than in the rest of the country. Second, it is clear that individuals and families with reasonably sturdy - even if informal - connections to the labor market have benefitted from recent economic growth and were lifted out of extreme poverty. However, extreme poverty was not eradicated because there remains a sizable group with remarkably precarious or even non-existent links to the labor market. For this group, the Bolsa Família program was the most effective tool to alleviate their intense deprivation.
    Keywords: I32 ; ddc:330
    Language: Portuguese
    Type: doc-type:workingPaper
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